Designing ESP cirriculum for Indonesian Nursing Students

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
NEED ANALYSIS AND SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS:
DESIGNING ESP CURRICULLUM FOR INDONESIA NURSING STUDENTS

The proposed research aims at investigating the ways of need analysis and situational analysis in designing ESP curriculum for nursing students. This chapter outlines the background of the study and the gaps with previous research this study is trying to fill the research questions and its objectives. The scope and limitation illuminates the focus of the research. The key terms are defined operationally as they are used in the study.

1.1 Background
Indonesia confronts condition in which globalization demands should be fulfilled. Language is a tool to have a communication in globalization competition and English as lingua franca has huge proportion to accommodate communication across countries. Indonesian students who are learning English expected to be able to communicate fluently and accurately based on the social context. In spoken English, students are hoped to be able to convey meanings and various spoken texts that have certain communicative purpose, text structure and linguistics. It means that speaking is the primary language skill to develop. Students here are all students including nursing students who are as a focus in this research.
Globalization and AFTA demand qualified human resources who have capability in doing works based on the standard of the profession and can work in team. In addition, the AFTA that would take effect by the end of 2015 allows people in ASEAN countries to seek job in Indonesia and many hospitals hire doctors overseas as consultant. Moreover, the expanding medical tourism industry to other countries emerges conflicts between government, healthcare business, and Indonesian rich people who find better health services. This condition will encourage hospitals to hire nurses from other countries, especially countries that supply workers with inexpensive cost salary. Therefore, communication is the solution beside the academicals needs. Communication as applied in speaking English as agreed above as the lingua franca forces Indonesian nurses to sustain in working with them through English. In fact, Indonesian nursing students always face difficulties in speaking English even though they have good knowledge in medical.
In addition, Indonesian nurses often failed in job interview to be nurses overseas because of the language, English. Whereas, the opportunity to work overseas for nurses are open widely and have good salary and it is not only good for the nurses and family but also good for the government visa, then Indonesia is not only good in sending TKW (servants) but also in professional workers.
In a nursing career, nurses provide education that helps clients change lifelong habits. Nurses communicate with people under stress: clients, family, and colleagues. Nurses deal with anger and depression, with dementia and psychosis, with joy and despair. Nurses return to school to specialize, write grants for research proposals, and become entrepreneurs. Nurses become administrators, leaders, case managers, infection control specialists, quality experts, and educators. Nurses cross international boundaries to share knowledge needed to promote worldwide health. Nurses must be assertive to ask the right questions and make their voices heard.
To enhance the learner motivation and participation a language course designed that best suits the learner’s interests and needs would contribute to facilitate their learning. The design of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) can prepare students for professional communication. Richards (2001) claims that the ESP approach to language teaching is a response to a number of practical concerns: for instance, the need to prepare materials to teach students who have already mastered general English but now need English for use in employment, in this situation, non-English background nurses. The nurses will study English in order to carry out a particular role, to communicate effectively with foreign patients.
Difficulty with English is often cited as a factor that leads to nurses’ lack of confidence. Communication with patients from different cultures is often complicated by language differences. A curriculum designed for nurses and their special needs will help to build their confidence in talking with foreign clients. Including the cultural factors into the course will be useful to the nurses when starting a conversation with the patient, such as asking questions and talking to them about their background. In conclusion, Indonesian health care system needs nurses with the language ability and the cultural knowledge to meet the health care needs of foreign patients. Nurses’ needs should be able to use English competently.
Realizing the urgent needs of a potential health care staff, a curriculum of English for Specific Purposes should be designed and developed for nursing students who will work at hospitals. The role of an ESP curriculum is to bring to the learners what they desperately need in real life. Curriculum planning can be seen as a systematic attempt by educationalists and teachers which include a focus on what educational purposes should be attained. Yule (2011) points out that pragmatism focuses on real life experiences as the main source of knowledge and education. While some Indonesian Nurses may already have general English ability, focusing on English for their specific situations but the ability still cannot accomplish their duties in the hospital. Therefore, to overcome these problems, all parties should take responsibility in overcoming them. Government should have stable curriculum for students to have good English speaking, floor regulation for job seekers, and has good relationship with investor to build micro and macro-economic condition.
Hundreds overseas researches studied ESP (English for Specific Purposes). They mostly described students’ need analysis. Some studied how to design materials, others studied how to develop ESP materials and rest studied about the problems for ESL students and how to overcome it.
This study focuses on nursing students’ needs, therefore reading previous study should be related with nursing students, and it is just a few of research focuses on nursing needs. Jossiane Gass described her study that Thailand has same problem for their nurses, speaking English. Nevertheless, she only analyzed the nurses’ needs for communication in learning English. Her finding clarifies it by overcoming it practically. Other study stated by Misuzu Miyake and John Tremarco. They studied need analysis for nursing students by utilizing questioner and interviews. They found that part of Japanese nurses only speak English generally, as they are mostly from Philippine. They could not conduct conversation related with healthcare needs and they do not know Japanese people culture.
Whereas, Richard Cameron studied about need analysis for nursing students in class and clinic. His finding indicated that nursing students should be well to do some skills in class and clinic, skills, which will support their works later in hospital. The skills are focusing on three domains; English for specific purposes, hospital language and cultural aspects of patient care. Fereshteh Jalili-Grenier suggested to nursing university to set a program that can greatly increase the retention of ESL students, in such a way that ESL students can overcome difficulties in learning healthcare through English. Sismiati’s study found a way in developing instructional material on English oral communication. On the contrary, Afifah and Nurul studied about teachers’ role in teaching speaking to nursing students.
Hence, this study formulates the problems more specific, especially in Indonesia. This study will describe, explain and discuss about needs analysis and situational analysis for designing a Nursing ESP curriculum for Indonesian nurses that based on skills in hospital or clinic, works conversation and cultural problems. The study was based on a need and situational analysis in order to perceive problems clearer and more detail. Research will be done accurately, systematically and result oriented to create a particular curriculum that is able to accommodate nurses’ students for their academic and profession needs.

