Task 1 Criteria for Selection of Material for Automobile
Task 1.1. Requirements of the materials in automotive design is:
1. Light Weight
2. Economic effectiveness
Task 1.2. Metal (Aluminum) (Pooyan Nayyeri, n.d.)
• Use of aluminum can potentially reduce the weight of the vehicle body.
• Its low density and high specific energy absorption performance and good specific strength are its most important properties.
• Aluminum is also resistance to corrosion. But according to its low modulus of elasticity, it cannot substitute steel parts and therefore those parts need to be re-engineered to achieve the same mechanical strength, but still aluminum offers weight reduction.
Task 1.3. Composite (Carbon-fiber Epoxy Composite) (Pooyan Nayyeri, n.d.)
• Most recently, the most of the racing car companies much more rely on composites form whether it would be plastic composites, Kevlar and most importantly carbon-fiber epoxy composition.
• It is because the composite structures is the high strength/low weight ratio.
• The most common materials used for racing cars are carbon (graphite), Kevlar and glass fibers.
• Epoxy composites have been the first choice in Formula 1 car industries and other race cars.
Task 1.4. Polymer (PBT) (SZETEIOVÁ, n.d.)
• Polybutylene terephthalate has good chemical resistance and electrical properties, hard and tough material with water absorption, very good resistance to dynamic stress, thermal and dimension stability.
• Easy to manufacture – fast crystallization, fast cooling.
• Application: foglamp housings and bezels, sun-roof front parts, locking system housings, door handles, bumpers, carburetor components.
Task 1.5. Ceramic (Aluminium-Metal Matrix Composite (AMC)) (Maleque, et al., 2010)
• Aluminium alloy based metal matrix composites (MMCs) with ceramic particulate reinforcement have shown great promise for brake rotor applications.
• These materials having a lower density and higher thermal conductivity as compared to the conventionally used gray cast irons are expected to result in weight reduction of up to 50-60% in brake systems.
Task 2 Microstructure and Macroscopic Behavior
Task 2.1. Metal (Aluminum)
• Aluminum is a soft, silvery metal with a face-centered cubic crystal structure, a hallmark of ductile metals.
Figure 1 Microstructure of Aluminum (Voort, n.d.)
• The electrical conductivity of 99.99% pure aluminium at 200 C is 63.8% of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS)
• Lightness is the outstanding and best known characteristic of aluminium. The metal has an atomic weight of 26.98 and a specific gravity of 2.70, approximately one-third the weight of other commonly used metals. (Cobden, et al., n.d.)
Task 2.2 Composite (Carbon-fiber Epoxy Composite)
Figure 2 Microstructure of Carbon Fibre Epoxy Composite
Figure 3 Macroscopic Behavior
Task 2.3. Polymer (PBT)
Figure 4 Microstructure of PBT
Figure 5 Bending moment-Displacement Curve of PBT
Task 2.4. Ceramic (Silicon Nitride)
Figure 6 Microstructure of Silicon Nitride
Figure 7 Stress-Strain Curve of Silicon Nitride
Task 3 External Document
• Experiment had been done in Omega Lab. The results are attached as an external document with the assignment.
Task 4 Manufacturing of Simple Shoe
1st source Google
Figure 8 Manufacturing Cycle of Shoe
2nd source shoesbuddy.net
3. Pulling Over
4. Chain Stitching
5. Out Sewing
6. Edge Grinding
3rd source teaonline.com
A footwear company has mainly four departments in which a progressive route is followed for producing finished shoes. These are- Clicking or Cutting Department, Closing or Machining Department, Lasting & Making Department, Finishing Department and the Shoe Room.
1) Clicking or cutting department 3) Lasting Department
2) Closing or Machining Department 4)Finishing Department & The Shoe Room
From the all the above three sources, 3rd source explains the procedure in a best and compact manner.
Hence, 3rd source is preferable.
Task 5 Powerpoint Presentation
• Presentation had been done in the classroom.
Task 6 External Document
• Experiment had been done in Omega Lab. The results are attached as an external document with the assignment.
