Essay: Multimedia

here.ABSTRACT

Multimedia project provides a more creative path through development and production. The process includes phases like planning, design, development, prototyping, testing, and delivery. An insight of social development and future of multimedia is given. It provides information on multimedia such as disabilities, techniques, uses and structure.

It shows how virtual reality integrates the sense of touch with video and audio media to immerse an individual into a virtual world. These days video games include bio feedback. A shock or vibration is given to the game player when he or she crashes or gets killed in the game. Other media technologies include transmission via the internet from one individual to another. VOIP technology has also been discussed.

It also provides information on the recent development in multimedia, the amount of multimedia data available to users has increased. Multimedia is becoming biggest big data. Video is an example of multimedia data as it contains several kinds of data that includes text, image, meta-data, visual and audio. It also discusses the support being provided to multimedia by operating systems.

INTRODUCTION

Definition: Multimedia refers to the presentation of material or content using a combination of different content forms i.e., verbal and visual forms (both words and pictures).

Objective: The objective of this research is to study the use and development of multimedia. It also includes the structure, techniques, disabilities, and support of multimedia.


MULTIMEDIA

Multimedia includes a combination of audio, text, still images, video, animation or inter activity content forms. These messages can be described in terms of the delivery media (computer screen & amplified speaker) , sensory modalities ( visual & auditory) and presentation mode (words and pictures).The process of multimedia learning can be viewed as information acquisition in which multimedia messages are information delivery vehicles or as knowledge construction in which these messages are aids to sense making.

Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to experience and store multimedia content, record, play and display or access by information content processing devices such as electronic and computerized devices. However, it can also be a part of live performance.

When used as a noun, multimedia refers to a technology for presenting material in both visual and verbal form. Moreover, it can be used as multimedia document (multimedia learning and multimedia message) when used as an adjective,

HISTORY OF MULTIMEDIA

The term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his “LightWorks at L’Oursin” show at Southampton. However, Goldstein was perhaps aware of Dick Higgins, an American artist, who had two years previously discussed a new approach to art-making which he called ‘inter-media’. Two years later, in 1968, the term ‘multimedia’ was re-appropriated to describe the work of David Sawyer, a political consultant (the husband of Iris Sawyer’one of Goldstein’s producers at L’Oursin).

The word has taken on different meanings in the intervening forty years. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows. Though, by the 1990s, ‘multimedia’ took on its current meaning. It is an interactive multimedia when you allow the user to control what and when these elements are delivered. However, the interactive multimedia gets developed into hypermedia when you provide a structure of linked elements with which the user can navigate.’

In the 1990s, in 1995, Gesellschaft f??r deutsche Sprache, the German language society, decided to recognize the word’s significance by awarding it the title of ‘Word of the Year’. Its explanation was summed up by the institute by stating “Multimedia has become a central word in the wonderful new media world” Some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called “multimedia” computers because they comprised of a CD-ROM drive, which allowed the users to deliver video, picture, and audio data of several hundred megabytes.

TYPES OF MULTIMEDIA

The difference is in the interactivity because if the user can control the content’s access and order then it is a non-linear structure.

Multimedia presentations can be live or recorded. The difference that can be noticed is live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via interaction with the presenter or performer while a recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a navigation system.

LINEAR:
Linear active content progresses often without any navigational control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation. It is the information presented in a sequence of events in a specific order in a straight pathway,. Behaviourist or traditional teachers prefer this method of presenting information. E.g: Movie.

NON-LINEAR:
Non-linear uses interactivity to control progress as with a video game or self-paced computer based training. E.g: Hypermedia.

ELEMENTS OF MULTIMEDIA

TEXT:
Alphanumeric characters are used to present information in text form. Words appear in titles, menus, and narrative or content.

Hardware And Software Requirements:
-Keyboard
-Optical Character Recognizers (OCR)
-Text Editors
-Text Style
-Text Searching
-Hypertext
-Text Importing & Exporting

GRAPHICS:
Computer graphics deal with the generation representation, display of pictures and manipulation with the aid of a computer. It is a more powerful way to illustrate the information.
1. Generative Graphics:
It is extensively used in drawings and illustrations in the form of 2-D and 3-D pictures. It is created for mathematical representation of simple objects.
2. Images:
The pictures and photographs composed of a collection of pixels.
Hardware And Software Requirements:
-Painting or Drawing Software
-Screen Capture Software
-Digitizer
-Scanners
-Plotters

AUDIO:
Computer audio deals with the synthesizing, recording and playback of audio with the aid of computer.
Hardware And Software Requirement:
-Sound Card
-Output Device
-Audio File Importing
-Recording and Playback Capability
-Voice Recognition Software

VIDEO:
Computer video deals with the recording and display of a sequence of images at a reasonable speed to create impression of movement. For jerk free motion, 25-30 frames have to be displayed per second.

