Girls in segregated institutions of upper SES

Girls in segregated institutions of upper SES had poorer home and emotional adjustment than those of middle SES. Girls in segregated institutions of upper SES had poorer emotional adjustment than those of lower SES. The girls in co-educational schools from upper SES had better or total adjustment and were better adjusted in home, health, social and emotional areas than those in segregated institutions. Girls of middle SES in coeducational institutions were better emotionally adjusted than those in segregated institutions. Those from lower SES in coeducational institutions had better total adjustment as well as home, health, social, emotional and school adjustment than those in segregated institutions.
Pandit (1989) studied the girl’s drop-out rate in school education, its cause and remedial measures and found that the main causes of drop-out among girls before passing SSC examination included poverty, unfavorable social ethos and early marriage.
Ray (1989) conducted a study on problems which lead girls to drop-out from high school classes V-X in Jagatsinghpur block of Cuttack District, Orissa and concluded that drop-out rate was lower in higher castes group as compared to lower castes groups, majority of the parents preferred early marriage of girls, most parents objected to the idea of sending mature girls to coeducational schools , drop-out rate was high in illiterate families, young male teachers were a substantive cause of withdrawal of girls by parents and drop-out of girls in co-educational schools , unaided schools and in schools of rural areas was found to be very high.
Sen (1990) pointed out that the actual economic reasons can explain the disadvantage in relation to boys, but for girls the process of withdrawal has to be explained by a combination of factors like parental apathy, socio-cultural norms, direct and indirect costs, market failure to reflect and capture the benefits of girls’ education and the low participation of girls in the system. All these have had a cumulative effect on girls’ education.
Chanana (1990) has observed that discrimination faced by the girls in enrolling and attending school is rooted in the wider socio’economic and cultural context, which sustains such gender inequalities. Women in India occupy a low status which is measured in terms of lower literacy levels, lower employment rates, lower wages for equal work, poor health and nutritional status and high infant female mortality levels.
Nayar (1992) studied the factors for continuance and discontinuance of girls in elementary schooling and found out that major correlates of continuance were better economic standing of household, parental education and motivation and a supportive enabling home climate. Domestic work and sibling are the chief causes of girls dropping out in addition to one set of puberty, early marriage, sex segregation and purdah. Single sex schools and more woman teachers were demanded by several rural communities and by Muslim population.
Nayar (1993) has also noted that living in a rural environment characterised by poverty affects girls and women more severely since girls in rural India are engaged in domestic chores, which keeps their mothers at work and brothers at school. Thus, the cycle of low female schooling continues unbroken. It is stated that, ‘It is patriarchy and low status, which keeps women down and girls out of school. Poverty would be constant, if the gender discrimination was not at work’.
Agarwal and Aggarawal (1994) in ‘Third Historical Survey of Educational Development in India’, quoted that, in India, the education of girls has historically lagged behind that of boys.
Nambissen (1995) showed, how the girl confronts to sex role stereotypes, indulging in a ‘Feminine’ behaviour (such as being quite, reserved and non participative), which is expected of them by teachers. This restricts their class room performance and academic achievement. Gender stereotype in the school setup is also visible in organising of separate seating arrangement for boys and girls and in the allocation of separate tasks for girls and boys.
Jejebhoy (1996) revealed that the birth order determines the educational chances of the girl child. The elder daughter is often the biggest loser, as she has to take over the responsibilities of the household work. By doing so, young girls release their mother for work and hence this activity is an economic contribution to the household, also enables her brothers to attend the school.
Bhatty (1998) have opined that greater awareness on the part of the parents of the social returns to female education which are far greater than that of male education could definitely create a positive impact in favour of girl’s education.
Duraiswamy (1998) concluded that female disadvantage in primary education is , because, the opportunity costs of the girl child’s time are high as she spends higher time on domestic work compared to boys . This leads to fewer enrolments and larger dropouts among girls. Studies have also brought out the fact that gender difference in

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