1.2 Research Question
Based on the background above, the problems in this study will be formulated as follows:
1. What is nursing students ESP based on need analysis and situational analysis?
2. How do design nursing ESP Curriculum?
3. To what extent does the implementation of curriculum in improving nursing students’ communicative skills?

1.3 Research Objectives
In relation to the research questions mentioned above, the research objectives of this study are to:
1. Describe nursing ESP for nursing students.
2. Design nursing ESP curriculum.
3. Recognize the implementation of the curriculum in improving nursing students’ communicative skills.

1.4 Scope and Limitation
The scope of this study is focused on nursing ESP to analyze nursing students’ needs and to design nursing ESP curriculum. Accurate analysis of students’ need will encourage the appropriate of curriculum for nursing students.
The process of analyzing will be applied in UNAIR nursing academy, it is located on Jl. Mulyorejo Surabaya. It is chosen as the subject of this study because Unair University has already had relation with overseas universities and delegated the students to study abroad. There are two classes consist of 50 students in each class. The classes are chosen as the result of preliminary observation that shows the nursing students’ low-to middle capability in communication skills. These data has got by the English enroll test and the experience of the researcher in teaching for 2 semester there.
The limitation of this study is the process of implementing the curriculum of nursing ESP in teaching and learning activities also to recognize the achievement of the curriculum to those classes, therefore, the curriculum can be applied for next classes.

1.5 Significance of The Study
In this study the researcher expects that the research paper has benefits both theory and practice.
1. Theoretically
a. The result of the research can be used as the reference for those who want to conduct a research in nursing ESP.
b. The result of the research can be useful for English teacher in their teaching process, especially for teaching English to nursing students.
c. The result of the research can give benefit to teachers / readers who want to study more about Nursing ESP and designing curriculum.
2. Practically
a. It will improve teachers’ ability in knowing nursing ESP and how to design the

b. Proper curriculum based on the need analysis and situational analysis.
c. It will improve students’ knowledge and competence in English especially communication skills as their needs in workplace and nurses’ duties.
d. The researcher can acquire large knowledge about Nursing ESP, designing the curriculum and the implementation of the curriculum in the class and clinic also can develop the curriculum better for next years.

