Essay: Types of language learning strategies

Language Learning Strategies have been classified by many scholars such as Wenden and Rubin 1987; O’Malley et al. 1985; Oxford 1990; Stern 1992; Ellis 1994 and more. However, most of these attempts to classify language learning strategies reflect very few obvious changes.

According to Rubin’s (1987) Classification of Language Learning Strategies, there are three strategies that contributes to learning. These strategies are namely, Learning strategy, Communication strategy and Social strategy which can influence learners learning ability either directly or indirectly. For instance, Cognitive Learning strategy contributes directly to the learners’ language development. There are six steps deduced in this strategy which are Clarification or variations, Guessing or Inductive Inferencing, Deductive reasoning, Practice, Memorization and monitoring. Another strategy that contributes directly to learners learning is Metacognitive Learning strategy. It is a self-directed language learning strategy that involves various process of planning, prioritizing, monitoring, setting goal and self-management.

Meanwhile, the indirectly contributing strategies are Communication strategy and Social Strategy. Communication strategy focuses more on active participation in communication as well as to get clarification from the language tutor of intended information. On the other hand, Social strategy refers to activities that engage learner to practice their target language. This is true as these strategies contribute indirectly to learning since they do not lead directly to the obtaining, storing, retrieving and using of language (Rubin and Wenden 1987:23-27).

The second strategy of language learning shall be the Oxford’s (1990) Classification of Language Learning Strategies. This strategy aims more towards communicative competence. Just as the Rubin’s (1987), Oxfords (1990) also distinct the strategy into two which are direct and indirect. The direct strategy is divided into three namely, Memory, Cognitive and Compensation strategy. Memory strategy is used to store information meanwhile the Cognitive strategy is a mental process used to comprehend material. Thus the Compensation strategy is the that helps to prevents learners knowledge gap.

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