RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Tiklos and Ba-Ingles
Tiklos (also called 'pintakasi') is the Waray equivalent to the 'bayanihan'. Groups of people work for somebody without hoping for anything in return. They work odd jobs like clearing forests, digging the earth for wells, moving a nipa hut to a new location or even building a house! In all these for free. Of course grateful benefactors would offer drinks and food; but it is not always expected. The peasants cooperate for the social and economic progress of their community. (FolkDance.Tk, 2010)
The Tiklos is a native peasant dance of Leyte. Very early in the morning, the leader of the tiklos beats the tambora, a kind of drum made from a hollow trunk of a tree with a carabao hide head. Next comes sounds of the subing (bamboo flutes) and the guimbal-a small snare drum with a head of a parchment made from the skin of a wildcat. (FolkDance.Tk, 2010)
The peasants come out with grass hooks, bols and other garden tools and farm implements. Led by the band, they march together to work in the fields. During breaks the peasants enjoy themselves with tuba (a native wine) and the rest dance the tiklos accompanied by the subing (plawta), guimbal and tambora drums or when available, the 'sista' played by the band. The Tiklos music is also played to call them back to work. (FolkDance.Tk, 2010)
Ba-Ingles (bah-eeng-LEHS) is derived from the words "Bai le" and "Ingles" meaning English dance. This dance was supposedly brought to the Philippines in the early days by English tradesmen. It has the nature and characteristics of some English dances except for the last figure, which is typical of the dances of the Ilocanos from Cabugao, on the island of Luzon. Ba-Ingles was presented by Mrs. Francisca Reyes Aquino in 1962 at Stanford University and again recently by Bernardo Pedere at the 1978 University of the Pacific Folk Dance Camp at Stockton. (Miller, 1979)
Integration of Dance
According to the Maryland Fine Arts Education Instructional Tool Kit (2006), integration of learning outcomes across disciplines may take a number of different forms, including: Incorporation of a content standard (i.e., learning outcome) from one content area to enhance that in another; Identification of universal themes and commonalities between and among content areas to enhance knowledge and skills in each; Application of skills, materials, and processes from one content area to create a product that will have meaningful application in another; and Use of knowledge about something in one content area to shape a creative product or process in another.
Instructional practices in dance support and enhance by learning not only in other arts disciplines, but in main content areas such as mathematics, science, social studies, and English language arts. Dance education offers an interdisciplinary context for discovering various key ideas that include: Understanding of the physiology of the human body (science); Interpretations of literary texts (language arts); Application of mathematical concepts (mathematics); and Understanding ways in which social and cultural values are expressed throughout history (social studies). (Maryland SDE, 2006)
Burke (2009) said that 'there was even more of a dividend, as this boy showed me: Changing the ways we learn will help us later on, because we will be more open minded." Arts in education are influential, and it is effective. A White House advisory panel recently made the case for reinvesting in arts education and depicted exceptional attention to arts integration, recommending that it can boost student motivation and provide both academic and social benefits. This will explore the possibility of understanding the arts with other subjects in a mutual learning experience and point to favorable examples, as well as the challenges to ensure that such efforts achieve their academic goals.
In 2012 Nobori's article on How the Arts Unlock the Door to Learning he answered the questions 'What do Mars and modern dance have to do with each other? How do you connect fractions with Andy Warhol'? 'At Wiley H. Bates Middle School, in Annapolis, Maryland, the answer is arts integration.' Every teacher there is committed to merging the arts and standard curricula together to generate a richer and more lasting learning experience for their students. This study is very timing in the current situation of the DepEd curriculum where we are in the transition period of K to 12. This will lead for the improvement of the learning of the pupils in the Fourth District of Quezon. In the present study same question might be asked about the relationship of Tiklos and Ba-Ingles in the Science topic relating to Skeletal System a human. The integration of dance led the pupils to better comprehension through the movements.