1.6 Definition of Key Terms
Defining some terms would be necessary to avoid misunderstanding the concept and in order to be able to comprehend this study.
The term needs is not as straight forward as it might appear, and hence the term is sometimes used to refer to wants, desire, demands, expectation, motovations, lacks, contraints and requirements (Brindley 1984: 28) in Richards (2001).
A needs analysis is defined succinctly by (Brown (1995:36)) as … the systematic collection and analysis of all subjective and objective information necessary to define and validate defensible curriculum purposes that satisfy the language learning requirements of students within the context of particular institutions that influence the learning and teaching situation.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter copes with a theoretical framework that relates to Needs analysis and situational analysis, nursing ESP and designing curriculum included the review of case classes about nursing ESP.
2.1 English Specific Purposes
ESP has a long history in the field of English teaching. It started in the 1960s when general English courses did not meet learners’ needs. There are three reasons common to the emergence of all ESP courses: the demands of a Brave New World, a revolution in a linguistics, and focus on the learner (Hutchinson, 1992). There are two key historical periods of life into ESP. First, the end of the Second World War in 1945 brought with it an ”age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale for various reasons, most notably the economic power of the United States in the post-war world, the role of international language fell to English (ibid, p.6)’. English became the accepted international language; it created a new generation of learners who knew specifically why they were learning a language. Second, the oil crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries. English suddenly became by business and commercial pressures to apply an influence.
English for Specific Purposes is a movement based on the proposition that all language teaching should be tailored to the specific learning and language use needs for identified groups of students also sensitive to the socio-cultural contexts in which these students will using English (Celce-Murcia and 2001:11).
English for Specific Purposes is known as a learner-centered approach, since it meets the needs of (mostly) adult learners who need to learn a foreign language for use in their specific fields, such as science, technology, medicine, leisure, and academic learning. ESP programs are developed because there is a demand, because there is a need for language courses in which certain content, skills, motivations, processes and values are identified and integrated into specialized, often short-term, courses.

