Maintaining a more reflective, explorative and critical approach within the Art and Design classroom environment, and beyond required an endeavour in enhancing learning. Important to this, is the emphasis on material practice. Working with material is fundamental to fully understand art by making art in art processes. It is through material manipulation and applying artistic actions, learners discover and come to experience art through understanding. Teaching creative art could employ various methods in helping children have new experiences by discovering other manner of making art design apart from initial awareness about certain objects found within the environment.
A curious look will be directed at Cizek (1936), who created the class of visual culture that is referred as child art which today presupposes an impression the possibility that child art was a myth created by modernism. Cizek and Lowenfeld. (1947). examined the interpretation of visual cultural image produced and studied in pedagogical settings. They questioned if interpretation represents a variety of diverse interests, value, meaning, purpose and assumptions regarding learner attitude in creativity, interaction and pedagogy. Also, whether the results are subjected to alternative interpretations representing awareness of various and opposing interest. The vital interest in this research is to find out whether a non-instructional learning situation will enable learners use their knowledge independently to carry out a given task in the similar manner as they work under the guidance of the teacher, using instructional materials, (examples; foam/sponge, leaf, firs and colours) in art and design making. Both methods obviously, will instruct in carrying out any teaching role if adequately applied in conformity with topic, teachers’ lesson plan intension and desired outcome of the art and design exercise.
The purpose of this study is to explore carefully the ability of learners to appropriate used and unused in objects in art and design making with or without directive or guide. The relationship and the differences in both instructional visual method and a classroom where the teacher is present, but inactive. The manner these methods impact on the children art learning experiences. The learner capability to figure out the interesting outcome by participation, discussion, group exhibition, critique without bias as outstanding means or indicator of innovative art program. It is therefore rational to say here that known items like foams, firs, leaf etc. can enhance learners’ mode of thinking, creativity and action to achieve a considerable progress in art. As a result, this study examined: if the instructional method reflects a decipher or break up of creativity? Comparing with the free art making technique.
Therefore, a broad overview of the type of experiences derived or have revealed from children approaches to exercises to support teaching role in perpetuating and entrenching methods already apparent in art learning. The researcher hope to employ both alternative methods as mentioned to ascertain what creative experience is being achieved. This is the aspect where the research will be focused. Hence, the effort will no doubt be a surprise but some new experiences will emerge in the art making process. The following areas will be examined: the research in the (educational method) learning process, learners’ responses in (behaviour) learning and impact.
Practice in Art and Design education will always constitute the basic platform for developing or improving teaching. Art learner interest is often distinct, but largely unidentified, Atkinson (1993). Most will be revealed only by involvement through awareness of the aim, objective and condition of activity under which the art work is produced. The approach will emphasize the need of recognizing what is known may constitute other alternatives which often remain useful for constructing another new idea.
Idea could emanate through comparison with the peers and teachers’ example. So sense could be made in the light of that, a conviction of continually adopting, changing, excluding, or adding activities and actions as they evolve. In this way, develop a more dynamic situation and organization as applied to individual experiences rather than the typified constant social stratum.
Initial conversation with the children reduced the gaps of misunderstanding requires a descriptive context and content divergences that relate to the subject. The actual purpose here is not to shift from the paired opposite that allow one situation to function and to create through information by searching for meaning. In so doing learners neglect the element alien and employ more flexible way to make ideas work. It is the coherence of initial presentation that generating attention and commitment of the learners approaching the activity with own idea; also, a binding factor. If this is the case, a suggestion which generate insight precisely to diagnose problem and promote creativity.
It is remarkable that art has provided materials, tools, processes and methods that have aided and continue to influence artistic and creative expression in schools, coupled with the rising dominance of technology, each accompanied by conventions, practices and purposes. Art educators are making efforts to assist learners to understand the layered context of the art field and its’ evolving relationship with one process and the other.
Other associated techniques are not too difficult to translate into meaningful teaching and creative learning situation. The priority is the implementation of the methods into art classrooms. Sourcing other items for creative design remain an aspect of communication that arrest learner attention in an art activity in enhancing visual representation of ideas, both in aesthetic and textual form of experience, and memory. It is therefore, suited to broadened and structure creativity as form of visual realities.