Task 7 Treatment of Steel
Task 7.1. Tempering Of Steel (Anon., n.d.)
• Tempering steel is the process where an already hardened or normalized steel part is heated to a temperature below the lower critical temperature and cooled at a controlled rate to the increase the ductility and toughness.
• Steel is tempered by reheating after hardening to obtain specific mechanical properties and also to relieve quenching stresses and to reduce dimensional instability.
• Tempering usually follows quenching from above the upper critical temperature; however tempering is also used to relieve the stresses and reduce the hardness developed during welding and to relieve stresses induced by forming and machining. (Anon., 2000-2016)
Task 7.1 Normalizing Of Steel (Anon., n.d.)
• Normalizing heat treatment process is heating a steel above the critical temperature, holding a period of time long enough for transformation to occur, and air cooling.
• Normalized heat treatment establishes a more uniform carbide size and distribution which facilitates later heat treatment operations and produces a more uniform final product.
Task 7.2 Austenitizing of Steel (Anon., n.d.)
• Austenitizing heat treatment is heating a steel above the critical temperature, holding for a period of time long enough for transformation to occur.
• The material will be hardened if austenitizing is followed by quenching at a rate that is fast enough to transform the austenite into martensite.
Task 8.1 Liquid Processing of Steel (Hot Chamber Die Casting)
• The operating sequence of the hot-chamber standard die casting process is as follows:
1) The die is closed and the piston rises, opening the port, allowing molten steel to fill the cylinder.
2) Next, the plunger seals the port, pushing the molten steel through the gooseneck and nozzle into the die cavity where it is held under pressure until it solidifies.
3) The die opens and the cores, if any, retract. The casting remains in only one die half – the ejector side. The plunger then returns, allowing residual molten steel to flow back through the nozzle and gooseneck.
4) Ejector pins push the casting out of the ejector die. As the plunger uncovers the filling hole, molten steel flows through the inlet to refill the gooseneck.
Task 8.2 Mechanical Processing of Steel
Task 8.2.1 Welding of Steel (Anon., n.d.)
• Steel is basically Iron and Carbon with small amounts of other stuff like manganese.
• Welding steel most often done using:
a) Stick welding, also called arc welding, also called SMAW,(shielded metal arc welding)
b) Mig welding, also called, wire welding, also called GMAW, (gas metal arc welding)
c) Tig welding, also called heliarc welding, also called GTAW, (gas tungsten arc welding)
• Stick welding uses stick electrodes with flux baked on them. Stick welding is used on the farm, and on construction sites and in the field like on a pipeline. It still rules as the most commonly used type of welding in the world.
• Mig welding is used for fabrication, manufacturing, and for body shops.
• Tig welding is used extensively for pipe welding, aerospace, aviation, biomedical implants, fabrication of race cars, choppers, etc. It is much more precise and cleaner than mig welding or stick welding and definitely the coolest.
Task 8.2.2 Power Processing of Steel (Anon., n.d.)
• At present there are two basically different production methods which together account for more than 90% of the world production of steel powders, viz. the Höganäs sponge-steel process and the water-atomizing process.
Figure 15 Höganäs water atomizing process
Task 9 Changing Properties of Materials
Task 9.1 Metal alloy (Steel) (Terence Bell, 2015)
• In essence, steel is composed of iron and carbon, although it is the amount of carbon, as well as the level of impurities and additional alloying elements that determines the properties of each steel grade.
• The carbon content in steel can range from 0.1-1.5%, but the most widely used grades of steel contain only 0.1-0.25% carbon.
• Austenitic: Austenitic steels are non-magnetic and non-heat-treatable, and generally contain 18% chromium, 8% nickel and less than 0.8% carbon. Austenitic steels form the largest portion of the global stainless steel market and are often used in food processing equipment, kitchen utensils and piping.
• Martensitic: Martensitic steels contain 11-17% chromium, less than 0.4% nickel and up to 1.2% carbon. These magnetic and heat-treatable steels are used in knives, cutting tools, as well as dental and surgical equipment.
Task 9.2 Polymer (Nathan, n.d.)
• Since many polymers are made of long, flexible chains, they become easily tangled, much like a bowl of cooked spaghetti. The disordered tangling of the polymer chains create what is known as an amorphous structure. Amorphous polymers are typically transparent and much easier to melt to make materials like kitchen cling film.
• Polymer chains do not always form amorphous arrangements. Under proper conditions, such as stretching, the polymer chains can line up side by side to form orderly, crystalline arrangements. Crystalline arrangements in polymers can also be achieved through slow cooling, where individual polymer chains fold over on themselves.
• Polymers can also be used to create huge 3-dimensional networks. These networks are made through the reaction of monomers with more than two possible sites for the polymerization to occur. The multiple reaction sites allow for the different chains to connect with each other to form cross-linked chains. The result of the cross-linked chains is a 3-dimensional solid that is essentially one huge molecule.
Task 9.3 Polymer Matrix Composite (Anon., n.d.)
• The matrix properties determine the resistance of the PMC to most of the degradative processes that eventually cause failure of the structure. These processes include impact damage, delamination, water absorption, chemical attack, and high-temperature creep. Thus, the matrix is typically the weak link in the PMC structure.
• The matrix phase of commercial PMCs can be classified as either thermoset or thermoplastic.
• Thermosetting resins include polyesters, vinylesters, epoxies, bismaleimides, and polyamides. Thermosetting polyesters are commonly used in fiber-reinforced plastics, and epoxies make up most of the current market for advanced composites resins.
• Thermoplastic resins, sometimes called engineering plastics, include some polyesters, poly – etherimide, polyamide imide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether-etherketone (PEEK), and liquid crystal polymers. They consist of long, discrete molecules that melt to a viscous liquid at the processing temperature, typically 500” to 700” F (260° to 3710 C), and, after forming, are cooled to an amorphous, semicrystalline, or crystalline solid.
Task 10 Manufacturing of PET Bottles (Anon., n.d.)
• Manufacturing Process& Technology Production of PET Preforms and PET Bottles involves the conversion of PET Granules to Preforms and later converting to PET Bottles through moulding process. The step wise production process is explained in the following process flow diagram:
Injection Blow Moulding Process
• The technology/Machinery required for manufacturing of the Pet Bottles are three Nos. of Injection Molding Machines, one Color mixer, one Chilling Water plant, a Scrap Grinder and a Centralized Pulley laminating and printing machine.
Task 11 Effect of Functions in Product due to material constraints (Mohr, et al., 2012)
• Rapid growth in emerging markets is causing a dramatic increase in demand for resources, and supplies of many raw materials have become more difficult to secure. Commodity prices are likely to continue to rise and will remain volatile. Manufacturers are already feeling the effects in their operations and bottom lines, and these challenges will persist, if not intensify.
• Between 2000 and 2010, for instance, the variable costs of one Western steel company rose from 50 to 70 percent of its total production expenses, mainly due to jumps in commodity prices.
• Between 2000 and 2010, for instance, the variable costs of one Western steel company rose from 50 to 70 percent of its total production expenses, mainly due to jumps in commodity prices. For one Chinese steel company, 90 percent of production costs are now variable. And for a manufacturer of LCD televisions, energy represents 45 percent of the total cost of production.
• Companies that take steps to increase resource productivity could unlock significant value, minimizing costs while establishing greater operational stability. Manufacturers could reduce the amount of energy they use in production by 20 to 30 percent. They could also design their products to reduce material use by 30 percent while increasing their potential for recycling and reuse.
• Over the past decade, supplies of various natural resources have become scarcer, and thus more expensive and subject to price volatility, increasing manufacturers’ costs and risks. Nevertheless, the changing resource landscape also creates opportunities. To capture them, companies must embark on a journey to transform their operations and dramatically increase resource productivity. They will have to dedicate as much effort to optimizing resources in the future as they did to lean and other improvement initiatives in the past, while at the same time rethinking their business models to capture the value residing in resource ownership. If they get it right, the effort will enable them to increase the stability of supply and manage their costs while developing new products— and even lines of business—that generate sustainable bottom-line value.
Task 12 Lathe Machine Parts
• Who could ever think of manufacturing metals and other materials like wood and plastic without the lathe machine? Since the lathe machine is an important tool used in the machining process, which is an integral process in the manufacturing technology, it is just fitting to learn about it. (Jaychris, 2010)
• The most widely used cast iron, it is brittle with low tensile strength and is used in the manufacturing of engine cylinder blocks, flywheels, gears and many machine-tool bases. (Ajay Bhardwaj, n.d.)
Bed of Lathe Machine (Ajay Bhardwaj, n.d.)
o Grey cast iron has following properties due to which it is best suitable for lathe machine bed.
a) High Compressive Strength
This strength is defined by the endurance of any metal or alloy to withstand its compressive forces. Grey Cast Iron has a high compressive strength and that’s why, it is widely used in posts and columns of buildings. In addition, their compressive strength can be as high as that of some Mild Steels.
b) Tensile Strength
There are different varieties of Grey Cast Iron and their tensile strength varies accordingly. Some varieties show the tensile strength of 5 tons per square inch, some show 19, but on an average their strength is 7 tons per square inch. However, addition of vanadium can increase the strength of Grey Cast Iron.
c) Resistance to Deformation
Grey Cast Iron is highly resistant to deformation and provides a rigid frame.
d) Low Melting Point
Grey Cast Iron has low melting point – 1140 ºC to 1200 ºC.
e) Resistance to Oxidation
Grey Cast Iron is highly resistant to rust, which is formed by the reaction of oxygen and Iron. It is a perfect solution to avoid the problem of corrosion.
Task 13 Engine Manufacturing
The engine production process is made up of seven separate sections:
a) High Pressure Die Casting
b) Low Pressure Die Casting
c) Machining And Tooling
d) Engine Assembly
e) Engine Material Service
f) Engine Quality
• Safety and the Environment are now an integral part of any company’s business operations.
• A healthy, safe and environmentally responsible workplace and workforce is vital to us, and to achieve it every company should operate all aspects of their business in compliance with the stated policies and procedures. (Anon., n.d.)
Task 14 Criteria, Materials and Process for Manufacturing Crankshaft
• The crankshaft is located in the engine of a vehicle and converts the force created by the engine’s pistons moving up and down into a force that moves the wheels in a circular motion so the car can go forward.
• The steel alloys typically used in high strength crankshafts have been selected for what each designer perceives as the most desirable combination of properties.
• Medium-carbon steel alloys are composed of predominantly the element iron, and contain a small percentage of carbon (0.25% to 0.45%, described as ‘25 to 45 points’ of carbon), along with combinations of several alloying elements, the mix of which has been carefully designed in order to produce specific qualities in the target alloy, including hardenability, nitridability, surface and core hardness, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, endurance limit (fatigue strength), ductility, impact resistance, corrosion resistance, and temper-embrittlement resistance.
• The alloying elements typically used in these carbon steels are manganese, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, cobalt, vanadium, and sometimes aluminium and titanium.
• Each of those elements adds specific properties in a given material. The carbon content is the main determinant of the ultimate strength and hardness to which such an alloy can be heat treated.
• Nominal Percentages of Alloying Elements
Material AMS C Mn Cr Ni Mo Si V
4340 6414 0.40 0.75 0.82 1.85 0.25
EN-30B 0.30 0.55 1.20 4.15 0.30 0.22
4330-M 6427 0.30 0.85 0.90 1.80 0.45 0.30 0.07
32-CrMoV-13 6481 0.34 0.55 3.00 <0.30 0.90 0.25 0.28
300-M 6419 0.43 0.75 0.82 1.85 0.40 1.70 0.07
Key: C = Carbon Mn = Manganese Cr = Chromium Ni = Nickel
Mo = Molybdenum Si = Silicon V = Vanadium AMS = Aircraft Material spec number
• CRANKSHAFT MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
o Crankshafts at the upper end of the motorsport spectrum are manufactured from billet. Billet crankshafts are fully machined from a round bar (“billet”) of the selected material (as shown in figure).
o This method of manufacture provides extreme flexibility of design and allows rapid alterations to a design in search of optimal performance characteristics. In addition to the fully-machined surfaces, the billet process makes it much easier to locate the counterweights and journal webs exactly where the designer wants them to be.