2.2 Needs Analysis and Situational Analysis
Hutchinson (1992) used a variety of procedures, primarily interviews, observations, and questionnaires to collect data about the objective needs of their ESL nursing students. Information was gathered through interviews with a nursing program director and five nursing faculty members to gather information about the difficulties. ESL students were having in first and second year courses, a questionnaire was given to 28 ESL students at the beginning of Fall semester. It was requesting information about difficulties they perceived they were having in the nursing program; interviews with five ESL students in first year courses; observations of four performance tests in labs that accompany first year courses and observations of four clinical: two from first year courses and two from second year courses. The study discussion of the needs analysis focused on the interviews with nursing faculty, nursing students and observations of labs and clinical. West (1994, 1-19) proposed a pedagogic needs analysis as an umbrella term to describe three elements of needs analysis: deficiency analysis, strategy analysis or learning needs analysis and means analysis. According to the researcher, deficiency analysis provides data about both the gap between present and target linguistic knowledge, mastery of General English, language skills, and learning needs analysis provides data about the strategies that learners employ in order to learn another language. Means analysis provides information about the environment in which the courses will be run and attempts to adapt ESP courses to the cultural environment in which they will be run, i.e., ESP syllabi should be sensitive to the particular cultural environment in which the courses will be imposed.
Needs analysis in language teaching has a vital role in the process of designing and carrying out any language course, whether it be (ESP) English for Specific Purposes or a General English course to meet the learning needs of a particular group of learners. It is the first essential step in course design and it provides relevancy for all course design activities. It places the learners’ purposes in the central position within its framework. This manuscript attempts to present an overview of the process of needs analysis and situational analysis for curriculum design in the field of health care communication skills for students at Faculty of Nursing in UNAIR University Surabaya: all of whom are students in the Sarjana Keperawatan (S.Kep)
Needs analysis is the basis of training programs and aid development programs. It is the cornerstone of ESP and leads to a focused course. The main purpose of conducting a needs analysis is, according to (Gardner, 1983:76), “to produce information which when acted upon makes courses better adapted to students’ needs’ and “part of the object of formal needs identification is to back up one’s proposals with quantitative evidence of their importance”. Furthermore, they added, “in many cases, concrete evidence of particular needs, such as these surveys produced, could be directly used as part of the course validation / approval procedure.’ Analyzing the specific needs of a particular learner group serves as the prelude to an ESP course design, because it determines the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of an ESP course. The information will help to select and prioritize as closely as possible what students will need to do. Given that, the purpose of an ESP course is to enable learners to function adequately in a target situation, that is, the situation in which the learners will use the language they are learning. The ESP course design process should proceed by first identifying the target situation and then carrying out a rigorous analysis of the linguistic features of that situation. This process is called by Chambers’ (1980) ‘target situation analysis’ (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987). Mostly ESP courses are design for adult learners who have a superior cognitive ability that can render them more successful in certain classroom endeavors. Their need of sensory input can rely a little on their imaginations. Adults usually have acquired self-confidence and they are more able to handle abstract rules and concepts, they have longer attention spans for material (Brown, 2001).
Their needs to be a clear reason for collecting different kinds of information that will actually be used are collected. In investigating the language needs of non-English-background atudents at a New Zealand university (Gravatt, Richards, and Lewis 1997), the following procedures were used:
1. Literature Survey
2. Analysis of a wide range of survey questionnaires
3. Contact with others who had conducted similar surveys
4. Interviews with teachers to determine goals
5. Identification of participating
6. Presentation of project proposal
7. Development of pilot students and staff questioners
8. Review of the questioners of colleagues
9. Piloting of the questioners
10. Selection of staff of students subjects
11. Developing a schedule for collecting data
12. Administration of questioners
13. Follow-up interviews with selected participants
14. Tabulation of responses
15. Analysis of responses
16. Writing up of report and recommendation
In Clearly, the role of needs analysis in any ESP course is indisputable. For (Johns, 1991), needs analysis is the first step in course design and it provides validity and relevancy for all subsequent course design activities. Though needs analysis, as we know it today, has gone through many stages, with the publication of Munby’s Communicative Syllabus Design in 1978 (Munby, 1978), situations and functions were set within the frame of needs analysis. In his book, Munby introduced ‘communication needs processor’ which is the basis of Munby’s approach to needs analysis. Based on Munby’s, the term of Target situation has also been introduced: Present Situation Analysis, Pedagogic Needs Analysis, Deficiency Analysis, Strategy Analysis or Learning Needs Analysis, Means Analysis, Register analysis, Discourse analysis, and Genre Analysis.
That statements are supported by Richterich (1983, 4) that reviewed arguments which “taken to the extreme, might mean denying the very possibility of identifying needs.” I have argued here that the four approaches to needs definition found in the work of Stufflebeam, Mc-Cormick, Brinkerhoff, and Nelson (1985,6-7) provide a framework that makes it possible to define and identify needs. Moreover, these definitions suggest methods for data gathering. Working within this framework, five major categories of needs statements emerged. These have included (1) Speech Production Accuracy, (2) Academic Performance, (3) Clinical Performance, (4) Dialect (Cultural) Variation, and ( 5 ) Inferencing Skills. These five categories of needs, are a working set for educators of nurses who work in diverse contexts and will be combined by SKKNI (Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia) for nursing.
2.3 Curriculum Development
A curriculum is the nexus of educational decisions, activities, and outcomes in a particular setting. Designing a curriculum for a general language course has outstanding steps, which a course designer must work through to develop the subject matter courses. Yalden (1987) writes that ‘setting up a new course implies a skillful blending of what is already known about language teaching and learning with the new elements that a group of learners inevitably bring to the classroom: their own needs, wants, attitudes, knowledge of the world, and so on.’ The literature demonstrates that there are a few guidelines for conceptualizing an entire course. Whereas, according to Taba (1962) the curriculum process includes the following seven steps: diagnosis of the needs, formulation of objectives, selection of content, organization of content, selection of learning experiences, organization of learning experiences and determination of what to evaluate and the means of evaluation. Richards (2001) begins his survey of the field by pointing to the narrow conception of curriculum development that exists within language teaching. The focus has been almost exclusively on language syllabuses, that is, on the specification of content and input, to the exclusion of other crucially important aspects of the curriculum development process such as needs analysis, methodology, and evaluation. However, (Dubin, 1986)revealed a broader perspective on curriculum design and the many facets to be considered in the process, such as language setting, patterns of language in society, the political and national context, and group and individual attitudes.
As Graves (2000:78) notes, ‘Designing a language course is a work in progress in its whole, in its parts, and in its implementation.’ In the preceding research the course designer’s task will begin with adopting aspects of these dynamic approaches starting with the most fundamental feature, the needs analysis and situational analysis. Then the course designer must work through curriculum and syllabus construction; prepare the materials and finally modifying the course according to the feedback.
2.4 Learner-centered approach
A curriculum based on the learner-centered approach contains similar elements to those contained in a traditional curriculum. However, the key difference between them is that, in the former, the curriculum is a collaborative effort between teachers and learners, since the learners are closely involved in the decision-making process regarding the content of the curriculum and how it is taught. Nunan (1993) posits that one of the major assumptions underlying the learner-centred approach it that, given the constraints that exists in most learning contexts, it is impossible to teach learners everything they need to know in class. Therefore, teachers must use class time as effectively as possible and teach the aspects which the learners themselves deem to be most urgently required.
In the learner-centered class learners do not depend on their teacher all the time. They value each other’s’ contributions, and they cooperate, learn from each other, and help each other. The emphasis is on working together- in pairs, in groups, and as a whole class. The teacher helps them to develop their language skills. A learner-centered classroom is a place where learners’ needs are considered, as a group and as individuals, and they are encouraged to participate in the learning process all the time (Jones, 2007). In this method, the teacher is considered as a member of the team, as a participant in the learning process.
Along with the Curriculum based on learner-centered language teaching is the Communicative language teaching. Widdowsow (1978) claims that a basic principle underlying all communicative approaches is that learners must learn not only to make grammatically correct, propositional statements about the experimental world, but must also develop the ability to use language to carry out various real-world tasks.
Whereas, Hutchinson (1992) describes the ESP process strat from finding finning need analysis, designing material and what should teacher do as follow:

2.5 Task-based language Instruction
One of the challenges that many course developers face involves identifying an organizational structure for their courses. This course plan was designed for an ESP program focusing mostly on task-based instruction, and was designed especially for nurses. TBLT bases arguments for an analytic syllabus which offers the learner target language and is organized in terms of the purposes’ for which people are learning language and the kinds of language performance that are necessary to meet those purposes (Wilkins, 1976 cited in Long and Crookes, 1992). Since the communicative approach emerged in the late 1960s, being capable of using a language in real-world communication has become the main objective in the field of language teaching (Richards, 2001). In task-based instruction, learners participate in communicative tasks in English.
Tasks are defined as activities that can stand alone as fundamental units and that require comprehending, producing, manipulating, or interacting in authentic language while attention is principally paid to meaning rather than form. Instead of beginning the design process with lists of grammatical, functional-notional, and other items, the designer conducts a needs analysis which yields a list of the target tasks that the targeted learners will need to carry out in the ‘real-world’ outside the classroom. One common issue of the syllabus design is whether a product or a process should be the core focus. Hutchinson and Waters (1983, as cited in Nunan, 1993, p.49) suggest that the best work in the ESP area usually focuses on a process rather than a product. However, in real world situations, language often acts as a means in completing tasks. Therefore, ESP should pay attention to not only the process of learning, but also the product.
Teaching through tasks can create favorable learning conditions for learners’ who study ESP. Involving learners in performing tasks that are relevant to their profession, increases learners’ motivation and does not emphasize linguistic issues in the primary stages. As suggests by Ellis (2003) that Task-based learning in language teaching has become an important approach in the last years because it promotes communication and social interaction, referring to learners doing authentic tasks.