Although, initiating used and unused materials is not a tenuous one, if a desired learning provides a guided direction and frame for expanding learning dimension in art. It is not so intriguing to mention various suppositions on why and what to do in art processes, major aim is to create art for what art entails. A progressive education which carries its own clear message about creativity, culture, convention, belief and social values. Dewey, (1859-1952). An orientation towards a greater emphasis on learning by creation (experimenting) which focuses on problem solving, reflective thinking, skill development and group work, using knowledge to acquire new knowledge help to understand action as a goal in learning, as opposed to memory training. Drawing or spinning ideas out from a learner is inconvenient and it consider creativity as an experiment for searching something wise, stimulating, smart and guarantee discipline to adhere in an art process.
The research is in cognisance of the opinions and various suggestions of formulated hierarchical structures enunciated that have influenced instructional roles which in turn have impacted on the art pedagogy offered in schools. Dyson (1995). He acknowledges the essential differences between favoured, flexible (free) holistic method in creativity. Wild, (2013) Opined that it is explicit for teachers to engage art education practice by accepting the curriculum as a challenge. In most cases calls for adherence to adaptable practice that promote creative actions, reminiscent of Fursman, Joanna’s image creative action on the classroom window by ‘’legitimate subject status’’ approach accompanied with participative creative activity. Largely, a learning process thereby enhancing participatory art practice. An activity that investigates what particular setup of art learning does to learning situation, and the perception of the work when she developed an idea involving the children and look at the outcome of the creative work.
This literature review explores the dominant theme and the research question: concept of creativity, learner’s attitudes, interaction, and learning outcome. The scope of this research is expanded to include examining the dominant theme of the topic and the subsequent question regardless of the specific subject area. Numerous methods exist in art education as well as difficulties in finding means to communicating better ideas and what they feel about art and objects to learners. Taylor (1986). There has been continue defence by some art teachers as regards methods which is more appropriate in learning, each based several of their views and suggestions on experiences. The argument most common against art led instruction method in Art and Design is that, it is not concrete and it dissuades creative imagination when materials are used with external influence. But the learner cannot handle symbolic situations of objects presented to him without of which he is neither familiar. However, Elkins (2001) argues, that ‘’artist, it was said need a good hand and a good eye` a conceptual foundation must come before manual dexterity that could aide learner have more to creativity, meaningful and with manipulative effort?
The renowned model program devised by Rousseau (1948), is a prime example of an effective method for working with children using materials through interaction in a learning environment . This could promote abstract thinking in reference to concrete objects which portrayed that learning is effective in solving problems involving visual applications. Also ‘’seek to develop ideas which pour out of the young mind’’ in creation. Instruction method not only promote learning experience by prompting visual connections among selected choices of objects, also imitative instinct plays a large part; Read, (1958) and can indeed facilitate cognitive growth, leading to investigations. In comparing the instructional material use in an art-workshop environment, a combination of methods approaches yielded enthusiasm in learning. However, learners demonstrate high skills in creative works, ‘’even when they are apparently driven by most powerful creative instincts, the need for a deep order, for some bidding logic’’ and deliberation in action especially when the learning environment is appropriate.
Another explanation by Freeland (2001) , involves asking and delivering the response to creative question, the direction to carry out a design task. Thereby, learner could work according to instruction through example provided by the teacher at the beginning of the art activity. The outcome showed that introduction and explanation in the first instance actually offered equal and sometimes greater control and flexibility to learning.
Usher and Edwards (1997) argued that what the learner is left with is not an alternative and more secure foundation for imaginative thinking but awareness of simplicity and fragility, a break-up in creativity through which knowledge is constructed about nature of learning situation and the envisaged outcome. Hence a frame work particularly useful for examining the impact of learning invite, various critical perspectives such as observation, discussion, analysis, and material presentation.
Teaching art and design with firs, leaf and foam could usher in a new dimension or interdisciplinary perspectives of art learning. It is concerned with the way assumptions, thinking and application operate in art and design processes. This perspective attempt to broaden the function in structural and non-structural mode of instructions, and concentrate on interest and ability of the learner. Not every method is similar in enhancement of learning. Baudelaire, (1846) identified material as incorporating meaning to creativity, due to teachers’ active role and original ideas. Also inclusionary, to investigate how art classroom dynamics would change and how objects could aide learning. He pointed out that access to new form experience allow learners to be active participants in a giving activity. This will enhance learner perception and interaction with others. Khan, P. (2006), added that learner engage in more social interaction with their peers and share experiences in such manner of working with something new. ‘’Learning from oneself demand the support of the others’’ and an integral part of art process. A basis for more cooperative, helping and sharing opinion building in self-confidence.