Robelen (2013), in his article he mentioned that 'The Infusion of the Arts appears to be Gaining a Stronger Foothold at a Time When Advocates Are Struggling to Ensure Time and Support for Their Disciplines'. The idea of integrating the arts, including dance, into the broader curriculum is not new, but it appears to be gaining a stronger foothold in public schools, proponents say, though national data are not available. The growth comes as arts education advocates struggle to ensure adequate time and support for the arts in schools'whether music, visual arts, theater, or dance'amid the financial straits facing many districts and other challenges, such as pressure to boost test scores in core subjects like reading and math.
Science Daily (2008) stated that combining math and dance concepts allows people to experience a physical sensation of the often abstract concepts of math. Mathematical problem-solving is incorporated when creating new dances, which can even inspire new mathematics. Concepts can be taught in the ballroom and applied in the classroom, bring together movement, rhythm, geometry, and more.
Rashid (2005), in his study said that co-curriculum is a very important and essential part of an education system. It is the co-curriculum aspect of the education that prepares and molds the student to be holistic. Nevertheless more emphasis has generally been given to the curriculum aspect resulting from the students 'inability to link the excellence in performance academically to the active participation in co-curriculum. In this present study the researcher aimed to answer the degree of acceptability of the lesson with the integration of Tiklos and Ba Ingles as form of art to enhance the learning process of the pupils in the day-to-day lessons.
Appel (2006), in his study on Arts education in California's schools has experienced peaks and valleys over the decades, due to budgetary cutbacks and an almost exclusive focus on literacy, mathematics and science achievement. Gradually, the tide is beginning to turn, and interest in arts education has experienced a resurgence of sorts, resulting from new fine arts requirements at the university level, keen interest in using multiple modalities and intelligences and research that showed that the arts help better prepare students for college or the workplace. In this study, the author discusses the benefits of arts integration; emphasizes that arts integration requires careful thought, planning and assessment; and provides an example of a successful collaboration between arts provider and the schools. Parallel to the previews study arts has something to do in elevating the learning process of the pupils like injecting Tiklos and Ba Ingles in certain topic in Science 4.
Drake (2004) in his Meeting Standards Through Integrated Curriculum Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. The authors argue that an interdisciplinary approach to standards provides teachers with opportunities to make the curriculum more purposeful and relevant and can increase student achievement while also being creative, innovative, and interesting. The researcher in this study needed to go out-of-the-box in order to integrate the Tiklos and Ba-Ingles dance into a lesson in Science 4. Being creative is part of a teacher in order to provide a better learning process.
(Baltimore, 2011). Arts education may not just help raise test scores but also the learning process itself, as a recent study revealed. This report on the Maryland school system found that skills learned in the visual arts could help improve reading and the counterparts fostered in playing an instrument could be applied to math. Researchers and officials believe that arts education can be a valuable education reform tool, and classroom integration of creative opportunities could be key to motivating students improving standardized test scores.
Catterall et al., (2012), in their study since arts integration was first implemented at Bates, the percentage of students achieving or surpassing standards for reading has grown from 73 percent in 2009 to 81 percent in 2012, and from 62 percent to 77 percent for math during the same period, while disciplinary problems decreased 23 percent from 2009 to 2011. According to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data, math and reading scores among students in grades 6-8 have shown a long trend of improvement across the state of Maryland. However, the percentage of students proficient or advanced at Bates has grown nearly 12 times faster than the state in reading, and four times faster in math. Science achievement among eighth graders also has outpaced the state from 2009 to 2011. Teachers and staff report that arts integration has been one of the key reasons for the school's improvement. Several research-based practices contribute to the success of arts integration at Bates Middle School.
Poll (2005) on the attitudes of Americans toward arts education, commissioned by Americans for the Arts, revealed strong public support. Among the findings agree the arts are vital to providing a well-rounded education for children, a 2% increase over 2001. 79% agree an arts education encourages and assists in the improvement of a child's attitudes toward school. 79% believe that arts education helps teach children to communicate effectively with adults and peers. 83% agree incorporating the arts into education is the first step in adding back what's missing in public education today. 54% rated the importance of arts education a 'ten' on a scale of one to ten. 93 % believe that it's important enough for them to get personally involved in increasing the amount and quality of arts education.
Barry (2010), Oklahoma A+ Schools: What the Research Tells Us 2002-2007, Volume 3: Quantitative Measures (PDF). Edmond, OK: Oklahoma A+ Schools/University of Central Oklahoma. Five-year evaluation study on the effectiveness of A+ arts-integrated school reform strategies in Oklahoma schools, based on a survey of students, teachers, and professional-development faculty. Students participating in the A+ Schools program had higher achievement on standardized tests, better attendance, and decreased disciplinary problems, were more engaged, and demonstrated more positive attitudes toward classroom activities. Teachers reported having more positive attitudes about arts integration and about teacher collaboration, and parent and community involvement increased.
Thompson (2012). The Arts and Achievement in At-Risk Youth: Findings from Four Longitudinal Studies, Research Report #55 (PDF). Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. This report examines the academic and civic behavior outcomes of teenagers and young adults (with a focus on those from lower socioeconomic status) who have engaged deeply with the arts in or out of school. In several small-group studies, children and teenagers who participated in arts education programs have shown more positive academic and social outcomes in comparison to students who did not participate in those programs. They had higher school grades and test scores and greater rates of honors society membership, high school graduation, college enrollment and achievement, volunteering, and engagement in school or local politics.
Brown S. et al. (2006). The study on Cerebral Cortex in revealed how various parts of the brain are active during dance. Researchers had amateur tango dancers lay flat on their backs while in a 'functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ('fMRI) machine to see what brain areas were active during particular tasks.
The feet of the dancers were resting against an inclined surface so that movements and dance steps could be performed. The music used during the trial was tango, and the dancers executed tango steps. The study investigated three aspects of dancing such as: synchronizing movement with music; moving with a regular vs. irregular rhythm; and moving the legs in particular patterns though space. As expected, the usual areas of the brain involved in movement were active during all experimental tasks (as opposed to resting). This study by Martinez and Person brought the researcher into the present study. The integration of dance specifically Tiklos and Ba Ingles improved the ratings of the pupils who undergone in the experimental group.
Burnaford (2005) includes a historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for the integration of arts, research and evaluation studies as well as methods and practices for each of the art forms. The National Middle School Association supported curriculum for students that "is relevant, challenging, integrative, and exploratory." Integrative learning opportunities include: Engage students in rigorous, in-depth study; Address reading, writing, and other fundamental skills within all subject areas; Enhance critical thinking, decision-making, and creativity; require students to reflect on their learning experiences; Enable students to apply content and skills to their daily lives; Cultivate multiple intelligences and students' individual learning styles.
Omoke (2009) examined the role of co-curricular activities in social and academic development among students in Suneka division of Kisii South District in Kenya. The study showed that co-curricular activities contributed towards students' social development in a number of ways: instilling discipline, building tolerance, enhancing co-operation, creating a sense of responsibility, improving in judgment, accepting defeat and improving moral values.
Research examining the effect specifically of arts integration on student success appears to show mixed results as well. For example, (Bonbright, 2007) a research overview of studies from 2000 to 2005 advocated that while there are 'many advantages' to integration of arts, there was a 'lack of strong empirical research' to support the notion that it boosts student achievement. At the same time, the study in the International Handbook of Research in Arts Education, argued that focusing chiefly on standardized-test data is 'misguided' and fails to fully capture cognitive gains and other benefits, such as improved student motivation. The study said that for arts integration to succeed, it requires a strong commitment from classroom teachers and close collaboration with arts specialists, a point made by many dance advocates. Effective integration should be done with 'mutual support of both disciplines.'
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