Figure 18 Billet Manufacturing Process
o This process involves demanding machining operations, especially with regard to counterweight shaping and undercutting, rifle-drilling main and rod journals, and drilling lubrication passages.
o The availability of multi-axis, high-speed, high precision CNC machining equipment has made the carved-from-billet method quite cost-effective, and, together with exacting 3D-CAD and FEA design methodologies, has enabled the manufacture of extremely precise crankshafts which often require very little in the way of subsequent massaging for balance purposes. (Anon., n.d.)
Task 15 Manufacturing of Flywheel
• The purpose of a flywheel is to provide the inertia necessary to smooth out potentially large variations in engine speed between combustion events.
• Because the flywheel helps maintain revolving inertia throughout its cycles, the weight of the flywheel must be equally dispersed throughout the radius. Therefore the center of the flywheel must be very precise, so that as the crankshaft turns there is not a change in inertia due to the flywheel. The flywheel must have a perfectly circular circumference.
• The flywheel begins being manufactured by die-casting. This involves the hot chamber process which casts the flywheel use large amounts of pressure and temperature using a single-cavity die. The die contains two pieces, the first half of the die contains the cavity for the main body, and this forms the teeth around the wheel.
• Die-casting is a century old process of injecting molten metal into a steel die under high pressure. The metal, either aluminum, zinc, magnesium and sometimes copper, is held under pressure until it solidifies into a net shape metal part.
• In modern applications, using computerized controls, die casters produce precision and high-strength products at a rapid production rate. No other metal casting processes allow for a greater variety of shapes, intricacy of design or closer dimensional tolerance.
• Die-casting is similar to permanent mold casting except that the metal is injected into the mold under high pressure of 10-210 Mpa. This results in a more uniform part, generally good surface finish and good dimensional accuracy, as good as 0.2% of casting dimension.
• The second half of the die contains a protrusions creating the center hole and holes for it to connect to the crankshaft. Creating the holes during the casting process eliminates a drilling process and saves valuable time and money.
• The two halves of the die connect at the top of the flywheel surface. Once this process is complete the piece then needs to be reamed.
• The reaming of the center hole and five surrounding holes, this allows for a better fit and tighter tolerances. (Feng, et al., 2002)
Task 16 Common Causes of In-service Failure
Failure may be defined as a component or structure that is no longer able to perform its design function. Things that fail in service do so because the limitations of the material have been exceeded. This may lead to fracture, yielding, distortion, wear, corrosion and so on. This may be due to the following reasons:
• Design Fault – for example stress raising features like undercuts.
• Wrong Selection of Material – for example choosing a material that corrodes
• Processing Problems – for example machining marks that act as stress raisers and defects in welds.
• Defects in Material – for example slag inclusions that act as stress raisers.
• Assembly Errors – for example over tightening of a screw placing residual stress in the component.
• Improper Service Conditions – for example degradation due to the corrosion or temperature. The component/structure will have a design service life and this may be increased by suitable treatment during its service life. On the other hand the service life may be reduced because of lack of treatment or repair to damage.
• Overloading – for example lifting loads beyond the design limit and over pressurization of containers.
• Abuse – for example using something for other than its intended purpose like using a screw driver as a chisel.
Task 17 Preventive Measures to Improve Service Life of Car Wheels
When a bearing is cooling off after use, the contracting metal, air, and lubricant can create a vacuum that is hopefully held by the seals. If the seals can’t hold the vacuum, the bearing or sealed hub unit will suck in outside air, debris and water.
In some parts of the country that use salt on the roads, it is almost as bad as ocean water on wheel bearings.
As these contaminants circulate through the grease and between the races and bearings, the components wear and possibly change their metallurgy.
Once a bearing is worn, the wear rate is accelerated by seals that no longer keep out contaminants, and increased heat may breakdown and eventually expel the lubricants leading to catastrophic failure.
When a baring wears out, it is usually a case of inadequate lubrication, faulty installation or improper adjustment. (AASA, n.d.)