Material initiation method, involve processes, condition, action, effect and outcome. In applying method, its suitability to the topic should be considered where other method is not applicable. Therefore, the other function in comparison. if there is a focus on one identified method, the learning condition is separated between both methods and the other necessarily left out. The constituent visible method is considered at the detriment of the other too narrowly ignored. Because of the high expectation of the learners, as well as the learning strategies offered with information that incorporate a sense of community. The other method plays complementary role in further redefining the objective of the activity.
Due to the collaborative nature of the workshop, support approach for learners were extensive and elaborate. A basis for interaction instead of entering into an activity as novice, but focus on work and adapting too to establish what the activity defines. In other sense, the learner may turn conventional relationship in their feeling, and in their action. Each may have developed an individual way of thinking and creative approaches, using their more embedded opportunity for expansive learning.
The class of visual culture of child learning method: Cezek (1865-1946), enable children Identify the various art materials by names and sources. Each learner should be able to know what primary function items are meant for, order than what is being intended to be produce in a design process. The handling and application procedures should not be demonstrated which may not restrict or limit the usage such as required to implement the relevant aspect of their work. The capability to carry this out can be guided through their tender responses where material usage is more appropriate as a criterial. Manipulation should be directed if necessary but not important. The diagram below represents both methods of instructions:
FIG 1: NON- INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD FAVOURED BY CIZEK
FIG.2 INSTRUCTIONAL ART METHOD; TEACHER FOCUS
Fig. 3. Materials/objects images: Leafs, Douglas firs (Christmas tree Branches), sponge, and colours.
The above items can be used to create art work and teaching strategies. they could influence learners and teacher in art learning process. Can help learners and teacher understand the perspective in art and design. Also, can help understand methods.
AGE OF THE LEARNERS (participants)
The children ages ranges between 8-11 years old in schools within the community.
PLACE WHERE THE WORKSHOP WAS DONE:
The workshop was carried out at Lea-grave, Luton, UK.
The participants volunteered prior to initial art workshop proposition to Saint Joseph Rebels Youth football club which correspond to KS: 2 pupils. The level of ages will enable the researcher address the specific aims of the research methods. The ethnic differences were considered, helpful and the researcher being familiar to the parents, children and other coordinators of the club facilitated adaptation to the participants and the learning space condition in make shift art-room. The art workshop space improvised was not large enough but adaptably modified to suite art activity. However, considerable responsibilities were assured the parents of their wards for the duration of the workshops by the researcher verbally accorded without any official justification but based on usual confidence and trust which already existed. It was apparent to suggest the idea of an art and design workshop to Saint Joseph Rebels football club given the urgency and nature of the research topic and its relevance to children art learning. Also, the conditions required to have access to working with children in public schools in England is difficult which could delay the commencement of the research work demanded for alternative solution.
HOW IS THE RESEARCH PRESENTED?
The research was presented in two phases as follow:
Phase 1: Identifying and Presentation of (materials) foams, Douglas firs, colours, paper tape; these are locally sourced for experimentation.
Phase 2: Identifying challenges in linking both free method and structured method, and practice.
HOW WAS THE RESEARCH DONE?
Workshop (learning) based practice and management with both teaching options: Instructional/ non instructional methods.
Phase 1: Contact a Youth football club in Luton, England. Propose a Workshop. Explain the purpose and objective.
Phase 2: Carry out the workshop activities and feedback.
Activities of two different lessons as previously indicated intended to give the children sequentially different structured experiences in pattern or design making. So, children could enjoy using paint, do variety of interesting work which is through experimentation and self-discovery. Also, employ some or all of their newly discovered design making experiences to relate their work to that of their peers.
SPECIFIC AIM OF THE WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES:
• To get the children to experience and understand different constituencies of colours and qualities.
• To let the children discovers for themselves and how to mix paint and application techniques, with the specific intension that they should develop their art.
• To get learners to explore colour textures by means of demonstration by the teacher, discussion and further experimentation with paint.
• To get the children to extend their artwork techniques and develop skill further in production of design.
• To get the children to critical evaluation of their work by display and remarks about the finished work.
