Camcorder is a mechatronic system which is a combination of mechanical, electrical, and computer components Camcorders have three major components — a lens that gathers and focuses light, an imager that converts light into an electrical signal and a recorder that converts electrical signals into digital video and encodes them for storage.
Camcorder plays an important role in capturing a life event. It is used most commonly in today’s generation.
Camcorder consist of sensors, in automatic camcorder the mechanical parts will be motorized like lens zooming, autofocusing, electrical components like switches, motors, computer components like processer, software, CPU, memory, etc. some camcorders have image stabilizer which uses mechanical parts which is operated by electrical motor, and electrical motor is controlled by a computer that takes commands from sensors, for positioning of the image.
Camcorders is largely used in daily life entertainment, it contributes participation in the film industry,
It is use by cinematographer for capturing a movie. Though it is used in different field by combination of more than two of it to get result, it main function is to record, in today’s worlds it is used in different ways to bring out best results, with innovations.
It gives its specification to be fully reliable. It gives its performance according to user’s usage like if the user is a professional then the performance would be reliable according to it. Though every fewer times it may not do it job because of its external storage, its third party components is not reliable. Including recording and software malfunctioning.
Coffee vending machine. (Richard S. Figliola, n.d.)
Coffeemakers or coffee machines are cooking appliances used to brew coffee. While there are many different types of coffeemakers using a number of different brewing principles.
The entire system works based on the application of electronic, mechanical and electrical system.
a. Electronic system:
The electronic part of the system includes the microcontroller with the integrated chips so as to perform the processing of the system.
The microcontroller is used for the entire processing and is coded using the software “embedded C” program. Each and every part of the entire system has been controlled by the microcontroller. This include the sensing of the reception of the genuine currency coin through the coin inlet, deciding the quantity and type of coffee to be delivered, instructing the electrical motor to deliver exactly the number of paper, to be delivered.
b. Mechanical system: (R. S. Khurmi & J. K. Gupta., 2015)
The mechanical part of the system includes the working mechanism. The mechanical components include the coffee cup picker, shaft, bearings, gears, etc. This includes the power transmission from the motor to the delivery of the coffee parcel out of the automatic coffee vending machine. The fabrication of the base and structure of the entire machine has also comes under the mechanical work. The fabrication of the steel casing is done by using welding and riveting process, as required. c. Electrical system:
The system including the wiring and connection of motor, and the main supply unit which supply electricity to different part of the machine to work it properly.
This machines are often used in places like airports, IT Companies, malls, workstations, Busy streets, metropolitan cities, where man force is not that avail or place which is highly development.
These machines according to the latest technology is most reliable and work according to their programed system, because they are operated by computers, as they work according to the computer program bugs and errors may occur, due to imperfection in coin or notes because of wear and tear sometimes the system may not detect the coin or note. And cannot give the optimum result. So reliability depends on the age of the machine.
Task 2(a) CNC machine reliability and performance. (Alan S. Brown, 2011)
Computer Numerical control is the automation of machine tools that are operated by precisely programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone. Most NC today is computer (or computerized) numerical control (CNC), in which computers play an integral part of the controller.
In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine by use of a post processor, and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools – drills, saws, etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single “cell”. In other installations, a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In either case, the series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design.
This machine is replacing lathe, miller or shaper machines because of it precision, automation and remotely controller.
Possibilities in CNC machine compared to normal.
• Motion is controlled along multiple axes, normally at least two (X and Y) and a tool spindle that moves in the Z (depth). The position of the tool is driven by direct-drive stepper motor or servo motors in order to provide highly accurate movements, or in older designs, motors through a series of step down gears. Open-loop control works as long as the forces are kept small enough and speeds are not too great. On commercial metalworking machines, closed loop controls are standard and required in order to provide the accuracy, speed, and repeatability demanded.
• But in normal machines man force is needed for changing directions for multiaxial job. And every now and then operator has to change the fittings of the machine, which is time consuming.
