The Republic Of Congo

During the period of political transition that followed the war, from 1997 to 2002, the Department of education has experienced structural instability. After a long period during which education was managed by one or two Ministries, a decree was issued dividing the Department of Education in three different Ministries as stated above (Decree n ??341-2002 August 18, 2002). And, accordingly to Act No. 9-2003 February 6, 2003, the different Ministries of Education are decentralized and represented in each Department (region) and administrative subdivision of the Republic.
Thus, at the departmental level, education is governed by the Inspection of Academy which has a leadership role on all educational Institutions of the administrative District to which it corresponds. The Inspection is responsible inter alia for applying educational policy adopted by the Government, to hold the exams of the first degree, to prepare and to suggest any study that are interested in the development of education at the regional level, to manage the personnel under his authority, inform the guidelines, notices and decisions of the regional education Board. Even though the Departmental Inspection of Academy manages the personnel of the Department, it is not empowered to hire teachers. All the teachers are appointed by the central Government as civil-servants.

1.2 Background of the study
Since 1998, the Congo has implemented a policy of liberalization of the communication sector which has fostered the emergence of new technologies and the creation of private communication companies. This opening gave access to a lot of need and the promotion of the use of the Internet in everyday life. Thus, it was born here and there of Internet-cafe (the internet use space) and also a very high consumption of cellular communication services. In 2004, the Government implemented a policy of integration of ICT in education. Unfortunately, nine years later, the expected progress is non-existent. You can count on the assets side, three major projects which have emerged and actually existing (large University Library, the Digital Campus of France, (...). These projects cannot even cover the entire Brazzaville city and, a fortiori, impossible to make a big effect on the whole national territory.
Notwithstanding the presence of optical fiber from December 2011, the use of Internet has remained at a very low rate of 6,8% from the Congolese literate population (www.internetworldstats.com/africa.htm , UNICEF world statistics, 2011-2012). The set policies for the promotion of ICT are suffering from many shortcomings and there are still many challenges ahead. The fundamental challenges are both administrative (lack of an effective policy of integrating and promoting the use of ICT in education, lack of a specialized Institution for coordination) and technical (shortage of ICT knowledge of the human resources, infrastructure and facilities issues).
ICT integration in education should be understood as a 'new concept' and should have a particular, specialized and specific Institution for the management of its implementation process and the design of strategies and specific projects related. This structure could therefore study programs that can better help the achievement of the basic objective of the integration of ICT which is to facilitate access to the various resources of education and improve the process of teaching and learning.
1.3 Research problem
For the last two decades, the teaching and learning process has been experiencing a considerable improvement due to the integration of the ICT in education. The ICT have brought a huge number of tools that are nowadays used in education for personal and professional skills development. The use of these tools has become essential in Education due to unlimited resources they can provide to teachers as well as to students. Unfortunately, in the Republic of Congo, ICT are not yet integrated in general Secondary schools, although this is the foundation of education and the labor market.
In an era so digitalized as this 21st century, no one can live without the ICT and have access to qualitative education, and claim to be educated. These technologies present tremendous potential, an important influence on the evolution of the society revolutionizing the working methods, management, administration, teaching and learning. Light of their positive impact and essential character as they are today, ICT draw the attention of the Education policy-makers across the world. Thus, this study will investigate the problem identified in the following central question: what are the main factors and challenges which impinge the integration of ICT in General Secondary Schools in Republic of Congo?

1.4 Research questions
The research will focus on three fundamental questions to establish all the main challenges related to the integration of ICT in Secondary schools in Republic Congo. Different aspects will be analyzed from the policy, the implementation to the end user expected in secondary schools. Three questions will guide this study, namely:
1. What policies and projects already exist in the Republic of Congo for Edutech?
2. What are the challenges encountered by General secondary schools in the ICT implementation process?
3. How to improve the integration and implementation of ICT in General Secondary Education in Republic of Congo?

Source: Essay UK - http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/education/eduaction-republic-congo-2.php


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