Children should be encouraged explore the nature and possibilities of adapting foams, firs and leaf, colours etc. to design. Further, allow distribute drawing papers: A3., 150gm. to each learners. Fixed with a paper-tape to each paper edges. Paint texture can be applied, leaving the children alone to work without any interferences. But within a time frame deliberately applied.
REMARKS FOR PHASE 1:
• Under the context in which a particular activity has taking place is crucial.
• Commitment to valuing the principle of free activity whereby the teacher is inactive leads to examples of good art teaching method to develop the child creativity.
• Principles of play way method can be applied in art learning.
EXAMPLES OF PRINCPLES:
– Integrated with participative activities.
– Involvement in the art process.
– Decision making using foam, firs and leaf as convenient.
– Engaging when making creations.
EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS ASKED BY THE CHILDREN:
• What are these materials used for?
• How can we make creations with the objects?
• No brushes to paint with?
• Can you (researcher) explain the use of these items displayed?
• What creation could be done with these strange materials?
The outcome realized from the second lesson gave the responses to the above questions.
Identifying the challenges in linking both methods. challenges such as:
Structured perspective to facilitate creative work. Teacher wholly present and a central focus. Control of learning situation and confident building, though creativity was more conventional.
• Exploring texture of all kinds using the maximum texture refers specifically to the quality of paper surface- either the visual quality or the tactile quality is useful experience for children in design exercise.
• In order to develop this exercise further, the researcher devoted time doing thick textures by repeat stamping of firs on the paper surface, so the children will apply the technique example to their art work.
• Using small brushes and paint children can make large areas of textures.
• A foam could be used instead of a brush. Some textures can be added more than once to build up strong and colourful effect.
• Carefully display the finished work produced, followed by assessment of what the children have done- both by the researcher/ teacher and how successful they have been.
• Discussion of work in relation to the two methods applied.
REMARKS OF PHASE 2: (LESSON TWO)
• Instructional method that can hinder the use of material in creativity.
• Teachers’ interference lack capacity to guarantee independent thinking.
• Teacher focused that can hinder creativity.
• Instruction and objectives pre-meditated and other related issues that can act as barriers to creativity.
• Practice is subjective.
• Attending to learners, engagement and discussions.
• Set aside the assumptions about each of the methods.
This study took form of a workshop, a makeshift art classroom context and as such is a retrospective explorative manner of an art learning setting with the context of art education practice. Experimentation with foam, firs, leaf and colours independently, enabling actions of creativity subjected to teachers’ instruction. There is no specific or firm consensus within the art field as to what exactly constitute high method of teaching. Methods are distinguished by the mastery of visual culture of content, command of broad set of teaching skills and application. Therefore, brought into focus Cizek (1936) visual culture of child art learning process. The exposure of visual rhetoric as a mean of presentation, for example is supposed to help learners grasp the way a creative idea is being influenced by the way they imagine things, Spinoza (1663). By so doing, the learner becomes aware of the differences that are being developed. Learners are then able to function because, visual art material presentation in any art activities often present information and interpret the learning situation.