• As the controller hardware evolved, the mills themselves also evolved. One change has been to enclose the entire mechanism in a large box as a safety measure, often with additional safety interlocks to ensure the operator is far enough from the working piece for safe operation. Most new CNC systems built today are 100% electronically controlled. Which also ensures precision and reliability.
• As normal lathe and miller are not electronically power, man force is needed which also does not ensure in safety operations. And is not reliable and precise.
CNC-like systems are now used for any process that can be described as a series of movements and operations. These include laser cutting, welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding, flame and plasma cutting, bending, spinning, hole-punching, pinning, gluing, fabric cutting, sewing, tape and fibre placement, routing, picking and placing, and sawing.
Task 2(b) the benefit and development process of mechatronic laboratory apparatus.
A multimeter is used to make various electrical measurements, such as AC and DC voltage, AC and DC current, and resistance. It is called a multimeter because it combines the functions of a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter. Multimeters may also have other functions, such as diode and continuity tests.
It flows a system of electrical, electronics, digital, and computer(plc) it is with maximum resolution levels from 5½ to 8½ digits and basic accuracy levels down to 0.0010%, there’s sure to be that it delivers the combination of speed, accuracy, and flexibility your application demands.
Limitation solved by digital multimeter.
Now because of mechatronic measuring instruments more precise readings and the chance of error are less compared to normal instruments, calculation are also error free and precise and has more accuracy with less management of time.
Digital calliper (matt, 2010)
The Digital Calliper (sometimes incorrectly called the Digital Vernier Calliper) is a precision instrument that can be used to measure internal and external distances extremely accurately. Earlier versions of this type of measuring instrument had to be read by looking carefully at the imperial or metric scale and there was a need for very good eyesight in order to read the small sliding scale. Digital callipers are easier to use as the measurement is clearly displayed
Limitation for normal callipers to digital calliper.
Digital callipers don’t have any rack/pinion/gear system. This makes them more shock-proof which we like.
Digital callipers can also easily convert from inches to mm and back which we really like since a lot of electronics is mixed-units.
Normally easier to read. Especially important as your eyesight diminishes getting older! But, possibly important to some users, the typical LCD display is difficult or impossible to read in direct sunlight or bright daylight. Instant read, so faster to use (particularly when compared to Vernier callipers).
More accurate than dial or Vernier, sort of. Disregard what you hear to the contrary, they are more accurate in practice than dial callipers; this isn’t to do with the build accuracy or better machining of the gearing, it’s simply a by-product of the digital display of the measurement (to two or three, sometimes even four decimal places). Re-zero function at any opening size allows easier comparison measurements (both positive and negative).
They are retain the basic marked scales that a Vernier calliper has, and the housing for the digital display is deliberately sized do that you can use its edge to read the measure.
Task 3(a) comparing mechatronic weighing machine with ordinary weighing machine.
The extent to which a given measurement agrees with the standard value for that measurement the ability of a scale to provide a result that is as close as possible to the actual value. Example, if a known calibration standard weight of 100.000 grams was placed on the SciTech SP250 and the display shows 100.002 grams we could say the accuracy of the balance is 0.002 grams or 2 milligrams. Accuracy tells how close a balance gets to the real value.
The accuracy of the scale is very sensitive to the calibration process. But in an ordinary weighing machine it displays 100.87 grams, which shows the difference of both the mechatronic weighing has an accuracy of +/_0.002 But for ordinary the scale goes quit more with is less precise and can’t be used for precise weighing.
Key point comparing both weighing machine. (Development)
• Development process digital weighing machine has given a correction settings with can be altered according to the +/_ of the display showing.
• Some of them comes with a glass casing to ignore the effect of air in the weighing system.
• Accuracy in the digital weighing machine is more as compare to ordinary weighing machine.
• The working principle of digital weighing machine is that its works on the principle of strain gauges.
• That is when minute load is applied on strain gauges it is detected and interpreted so it is more accurate because it can detect variation in microns.
• In case of conventional it’s not that much accurate working.
Application of digital weighing machine
It is used in places such as gold or jewellery maker who needs an accurate weighing system because of the expensiveness of the material he has to be precise of the weighing.
It is also used for laboratory purpose where a correct amount of reactant or material is use for experiment
Welding operational robot.
• Peripherals reamers, wire cutters, neck inspection tools and clutches or solid mounts are all additional equipment that can protect the robotic welding system investment, maximize its effectiveness and reduce costs.
• To protect consumables against costly damage before even placing them on the robotic MIG gun, it is important to employ proper storage and handling practices.
• Preventive maintenance (PM) is another critical way to save money on robotic welding, primarily by preventing unscheduled downtime, poor quality parts and/or costly repairs. It can even help prevent failures that require equipment replacements. The robot, as well as the robotic MIG gun, consumables and cables can all benefit.
• To prevent problems like bird-nesting (a tangle of wire in the drive rolls) or poor wire feeding both issues that lead to downtime and added costs it is important to select the right MIG gun liner and install it properly.
RELIABILITY & EFFICIENCY
• A reliable estimate of the total loss of productivity in construction work due to harsh ambient conditions requires a thorough analysis of the meteorological data – temperature, humidity, precipitation and wind velocity and its changes throughout the year and the working day, in the various geographical regions.
• Robotic welding is commercially available and used vehicle manufacturing. This application can and should be include robotic welding.
• Another way automotive robots have changed the industry is by meeting industry expectations.
• Robots used in the auto industry can complete not just one task but a variety of tasks such as painting, welding, finishing, and many more.
• They are capable of being programmed to perform intricate jobs like welding. New industry standards call for lighter cars, but with this comes the need for tighter welding.
• This can only be accomplished through robots to ensure there is no rattling (another industry standard) and that the vehicle is safe,
• Robotic is key in producing new, advanced, and high quality cars.as industry repeatability specifications become more precise, robots are meeting them at faster speeds making them more efficient than humans.
ASSEBLING ROBOT (Warszawski, 2015)
Robots are used in the automobile industry to assist in building car. These high powered machine have mechanical arms with tools, wheels and sensors that make them ideal for assembly line jobs.
Development costs – include all expenses associated with labour, materials and facilities used for researching, testing and evaluating of the various alternatives of robotic solutions. The development costs, if incurred by the private sector, are included in the ultimate price of the product. If
they are financed by the public resources – can be justified by indirect benefits accrued to the society both in terms of general productivity increase , and of applied and basic knowledge acquired during the development process.
• Not only do robots save more money in manufacturing costs, but they also perform tough task at a pace no human
Robot also make car manufacturing safer because they can take on dangerous and difficult job in place humans.
• Automotive industry robot are capable of performing a wide range of task such as installation, painting and welding.
• Most construction work is carried out outdoors, and its productivity is there for very much affected by the prevailing weather conditions.
• Surface mounted device are particularly relevant for assembly by robots.
• These devices differ from the conventional electronic components because they do not have long wire lead which contact to the broad of the PWB. The conventional component lead are inserted through drill hole.
• In a production plant for complex assembled products there could be up to several hundred robots used for handling and joining operations. Thus, improvements in robot motion can have a huge impact on equipment utilization and energy consumption.
• By combining recent algorithms for collision free numerical optimal control and for optimal sequencing.
• The algorithm has been successfully applied to several industrial cases demonstrating that the proposed method can be used effectively in practical applications to find fast and energy efficient solution.
Cutting operational robot.
Investment costs – include depreciation and the interest on investment. The parameters which must be known for their assessment are the cost of new equipment, its economic life, the salvage value at disposal, and the interest charged on investment. The anticipated economic life of 5-10 years for industrial robots may be somewhat shorter for construction
Robots operating under rugged environment conditions.
• The conditional reliability estimation is extended to real-time applications using time-series analysis techniques to bridge the gap between physical measurement and reliability prediction.
• The model is based on empirical measurements, self-generating, and applicable to online applications.
• This approach has been demonstrated to the prototype level Physical performance is measured and forecast across time to estimate reliability. Time-series analysis is adapted to forecast performance.
Because of computer aided this machines are precise and take less time for a job
It is efficient for finishing and polishing applications, the parts are frequently smaller.
For these applications, robots from MH line are a good choice for the task.
Task4 identification of pre-installed mechatronic systems. (ukessays, 2015)
The ever-increasing demand for ‘intelligent’ safety features and heightened comfort in vehicles has led to a corresponding boom in mechatronics.
The mechatronic systems are reliable, accurate and have a very high efficiency especially in automobiles with electronic engine controls technology that enabled the on-impact triggering of airbags, evolution of sophisticated sensors, active and passive safety devices has predicted a record in car navigation system.
Some of the mechatronic system found are:
Automatic air conditioning and climate control system:
Air conditioning and climate control systems keep a constant, ideal temperature inside the car, ensuring to stay cool and comfortable at all times. The air conditioning system complements the heating and ventilation system in your car. It includes a cooling system, heating, humidity controller and blower unit. Climatronic regulates the temperature of the cabin based on the chosen temperature setting, adjusting the blower speed and operating the air distribution flaps automatically to ensure a pleasant interior climate in all conditions, with minimal draught as the air flows through the passenger compartment.
The Climatronic system’s electronic control monitors all the key factors, such as the position of the sun, the intensity of its rays and the outside temperature, and adds more or less cool air accordingly.
An air quality sensor and an anti-allergenic filter keep the air quality at a constantly high level and prevent the intrusion of harmful substances, including fungal spores and allergens. Because of the sensor and control system it is reliable and sustainable.
Electronic stability control:
These control system uses sophisticated sensors, the cars central computer and mechanical actions for a safe drive. The electronic stability control system doesn’t work by itself, it also uses the cars other safety and regulatory devices, to correct problems before they get into accidents.
Yaw control sensor:
This sensor is located as close as possible to the centre of the car. If the experiences a movement in vertical or side by side axis the Electronic stability system detects that car is swinging, as soon as it detects it activates the brake system and reduce the throttle to lower the speed. The sensor differentiates between the direction of the steering wheel and the direction the car is headed; the cars computer then makes necessary corrections to bring the vehicles direction of travel in line.
Power door locks:
In this system the door lock/unlock switch actually sends power to the actuators that unlock the door. In more complicated systems, the body controller decides when to do the unlocking. The body controller is similar to a computer which monitors all of the possible sources of locking and unlocking signal in a car. The system monitors the radio frequency and unlocks the doors when the correct digital code is received from the radio transmitter. When the actuator moves the latch up, it connects the outside door handle to the opening mechanism. When the latch is down, the outside door handle is disconnected from the mechanism so that it cannot be opened.
Mechatronic system used for safety.
Cruise control acceleration and deceleration:
The cruise control system controls the speed of a car by adjusting the throttle position. Instead of pressing a pedal, cruise control actuates the throttle valve by a cable connected to an actuator. The throttle valve controls the power and speed of the engine by limiting how much air the engine takes in. In Figure 3, you can see two cables connected to a pivot that moves the throttle valve. One cable comes from the accelerator panel, and another from the actuator. When the actuator is engaged, it adjusts the throttle by moving the cable connected to the pivot, when the cruise control system is engaged the pedal moves up and down since the actuator also pulls on the cable that is connected to the gas pedal.
System used for performance:
Car engine management:
Car engine management system consists of many electronic control systems involving microcontrollers, the engine control system being one, its aim is to control the amount of fuel to be injected into each cylinder, ignition, Engine revolution limit, turbochargers wastage control, variable cam timing and gear controls. The system consists of sensors supplying, after suitable signal conditioning, the input signals to the microcontroller and its providing output signals via drivers to actuate actuators. Figure: 1 shows some of these elements in relation to an engine.
The engine speed sensor is an inductive sensor, basically a toothed metal disk mounted on the crank shaft and stationary detector that functions to cover a magnetic coil through which the current passes through, as these metal teeth begins moving past the coil, the magnetic field is distracted and thus a wave of pulses in the current is created. The temperature sensor is usually a thermistor whose resistance varies according to the temperature. The mass air flow sensor may be a hot wire sensor, as air passes over a heated wire it will be cooled, the amount of cooling depending on the mass rate of flow. When temperature reaches more than 300 centigrade the sensor becomes permeable to oxygen ions and a voltage is induced between the electrodes.
Its sustainability dependents on the maintenance and life span of the sensors and control system.
For comfort mechanical system like air conditioning and climatic control are used.
Task 5 study report on self-driven vehicles.
An (driverless car, self-driving car, robotic car) autonomous car is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human contribution or participation.
Autonomous vehicles perceive surroundings using GPS, LIDAR, radar, Odometer, and computer vision. Advanced control systems construe sensory information to identify suitable navigation paths, as well as obstacles and applicable signage. Autonomous cars have control systems that are capable of analyzing sensory data to differentiate between different cars on the road, which is very beneficial in planning a path to the wanted destination.
Tesla Motors has recently commercialised driverless car technology by its autopilot system. Previous systems required the driver to uphold hands on the steering wheel whereas Tesla allows for periods of time without.
This system was employed 14 October 2015 in Tesla’s 7.0 software release. Another forthcoming system is Cadillac’s super cruise that will not necessitate the driver to uphold hands on the wheel.
An externally controlled vehicle (Epple, n.d.)
A Remote Control (Range Rover Sport) research vehicle demonstrates how a driver possibly will control the vehicle from outside the car through their smartphone. The smartphone app permits the driver to steer, accelerate and brake as well as changing from high and low range.
This would let the driver to walk alongside the car, at a highest speed of 4mph, to manoeuvre their car out of challenging circumstances safely, or even to negotiate hard-hitting off-road terrains.
The smartphone app also lets the driver to reverse the car out of a parking lot, if someone has parked too close for them to open the door.
The system uses sensors to assess accessible space and to avoid pedestrians, vehicles and other objects. It takes control over gear selection, steering, braking and acceleration to make as many forward and backwards movements as necessary to achieve the manoeuvre.
The major disadvantages are human contribution and control is in need and the wireless control is not always reliable because of third party involvement for the running of the app or wireless remote, it won’t be reliable.
Potential advantages of autonomous vehicle.
An increase in the use of autonomous cars would make possible such benefits as:
• Avoid traffic collisions prompted by human driver errors such as reaction time, tail gating, rubbernecking and other practises of distracted or destructive driving.
• Increased roadway capacity and reduced traffic congestion due to reduced essential for safety gaps and the ability to better achieve traffic flow.
• Relief of vehicle inhabitants from driving and navigation chores.
• Higher speed limit for autonomous cars.
• Elimination of constraints on occupants’ state – in an autonomous car, it would not matter if the occupants were under age, unlicensed, over age, distracted, blind, intoxicated, or else impaired.
• Reduction of physical space required for vehicle parking, and vehicles will be able to drive where space is not scarce.
• Decrease in the need for traffic police and premium on vehicle insurance.
• Reduction of physical road signage – autonomous cars could acquire necessary communication electronically (although physical signs may still be required for any human drivers).
• Smoother and even ride.
• Lessening in car theft, due to the vehicle’s increased awareness.
• Increased ergonomic flexibility in the cabin, due to the removal of the steering wheel and remaining driver interface, as well as no occupant needing to sit in a forward-facing position.