Hardware And Software Requirements:
-Video Editors
-Video Monitor
-Video Board
-Input Device like Video Camera
-Recording and Playback Capability

ANIMATION:
Animation deals with generating, sequencing and display of a set of images to create an effect of visual motion. Simple form of animation includes visual effects such as wipes, fades, zooms, and dissolves. Television video builds 30 entire frames each second while movies are shot at a shutter rate of 24 frames per second.
DESIGN OF MULTIMEDIA DATABASE

Multimedia design requires both creative as well as technical skills to integrate two or more types of media.

USE OF MULTIMEDIA

IN INDUSTRIES:
In the industrial sector, multimedia is used as a way to help present information to shareholders, co-workers, and superiors. Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee training, selling products and advertising all over the world via virtually unlimited web-based technology.

IN EDUCATION:
It includes learning packages and simulation of lab experiments. Aspects of course curriculum which can’t be explained through simple text and images could be presented through video clips, animation, audio annotations, 3D modelling, etc., to understand better.

IN ENGINEERING:
It is extensively used to design mechanical, electrical, electronic, and architectural parts by the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) applications. They enable engineers to zoom on to critical parts, try out various combinations before deciding on the final product implementation. Software engineers may use it in computer simulations for anything from entertainment to training such as military or industrial training.

IN DAILY LIFE:
At home, a wide range of games and reference products such as encyclopaedias and cookbooks are put to use.
At office, presentations and training are essential.
At school, students learn mathematics, science, and new languages via interactive software programs.
In shopping malls where kiosks, interactive computer terminals, help us to design greeting cards or to find out where specific stores are located.

IN MEDICINE:
Doctors can be trained by looking at a virtual surgery or they can simulate how the human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and then develop techniques to prevent it.

IN JOURNALISM:
Newspaper companies all over embrace the new phenomenon by implementing its practices in their work. The New York Times, USA Today, etc are setting their positions in the newspaper industry in a globalized world.
News reporting is not limited to few media pieces. It engages global audiences and tells stories, which develops new communication techniques for both media producers and consumers. Multimedia reporters usually drive around a community with their cameras, audio and video recorders, and wifi-equipped laptops.

IN ENTERTAINMENT:
Special effects in movies and animations use multimedia features. Video games and multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online. There are multimedia artists who blend techniques using different media. Peter Greenaway is melding Cinema with Opera and all sorts of digital media

IN RESEARCH (SCIENTIFIC AND MATHEMATICAL):
Multimedia is mainly used for modelling and simulation in mathematical and scientific research. A scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance.

DISABILITIES

o Addiction
o Epilepsy
o Migraine Headaches, Mental Health Issues and Chronic Diseases
o Physical, Sensory, Cognitive or Developmental Disabilities
VISION IMPAIRMENT:
People with vision impairments typically use a screen reader that basically reads the content on the screen. The user typically uses the keyboard to select headings and hyperlinks.

Provide specific content pages for blind users that primarily use audio output and keyboard input for communicating with the user. A large font text and large picture narration can be provided for people with low vision.

COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT:
People with cognitive impairments might experience problems when accessing Web sites with large amounts of content and complicated navigation models.

Provide simplified content pages for people with cognitive impairments.

MOTOR IMPAIRMENT:
There exist techniques in modern operating systems for people with motor impairments to slow down the mouse, use speech input, adjust the colors of the interface for people with color vision deficiencies.

We propose that Web browser plug-ins also support configuring the color adjustment of the multimedia presentation. We also propose that Web site owners provide narration of all audiovisual multimedia for people that are deaf or hard of hearing.’
STORAGE, SHARING AND ACCESSING MULTIMEDIA

STORAGE:
The physical medium used for storing multimedia objects should be able to meet synchronization requirements of multimedia application both in terms of storage capacity and bounds on retrieval time. Multimedia objects require very large amounts of storage space.
The multimedia storage devices include the hard disc, magnetic tape, video cassette recorder (VCR), CD-ROM, and digital video disk (DVD).