Whatever learners are making in art activity they are likely to be making it for the first time. So, it will be difficult for them to know what they are aiming for. Thus, there should be a prelude to activity. Learners should be shown what Callaway et al. (1992) call ‘’example of visual resource“ good beautiful work examples from previous activities to inspire and inform. The group can discourse the attributes that make the model exceptional. The learners not only know what they are going to realise but may understand the characteristics, and contribute to instinctive development and learning. It is useful to explain to learners that their task is not reproduce the example but to use what they learn from the discussion in order to make something unique of their own experiences. However, Ranciere’s (1978) model of connection and interaction determined the organisation of learner experience identified as a domain of sensibility and active participation beyond accepted common classroom regulations or norm. Some critique referred to as innovative praxis’s of resemblance representation and limitation to pure creativity. Whereas, virtue is usually realized through difference subjective assumptions because no alternative creation from pre-existing ideas. Best (1985). Cizek constantly disassociate from Delueze and Guattari’s (1980) position that true creativity cannot be identified and predicted or premeditated, that what new thought does it makes it possible to think? This thought already abjure the level of methodology in learning. Perhaps, Atkinson, D. (1993). Expounded his position as rational creative tactics or respondent against the instructional method that is concerned with conventional conditions which have limited structure. Play way art activity aid expression and guarantee imagination. Dewey, (1934) favoured free expressions, as ‘’progressive pedagogy orientation towards present experience as against the orthodox style’’: How do art educators know the differences which exist and adaptation to learning? There exists great deal of similarities between non-conventional classroom and structured activity centred than the differences but carries the same creative objective. Barrett. (1979) opined that children will fashion out their own proper creation or idea that every learner endures simply for his or her well- being., through the experience of the art educator. It is of advantage that art educator maintained a refined sense of how to teach with non-related materials in art learning activity.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The awareness that make art practice contribution to acquiring new knowledge provides inspiring condition for visual creative activity. Also, a wider understanding about the uses and meaning derived from using firs, foam, leaf and colours that will be possible to present a perspective on the differences and changes reflected in children creative exercises. Researchers’ effort here, is to examine how the methods conformed to the essential aspects of the accomplishment of learning, as well to understand changes in the attitudes, difficulties and application. Also, to find out if it broadened the creativeness and the differences between both in art and design activity. Art educators’ role implies spearheading the activity envisioned in any learning situation. Thereby, denoting the importance and significance attributed or attached to the subject by providing a balanced instructional framework essential to empower the teacher professional skills and guarantee a conducive atmosphere for learning to take place.
IMPACT ON LEARNERS AND RESEARCHERS’ ACHIEVEMENT
The two learning experiences portrayed how the learners were exposed, yielded significant gains in abstraction, free thinking, problem solving and conceptual skills. It also identified memory and structural thinking manual application with full concentration without loss of actual creative ability due to external influences. The researcher observed there is emerging differences between how learners are taught and how they create. The final works presented in fig. 4., below, showed enough evidence.
This is important for the fact that learner’s attitudes improved. Individual skill acquisition equalled and showed great differences. Some art educators maintained that the use of material object may distract from pure creativity present in a learning setting. Still others have found that initiating material can be knowledgeable and provide effective used but with less influence on learners’ attitudes and interaction.
Putting an activity together is exhilarating and interesting. It is sufficiently complex that it engages the pros and cons of organisation and energy. It is teaching at its’ most challenging. As an art teacher, self-restraint and enthusiasm are required, per se of expression in the sense of teaching at its most-free will, because the researcher selected the material and choice, invented the task and pace. The obverse of the challenge of course is that the researcher remained indispensable, but so meaningless, so fully for himself alone and unworthy to learning that no one except the researcher who cares whether the work is done well or not. He is equal to accept whatever the outcome is because it is the bi-product of the researchers’ work (teaching) ability. Presenting the materials aroused curiosity and suspicions followed by taunting questions yet to get immediate unwilling responses from the researcher.
Art and Design activity in progress quickly become noisy and uncontrollable. It reverts to calm. Researcher did not to interfere but fleeting silence ensued, but he forced himself to hold up his heavy head against the aura of and raised his eyelids heavy as barbells, and to notice what the learners were doing. He said he would rather do any other thing else. The researcher learned far more than he intended. He learned from the silent moment and the follow up conversations, and unequal witty remarks that rolled off from each learners. The children politely asked about his opinion on their works. It was a creative vision in time; that were possible.
So, the researcher continues the workshop and get it finished. There are general rules to follow as requested by the researcher through demonstration for satisfactory objectives, probably, he is being forced to toss the most essential part of the creative vision. But this is mere nostalgic concern, before his eyes stealing their creative instincts is a duel of frail finished exercise entirely opaque, denied of its originality, a series of well-known passages; some vertical and horizontal strokes painting, its relationship between any strength and any work, anything unchanging to any astute.
The researcher believe the learners have creative minds and strong wills. The children loved the range of materials they used. The work, possibilities excited them. The activities ignited their imagination. Further, the ‘’design capacity allows them to act physically with the intension upon materials and objects or to have ideas and thoughts about such action.’’ Coghill (1989). The art and design exercise suggested the tasks the tasks suggested the schedules, the children learned how to make art and design and they appreciated. They also worked respectfully, out of emotion and knowledge. They produced complex interesting works that endure.
It had taking instant moment for the researcher to understand what extraordinary thing he was seeing. He watched the beauty of the creations unfolded and became fantastic, unlikely before his watchful eyes all that embellished expanse of work and mind at once.