2.5 Previous of Studies
Miyake (2005:23-24) Conducted a study to explore the needs of undergraduate, postgraduate and professional nurses through questionnaires and interviews based on a needs analysis and discuss the implications for EFL teachers. The focus of the investigation was on the balance between Social and Technical English in terms of syllabus design, classroom activities and professional requirements. An analysis of the results suggested that Social English is more important as it enables nurses to communicate with patients and enriches them as individuals. It also showed that classroom activities should promote confidence is using social communicative English throughout a course focusing on listening and speaking. The results also suggested that Technical English should be introduced incrementally and is better limited to basic technical vocabulary.
Takaaki (2006:1-9) viewed needs analysis as the systematic collection and analysis of all relevant information necessary to satisfy the language learning requirements of the students within the context of the particular institutions involved in the learning situation. There is an instrument proposed by Takaaki called General English Language Needs Analysis instrument (GELNA).
Morales, Cunningham and Brown (2001, 409-471) conducted a study to examine associations of patient ratings of communication by health care providers with patient language (English vs. Spanish) and ethnicity (Latino vs.White). A total of 7,093 English and Spanish language questionnaires were returned for an overall response rate of 59%. Five questions asking patients to rate communication by their health care providers were examined in this study. All five questions were administered with a seven-point response scale. The researchers estimated the associations of satisfaction ratings with language (English vs. Spanish) and ethnicity (White vs. Latino) using ordinal logistic models, controlling for age and gender. The study demonstrated that Latino / Spanish respondents were significantly more satisfied with provider communication than Latino / English and White respondents. These study results suggested Spanish- speaking Latinos were at increased risk of lower quality of care and poor health outcomes. Efforts to improve the quality of communication with Spanish -Speaking Latino patients in outpatient health care settings were needed. Results also suggested that health plans and other large providers of medical care to Latino patients should monitor patient satisfaction with provider communication and examine its associations with treatment outcomes.
Stevenson (2004) drew on a systematic review of research on two-way communication between patients and health practitioner about medicines in order to determine the extent to which concordance is, or is not, being put into practice. Six electronic databases were searched using the following categories of search items: health care professionals, patients, medicine-taking and communication. Studies published between 1991 and 2008 were included.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter describes the method of the research. The section consist of research design, subject and setting, data and sources of the data, data collection technique and instrument, research procedures, data analysis technique.
3.1 Research Design
For this purpose of this study, it is necessary and beneficial to conduct the whole process of a curriculum in order to custom-design effective language instruction. The research used both qualitative and quantitative methods and was carried out to explore a learner-centered specialized English curriculum for nursing students. The curriculum follows the main procedures of designing and developing a task-based model.

3.2 Subject and Setting
The subjects of this study were students at Faculty of Nursing in UNAIR University Surabaya: all of whom are students in the Sarjana Keperawatan (S.Kep). They are 100 students in 2 different classes, in the second semester.
They face considerable challenges to improve their English, and they struggle with lack of time as they have a busy work schedule. Many of them have families and live far from the hospital. Therefore to know the level of English proficiency, it will be conducted a general English pre-test.

3.3 Data and Sources of the Data
The source of data will be the nursing students’ activities of Unair Nursing University at Jalan Mulyorejo, Kampus C, Unair Surabaya Jawa Timur 60115. They are choosen because there are students exchange, join conference and join research with overseas university. Also, the faculty has a program to deligate students to Japan and every years the Uair faculty come to japan to visit their students.
The director of dr. Soetomo, dr. Dodo Anondo said that dr soetomo hospital is same as the international hospital, such as Singapore, South Korea and Malaysia. ‘Because dr Soetomo hospital is internationally certified, therefore foreign patients can have medical servise here’. Friday (12/6/2015). Surya.co.id.

3.4 Data Collection Technique and Instrument
The data are collected base on the needs. Regarding to answer research question number 1, what is nursing ESP. First, English general pre-test will be given to students to know their basic ability in communication skill. Then library study is needed to answer this questions and finally giving interview and questioner to nursing students.
To ensure validity and reliability of the results, data was collected from multiple sources, including Unair hospital nurses, foreign patients, the hospital director, English lecturers, a nursing expert, nursing faculty director and government through Dinkes Surabaya. This is known as the triangulation method, which provides different viewpoints, enabling the researcher to look at something from a variety of perspectives, for more comprehensive understanding (Wiersma, 2009). For this study, some instruments were used, divided into three sets, carrying out a quantitative and qualitative study.
The instruments used to collect data included needs analysis questionnaire, situational analysis – observation, curriculum, syllabus and assessment design, nursing experts’ evaluations, curriculum evaluation (learners’ reflective questionnaire, teacher’s journal and expert’s observation evaluation), pre-test/post-test and the interview result of hospital director, faculty director and Dinkes director.

3.5 Research Procedures
The data collected from the needs analysis and situational analysis was combined to design the curriculum, and the nursing experts’ evaluations served to improve it. The curriculum evaluation together with the pre- and post-test helped the researcher to discover whether or not the curriculum was effective. After the data collection and evaluation, the results were compiled and are examined in the discussion section.
The first questionnaire asked them about themselves and their learning needs, the second questionnaire asked them about their subjective needs or wants with regards to health care communication. This information was used along with an assessment of students’ proficiency in English, to tailor the course content and pedagogy to their needs in the courses.
3.6 Data Analysis Technique
This study will use quantitative and qualitative as the analysis technique. It is because the study will use some of data to investigate the need analysis and to design the curriculum of nursing ESP then test the curriculum.
Quantitative data will be applied in analyzing and discussing to know the accurate situational analysis. And the qualitative approach will be useful in analysis process as it describes the process after gaining the data should be describe systematically.

References
Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. 2nd Ed. New York: Longman.
Brown, James Dean. 1995. The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach to Program Development. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Celce-Murcia, M., & 2001. Teachingenglish as a Second or Foreign Language Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Dubin, F., & Olhshtain, E. 1986. Course Design – Developing Programs and Materials for Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ellis, R. . 2003. Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching. USA: Oxford.
Gardner, P.H., & Winslow, J. D. . 1983. Present and Proposed Methods of Determining the Needs of Students in Public Sector Identifying Language Needs: Pergamon Press.
Graves, K. . 2000. Designing Language Courses – a Guide for Teachers. Boston: Heinle &
Heinle Publishers.
Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. . 1992. English for Specific Purposes : A Learning Centered Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Johns. 1991. English for Specific Purposes: Its History and Contribution.
Jones, Leo. . 2007. The Student-Centered Classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Miyake, M., & Tremarco, J. . 2005. Needs Analysis for Nursing Students Utilizing Questionnaires and Interviews. Journal of Medical Welfare Kawasaki Vol. 11 No. pp. 23-24.
Munby, J. . 1978. Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. . 1993. Introducing Discourse Analysis. London: Penguin.
Richards, Jack C. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stevenson, Fiona A., Britton, N., & Dundar, Y. 2004. A Systematic Review of the Research on Communication between
Patients and Health Care Professionals About Medicines: The Consequences for Concordance. Health Expectations Vol. 7 No. 3 pp. 235-245.
Taba, H. . 1962. Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Takaaki, K. 2006. Construct Validation of a General English Language Needs Analysis Instrument JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter Vol. 10 No. 2 pp. 1-9.
Widdowsow, H. G. . 1978. Teaching Language as Communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. . 2009. Research Methods in Education an Introduction. Boston: Pearson International Edition.
Yalden, J. . 1987. Principles of Course Design for Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Yule, George. 2011. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Appendixes
Table 1: A Survey of Participants’ Needs in Health Care Communication in the Form of Can-do Statements
No Healthcare Com Skill How much
Very much somewhat A little Not at all
Introduce self
Small talk
Response to patients feeling
Ask question
Restate information
Clarify information
Understand non-verbal language
Understand patient language
Table 2: Pre-Test of general-nursing communicative skill scoring
no Name Scoring item
fluency grammar pronunciation Comprehension
1
2
3
4
5
Table 3: Need Analysis Interview to Hospital, Faculty and Dinkes director
NO Needs Item Command Note
Why are the learners need the class
How do the learners learn
What sources are available

Source: Essay UK - http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/designing-esp-cirriculum-for-indonesian-nursing-students/


Not what you're looking for?

Search our thousands of essays:

Search:


About this resource

This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.


  • Order a custom essay
  • Print this page
  • Search again

Word count:

This page has approximately words.


Share:


Cite:

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Designing ESP cirriculum for Indonesian Nursing Students. Available from: <http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/designing-esp-cirriculum-for-indonesian-nursing-students/> [19-11-17].


More information:

If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:


Essay and dissertation help


Latest essays in this category:


Our free essays:

badges