Task 18 Failures Due To Creep & Fatigue Load (Arun M. Gokhle, n.d.)
• ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing, and service is an essential engineering process for continual improvement in product reliability.
• The failure investigation should include gaining an acquaintance with all pertinent details relating to the failure, collecting the available information regarding the design, manufacture, processing, and service histories of the failed component or structure, and reconstructing, insofar as possible, the sequence of events leading to the failure.
• Establishing the origin of a fracture is essential in failure analysis, and the location of the origin determines which measures should be taken to prevent a repetition of the fracture. The fracture-surface characteristics that show the direction of crack propagation (and conversely, the direction toward the origin) include features such as chevron marks, crack branching, and river patterns. Features that help identify the crack origin include concentric fibrous marks, radial marks, and beach marks. By a study of these features, crack progress can be traced back to the point of origin, and then it can be ascertained whether the crack was initiated by an inclusion, a porous region, a segregated phase, a corrosion pit, a machined notch, a forging lap, a nick, a mar, or another type of discontinuity, or was simply the result of overloading. However, time employed in ascertaining all the circumstances of a failure is extremely important.
• To proceed without forethought may destroy important evidence and waste time. Some of the questions that should be raised concerning the nature, history, functions, and properties of the fractured part, and the manner in which it interacts with other parts, are:
Were the nature, rate, and magnitude of the applied load correctly anticipated in the design of the part? Were repeated or cyclic loadings involved? What was the direction of the principal stress relative to the shape of the part? Were residual stresses present to an undesirable degree?
Was the recommended alloy used? Were its mechanical properties at the level expected? Were surface or internal discontinuities present that could have contributed to failure? Did the microstructure conform to that prescribed?
Did the part comply with all pertinent dimensional requirements of the specification? Did the part have sufficient section thickness to prevent local overloading? Were fillets formed with sufficiently large radii? Were there adequate clearances between interacting parts? Were any of the contours deformed during service? Was there evidence of mechanical surface damage?
Was the part exposed to a corrosive environment or to excessively high or low temperatures? Was the surface of the part suitably protected? Were the properties of the part altered by the exposure? Was there interaction (for example, galvanic) between the material of the part and that of adjacent components?
• Examination of a fracture begins with visual scrutiny, which establishes:
Whether there is gross evidence of mechanical abuse •
Whether there are indications of excessive corrosion •
Whether the part is deformed •
Whether there are obvious secondary fractures •
Whether the origin of the crack can be readily identified •
Whether the direction of crack propagation can be easily recognized
Task 19 Preventive Measures To Increase Service Life Of Breaks (Carley, n.d.)
Preventive maintenance may be a dirty subject in some people’s minds, but it’s a perfectly acceptable and politically correct means of keeping vehicles in good running condition. Checking fluid levels regularly and changing the fluids and filters periodically can minimize the risks of breakdowns and prolong the life of the engine, transmission, cooling system and brakes.
Brake fluid is hygroscopic and absorbs moisture over time. After two or more years of service, it can become badly contaminated with moisture. This lowers its boiling point up to 25% (which may contribute to pedal fade if the brakes overheat). It also promotes internal rust and corrosion that can damage calipers, wheel cylinders and anti-lock brake system components. Though the vehicle manufacturers have no requirements for changing the fluid, many brake experts say changing the fluid every two years for preventive maintenance would greatly prolong the life of the hydraulic components in the brake system and improve safety.
Changes aside, the fluid level should be checked periodically to make sure it isn\’t low. The fluid level in the master cylinder will gradually drop as the brake linings wear, but a sudden drop usually means a leak and a possible loss of hydraulic pressure.
Make sure you use the correct type of brake fluid for your vehicle. Most domestic and Japanese passenger car and light truck applications require DOT 3 fluid, but most European and some domestic performance cars require higher temperature DOT 4 fluid. DOT 5 silicone fluid is not recommended for any vehicle with ABS brakes.
Task 20 Gantt Chart
Figure 19 Gantt Chart Table
Figure 20 Gantt Chart Table
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