SHARING AND ACCESSING:
Multimedia can be shared directly to social networking sites via status updates, photo albums and video uploads or publish to website first with blog post and then broadcast to social networking sites.

Distinct applications exist for taking photos or video shots, playing media, sharing the media files and showing the current context of each user.’
MULTIMEDIA RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

Content based retrieval is an important research area. It is a challenging problem since multimedia data needs detailed interpretation from pixel values. It deals with systems that manage and facilitate searching for multimedia documents such as images, videos, audio clips and slides based on content.

USE OF MULTIMEDIA FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Multimedia is used to enrich our communication or presentation skills. Multimedia technology is used for 3D cinema applications and mobile 3DTV environments. Animation is also used in creating special effects, titling films, or in web entertainment programs.

They act as a portal for entertainment and communication for today’s youth and have grown exponentially in recent years. When taught in authentic situations using a variety of formats, students learn and generalize social skills best. Multimedia also complements activities such as role playing, observing peer behaviour, and conducting social skills autopsies.

Social media site is considered as any web site that allows social interaction to make new friends, share information and pictures, and exchange ideas. Such sites include social networking sites; gaming sites and virtual worlds such as Minecraft, Club Penguin, Maze-war, Sims, etc; video sites such as YouTube; and blogs.

It also offers adolescents benefits for self, community, and the world, including:
1. opportunities for community engagement through raising money for charity and volunteering for local events.
2. enhancement of individual and collective creativity through development and sharing of artistic and musical endeavours.
3. growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, gaming sites, etc.

Computer programs help students to recognize emotions and facial expressions; and develop conversational skills and socialization. Other programs develop cognitive skills; allowing students to explore decision making and social interactions in a variety of situation or to develop interactive skills.

People with cognitive disabilities can master social skills when they are engaged in social skills instruction that includes a description of the social behaviours, modelling of the behaviours, verbal practice in naming the behaviours, practice in the social behaviours and individual feedback.

VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL

Voice over IP (VoIP) is a methodology for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. Now, methods of delivering voice or other multimedia services over IP are available on smartphones.

Multimedia telephony, the new global service standard for VoIP with multimedia support, provides a foundation for products that can offer fixed-mobile convergence of services, networks and devices. The service combines the quality, interoperability, reliability, efficiency and renowned supplementary services of traditional telephony.

SUPPORT FOR MULTIMEDIA IN OPERATING SYSTEMS

The requirements placed on a multimedia operating system are demanding and often conflicting. After understanding multimedia characteristics and multimedia system requirements, a new operating system for multimedia files and applications is presented called ‘Optimal Multimedia Operating System’. Multithreading, parallel processing, multiprogramming, dedicated memory for frame buffers, graphics co-processors at hardware level are desirable traits in multimedia OS.

MULTIMEDIA LOCALIZATION

Multimedia localization services include:-
o Transcription of the original master
o Translation
o Voice recording and subtitling
o Video production
o Art and graphics localization
o Animation localization
o Cultural assessment of multimedia content
o Multimedia quality assurance

MULTIMEDIA BIG DATA


CONCLUSION

Multimedia conveys content clearly, stimulates discussion and enhances the learning process thereby improving retention. People remember only 20% of what they see, 30% of what they hear. When they see and hear it, they remember 50%. If some interaction is included, they remember 80% of it. In the field of education, multimedia is being used extensively especially for online courses and training. Creative and technical skills are required for the integration of two or more media. The most challenging problem is content based retrieval.

Apart from education, it is widely used in entertainment, journalism, engineering, various industries, etc. In daily life, we use it at home for games and other modes of entertainment, offices for presentations and training, etc. Since there are disabilities related to multimedia, various solutions are being offered to those who are impaired. For e.g. A blind person using a CD-ROM-based encyclopaedia on a computer equipped with synthetic speech output.

Multimedia plays a great role in social development. Even the people with cognitive disabilities can socialize by improving their interactive skills through computer based programs. Moreover, it is becoming the biggest big data as the most valuable source for insights and information. Everything will be based on media in the future world.
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Source: Essay UK - http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/media/essay-multimedia/


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