Fig.4, The two artworks above showed the creative ability of the learner without initial interference of the teacher.
This is likely to prove of something, a wake-up call to reflective thinking and a strategy to learning. Many art educators and critique probably with no other alternative have also highlighted some assumptions and difficulties that subjective learning impede creativity. Best, (1985) . What has been some concern is whether the diversification in method is logical. Some argues that it would be better paying more attention to learners centred approach and to invest much in this domain.
The researcher did not think it is a great option to Cizek basic idea of self-activity and free expression method . If learning situation is observed, Teaching methods have evolved and in line with modern day education, growing fast as before. How much can these methods be adapted to gain innovation and creativity? It is appropriate going into other areas from which it can generate results. Gaudelius et al., (2002), are not really in support of structured instructional method, which cannot enhance progressive growth in art learning, unlikely to let down the strategy for driven needs to gain greater learning scale. Gaudelius et al., pointed out that teacher need to help learner experience the art as ‘’potentially transformative and to live the possibility of metaphorically of being carried away’’ . Hence given directions initially has a potential chest out for skill acquisition. Learners are actually keen to invest in their learning process. They could actually gain more competence running a huge level of comprehension of new ideas. Also, they could desire to explore all kinds of ways to develop their creative abilities and orientation towards other domains, so long they are following and doing what the instruction demanded. Taking advantage derived from free play style learning process, the learner thinks what to execute, the role and not only the opportunity but often appreciate. Children show confidence as well as establish a straight-forward focus on interesting creative learning situation.
The researcher is of the opinion that there is always risk for structured creative learning process which attempt to sweep aside learner ability to think which ostensibly still largely prefered in most teaching and learning activities. Certainly, the researcher remarked both aspects of methods portray powerful learning experiences of creative advantages and not competition which tend to lead one dominant role and had such unique competitive protection in enhancing learning. It would be difficult challenge for any art educator to serve some many creative interests and interpretations as such. The researcher also, feel it is often wrongly assumed that controlled classroom is that success of creativity depends on the enterprise of the teacher.
This role is important and lead in managing the early beginning of the activity from the time and stood out even then was their ambition to be part of the activity and genuine desire to be successful. Within the interlude, learners came to the researcher and had what he may termed a clear strategy to ask various questions. Also, the researcher is not sure this is a good idea in view because there is a question as to whether you have the role as a researcher/teacher much at the same time to handle. The reason why the researcher considered not too successful is that it’s not improving functionality at the same moment, certainly not providing confidence in both learner and the learning process. What guided initiation method did is innovation and current order is not that different from the initial demonstration as against the free art learning process. The researcher felt the aspect of initiating the material and demonstration disrupted independent creative skill as learners have different ways to create and ambitions in marked contrast to acquiring knowledge from known senses.
Specific learning method is no longer the only mean through which making art could be achieved, and a feeling perhaps of a little slighted attitude shift towards other means of enhancing art teaching and learning activity.
Art continue to be significantly important in term of creativity, most essentially at all levels of studies. Probably, it was fascinating period the researcher had with the children because there is needed to recognize certain methods are more helpful in arresting attention, interaction than the other. If it means moving forward with things and that is possible to avoid any obstacle. Children reflect creative life. According to Arnold, H. (1892-1978) ‘’art is usually in some way about life, that it is something which enable us to cope better’’ a grass root progress as a result of their enthusiasms and perseverance, the activity aroused with its’ encouraging team work and optimism.
The different instructions applied were manageable, creative, practical and responded to the need of the research, learners’ engagement, and diversity. All choices of art materials presented satisfy the expectation, condition of learning and to make available time, equally respected by the children. The strategy employed to provide space for the art workshop, each activities were unique in carrying out the research schedules and final realization of the project.
While it came a moment to resist the urge to become only prescriptive by instructing the children on what action to take, there was a focus on the need to make extra motivation of the children and remove barriers to creative development. Instruction remain mean of effective teaching with clear statements about the purpose, or aim and the rational for gaining new skill. Demonstration and explanation with procedure for children to understand, grasp and participate in art activity are essential.
Learner capability to figure out the interesting outcome through participation, discussion, display of work and critique with outstanding means or indicator of creative experience.
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The research was carried out, courtesy of Saint Joseph Rebels Youth football club, (Lea grave) LUTON.
Final artworks of both instructional and non-instructional methods: