Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate for his sustenance and wellbeing ever since he came on the earth a few million years ago. Due to this a lot of energy resources have been exhausted and wasted. Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human locomotion is very much relevant and important for highly populated countries like India and China where the roads, railway stations, bus stands, temples, etc. are all over crowded and millions of people move around the clock.
This whole human/ bio-energy being wasted if it can be made possible for utilization it will be great invention and crowd energy farms will be very useful energy sources in crowded countries In this project we are generating electrical power as non-conventional method by simply walking or running on the foot step.
Nonconventional energy system is very essential at this time to our nation. Non-conventional energy using foot step is converting mechanical energy into the electrical energy. we have used the technique of power generation through footsteps as a source of renewable energy that we can obtained while walking on to the certain arrangements like footpaths, stairs, plate forms and these systems can be install elsewhere specially in the dense populated areas.
The basic working principle of our project “footstep power generation system” is based on the piezoelectric sensor. So in order to implement this foot step power generation system we adjust the wooden/tiles plates above and below the sensors and movable springs, when we walk on the mat than automatically force is applied and as a result produce electricity. As our main purpose was to charge the battery through DC output and then by inverting it into AC for normal common usage.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 11
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 13
2.1 INTRODUCTION OF HISTORY OF PIEZOELECTRICITY
2.2 WORKING OF PIEZOELECTRICITY
2.3 ADVANTAGES OF PIEZOELECTRICITY
2.4 DISADVANTAGES OF PIEZOELECTRICITY
2.5 APPLICATION OF PIEZOELECTRICITY
CHAPTER 3 COMPONENT USE OF PROJECT 16
3.1. PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR
3.2.1CD 4047 IC 3.2.2 TRANSISTOR 3.2.3 DIODE 3.2.4 CAPACITOR 3.2.6 TRANSFORMER 3.2.7 RESISTORS
CHAPTER 4 WORKING OF PROJECT 23 4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 5 ADVANTAGES AND DISASVANTAGES 25
CHAPTER 6 ADVANTAGES AND DISASVANTAGES 26
CHAPTER 7 APLLICATION 27
CHAPTER 8 DESIGN: ANALYSIS, DESIGN METHODOLOGY &IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 28
CHAPTER 9 REFRANCES 33
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. NO. TITLE
Fig 2.3.1 WORKING OF PIEZOELECTRICITY
Fig 3.1.1 PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR
Fig 3.2.1 BATTERY
Fig 3.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INVERTER
Fig 3.3.1 IC PIN DIAGRAMS
Fig 3.3.2 CAPACITOR
Fig 3.3.3 DIODE
Fig 3.3.4 TRANSFORMER
Fig 3.3.5 TRANSISTOR
Fig 4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Fig 7.1 AEIOU CANVAS
Fig 7.2 EMPATHY SUMMARY
Fig 7.3 IDEATION CANVAS
Fig 7.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS
CHAPTER – 1
To aim our project to generate the power using footsteps and piezoelectric material.
• Human-powered transport has been in existence since time immemorial in the form of walking, running and swimming. However modern technology has led to machines to enhance the use of human-power in more efficient manner. In this context, pedal power is an excellent source of energy and has been in use since the nineteenth century making use of the most powerful muscles in the body. Ninety-five percent of the exertion put into pedal power is converted into energy.
• Walking is the most common activity in day to day life. When a person walks, he loses energy to the road surface in the form of impact, vibration, sound etc., due to the transfer of his weight on to the road surface, through foot falls on the ground during every step. This energy can be tapped and converted in the usable form such as in electrical form.
• The power floor is not like traditional floor. The energy produced by this floor will be environment friendly without having smog. Producing this type of energy will be cost effective also. The power floor does not need any fuel or perhaps any sort of energy resource, simply making use of kinetic energy. Based upon your excess weight from a person moving on the floor
• Piezoelectricity is electrical energy produced from mechanical pressure, including motions such as walking. When pressure is applied to an object, a negative charge is produced on the expanded side and a positive charge on the compressed side. Once the pressure is relieved, electrical current flows across the material
• Piezoelectric sensors are based on when pressure is applied, force or acceleration to a quartz crystal or other piezoelectric material develops a charge through the crystal that is proportional to the applied force. Another feature of the crystal sensors is that the signal generated by the crystal decays rapidly.
• The purpose of project is to design and build an energy harvesting demonstration system that will provide a renewable source of energy. This project involves the use of piezo-electric transducers for harvesting energy produced from a foot plate.
• A single foot sped causes pressure when the foot hits the floor. When the flooring is engineered with piezoelectric technology, the electrical charge produced by the pressure is captured by floor sensors, converted to an electrical charge by piezo materials, then stored and uses as a power source.
• A widely studied from of energy harvesting involves the conversion of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using piezoelectric material, which exhibit electromechanical coupling between the electrical and mechanical domains.
• The power generating floors can be a major application if we use piezoelectric crystals as an energy converting material. The piezo-electric crystals have crystalline structure and ability to convert the mechanical energy (stress and strain) into the electrical energy. Whenever there is some vibrations, stress or straining force is exert by foot on floor then these crystals evenly converts it into electric power which can be used for charging devices via laptop, mobiles, electronic devices etc.
2.1 History of Piezoelectricity
• The first scientific publication describing the phenomenon, later termed as piezoelectricity, appeared in 1880.The word “piezo” is a Greek word which means “to press”. Therefore, piezoelectricity means electricity generated from pressure – a very logical name.
• The discovery of the direct piezoelectric effect is, therefore, credited to the Curie brothers. They did not, however, discover the converse piezoelectric effect.
• The discovery of piezoelectricity generated significant interest within the European scientific community. Subsequently, roughly within 30 years of its discovery, and prior to World War I, the study of piezoelectricity was viewed as a credible scientific activity. Issues such as reversible exchange of electrical and mechanical energy, asymmetric nature of piezoelectric crystals, and the use of thermodynamics in describing various aspects of piezoelectricity were studied in this period.
• Development of piezoceramic materials during and after World War II helped revolutionize this field. During World War II, significant research was performed in the United States and other countries such as Japan and the former Soviet Union which was aimed at the development of materials with very high dielectric constants for the construction of capacitors. Piezoceramic materials were discovered as a result of these activities, and a number of methods for their high-volume manufacturing were devised. The ability to build new piezoelectric devices by tailoring a material to a specific application resulted in a number of developments, and inventions such as: powerful sonars, Piezo ignition systems, sensitive hydrophones and ceramic phone cartridges, to name a few.
2.2 TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC MATRIAL
• Main Two type of Piezoelectric Martial this are below
Quartz Crystal Polycrystalline Ceramic
naturally piezoelectric material artificially polarized, man-made material
high voltage sensitivity high charge sensitivity
stiffness comparable to steel unlimited availability of sizes and shapes
exhibits excellent long term stability materials available which operate at 1000 F (540 C)
non-pyro electric output due to thermal transients (pyro electric)
low temperature coefficient characteristics vary with temperature
2.3 WORKING OF PIEZOELECTRICITY
• Piezoelectricity (also called the piezoelectric effect) is the appearance of an electrical potential (a voltage, in other words) across the sides of a crystal when you subject it to mechanical stress (by squeezing it).
• In practice, the crystal becomes a kind of tiny battery with a positive charge on one face and a negative charge on the opposite face; current flows if we connect the two faces together to make a circuit. In the reverse piezoelectric effect, a crystal becomes mechanically stressed (deformed in shape) when a voltage is applied across its opposite.
• Piezoelectric crystal consists of multiple interlocking domains which have positive and negative charges. These domains are symmetrical within the crystal, causing the crystal as a whole to be electrically neutral. The piezoelectric effect occurs when the charge balance within the crystal lattice of a material is disturbed.
• When there is no applied stress on the material, the positive and negative charges are evenly distributed and so there is no potential difference.
2.4 Designing of Piezoelectric Tiles:
• In this design Arrangement we are using piezoelectric Material and we are using series and parallel connection. We are providing the arrangement which forms tiles. Upper side and lower sides of the tiles we are using the rubber material.
• Below circuit diagram shown arrangement we are design of piezoelectric Tiles.
COMPONENT USE OF PROJECT
3.1 PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR
• In a piezoelectric crystal, the positive and negative electrical charges are separated, but symmetrically distributed. This makes the crystal electrically neutral. Each of these sides forms an electric dipole and dipoles near each other tend to be aligned in regions called “Weiss domains”.
• The domains are usually randomly oriented, but can be aligned during poling, a process by which a strong electric field is applied across the material, usually at elevated temperatures. When a mechanical stress is applied, this symmetry is disturbed, and the charge asymmetry generates a voltage across the material.
In Converse piezoelectric Pressing the button of the lighter causes a spring-loaded hammer to hit a piezoelectric crystal, producing a sufficiently high voltage that electric current flows across a small spark gap, thus heating and igniting the gas. Some substances like quartz can generate potential differences of thousands of volts through direct Piezo electric effect.
• Battery (electricity), an array of electrochemical cells for electricity storage, either individually linked or individually linked and housed in a single unit. An electrical battery is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells, used to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries may be used once and discarded, or recharged for years as in standby power applications. Miniature cells are used to power devices such as hearing aids and wristwatches; larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers.
• Lead-acidbatteriesarethe most common in PV systems because their initial cost is lower and because they are readily available nearly everywhere in the world. There are many different sizes and designs of lead-acid batteries, but the most important designation is that they are deep cycle batteries. Lead-acid batteries are available in both wet-cell (requires maintenance) and sealed no-maintenance versions.
• These batteries are used in Inverter & UPS Systems and have the proven ability to perform under extreme conditions. The batteries have electrolyte volume, use PE Separators and are sealed in sturdy containers, which give them excellent protection against leakage and corrosion.
• In this our project we are using the inverter to converter dc voltage from the Piezo electric plate that will arrangement for footsteps of human
• Normally in this project we are using to store the voltage from the plat that will gives to the inverter then it will be converted into ac supply.
• We are using inverter that 12v to 220v.
• An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits.
• The electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. It is so named because early mechanical AC to DC converters was made to work in reverse, and thus was “inverted”, to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier.
• The IC1 Cd4047 wired as an A stable multivibrator produces two 180 degree out of phase 1/50 Hz pulse trains. These pulse trains are preamplifiers by the two TIP122 transistors. The out puts of the TIP 122 transistors are amplified by four 2N 3055 transistors (two transistors for each half cycle) to drive the inverter transformer. The 220V AC will be available at the secondary of the transformer
3.3.1 CD 4047 IC
• Here is the circuit diagram of a simple 100 watt inverter using IC CD4047 and MOSFET IRF540. The circuit is simple low cost and can be even assembled on a breadboard. CD 4047 is a low power CMOS a stable/monostable multivibrator IC. Here it is wired as a-stable multivibrator producing two pulse trains of 0.01s which is 180 degree out of phase at the pins 10 and 11 of the IC. Pin 10 is connected to the gate of Q1 and pin 11 is connected to the gate of Q2. Resistors R3 and R4 prevents the loading of the IC by the respective MOSFETs.
• When pin 10 is high Q1 conducts and current flows through the upper half of the transformer primary which accounts for the positive half of the output AC voltage. When pin 11 is high Q2 conducts and current flows through the lower half of the transformer primary in opposite direction and it accounts for the negative half of the output AC the CD4047B is capable of operating in either the monostable or a stable mode.
• The device can be retriggered by applying a simultaneous LOW-to-HIGH transition to both the trigger and retrigger inputs. A high level on Reset input resets the outputs Q to LOW, Q to HIGH
A capacitors a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops in the dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in faraday.
In electronics, a diodes a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode, used diode in circuit are 1n4007
• A common topology for DC-AC power converter circuits uses a pair of transistors to switch DC current through the center-tapped winding of a step-up transformer, like this:
• In electronics, a center tap a connection made to a point half way along a winding of a transformer or inductor, or along the element of a resistor or a potentiometer. Taps are sometimes used on inductors for the coupling of signals, and may not necessarily be at the half- way point, but rather, closer to one end. .
• A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and
• Electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.
• A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits.
WORKING OF PROJECT
4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
• As shown in figure.1.1 there are main four component namely:
• 1. Foot step arrangement / tiles.
• 2. Battery.
• 3. Inverter circuit.
• 4. Load.
• Piezoelectric plate is used in Foot step arrangement/ tiles. Piezoelectric material is made up of Ceramic. The function of piezoelectric plate is to generate voltage, when force is applied on plate electrical energy is generated.
• The energy generated is being used or stored for further use like lead acid Battery. This energy is used to drive DC load. The battery is of 12 volt which is connected to inverter.
• Inverter circuit has CD4047 that we used in this circuit as an astable-multivibrater. Transistor are used in the inverter circuit. When IC CD4047 Gives output high or low at that the connected transistors which get higher output it will be enable and other will remain disable.
• This transistor pair is connected with center tap transformer whenever one of the transistor pair are enable then upper winding of center tap transformer will conduct.
• This inverter is used to convert the 12 volt D.C to the 230 volt A.C. This 230 volt A.C voltage is used to activate the loads. We are using conventional battery charging unit also for giving supply to the circuitry
• As per the working principle of transformer it produces the voltage on secondary side when source is connected.
• As we know the pressure is directly proportional to amount of power generated
P α Wt
• Here we take the constant of proportionality as Қ, then the equation becomes
P = Қ Wt
Қ- Constant of proportionality
ADVANTAGES AND DISASVANTAGES
• Reliable, economical, eco-friendly.
• Less consumption of non-renewable energies.
• Extremely wide dynamic ranges, almost free of noise-suitable for shock measurement as well as for almost free of imperceptible vibration.
• Excellent linearity over their dynamic range.
• Compact yet highly sensitive
• No moving parts –long service life.
• Self-generating –no external power required.
• Power generation is simply walking on the step
• .Power also generated by running or exercising on the step.
• No need fuel input
• This is a Non-conventional system
• Battery is used to store the generated power
• Power generation is less.
• Piezoelectric sensor cannot be used for truly static measurement.
• Piezoelectric plate are costly
Power generation using foot step can Used in most of the places such as
3. Cinema theatres
4. Shopping complex
5. Railway stations platform
6. Airports, BUSTANDS
7. Athletic track
DESIGN: ANALISIS, DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
8.1 AEIOU SUMMARY CANVAS
1. Environment: – Reliable, Economical, Eco-friendly.
2. Interaction: – People, Vibration, Speed breaker, Floor station.
3. Objects: – Remote power generation, Centralization of power minimize, Green energy generation.
4. Activities: – Power generation, Store energy.
5. User: – people, Floor mat, Railway station, crowded areas.
8.2 EMPATHY SUMMARY
1. AEIOU Framework: – Economical, Power generation, piezoelectric material, less complexity.
2. Scouted Challenge: – Design floor problem, o/p Control difficult, require more vibration.
3. Top 5 problem: – Piezoelectric material less available, o/p control difficult, difficult to build circuit.
4. Main problem network replication: – Design, Component, piezoelectric plate selection difficult.
8.3 IDEATION CANVAS
1. People: – Railway station, people, dancing floor, metro street.
2. Activities: – Power generation, physical movement by people, piezoelectric material, and vibration.
3. Situation: – Require more vibration and force, crowded and uncrowned areas, power storage required, school and college.4.Problem solution: – Remote power generation, Economical for per unit generation.
4. Problem solution: – Remote power generation, Economical for per unit generation.
8.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS
1. Purpose: – Energy of people, minimize grid system, renewable energy sources.
2. People: – Dancing floor, Railway station, people, and crowded place.
3. Product Experience: – Core knowledge about piezoelectric, Enjoyed.
4. Product Function: – Generation of Electricity, constant o/p.
5. Product Features: – Vibration, Reliable storage of power, movement & force.
6. Component: – Piezoelectric material, Battery, Inverter, Tiles, Transistor, IC-D4047, Transformer.
7. Customer Revalidation: – prof. kishan bhayani, Elite Electronic, D B raval.
8. Reject, Redesign, And Retain: – MOSFET, Gearing Mechanism, Transistor.
8.5 BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS
1. Key Partners : Industries, Residential, Hotel, School
2. Key Activities :Electricity Generation, Piezoelectric effect, As converter (inverter)
3. Key Resources :Concept, selection, Manufacturer, Financial, Design
4. Value proposition :Eco friendly, High performance, Safety User friendly, High accuracy, Simple design
5. Customer relationships :Satisfaction Customer service
6. Channels :Exhibition ,Marketing, Seminar
7. Customer segment : Industries, Hotels, Home appliances school
8. Cost Structure : Raw material cost, Manufacturing cost, Marketing cost, Design cost, Transportation cost
9. Revenue streams : Performance, Quantity, Quality, Real time market
Piezo electric transducer and application by Antonio arnau book
Richard, Michael Graham 2006 “Japan: Produce Electricity from Train Stations Ticket Gate