Learning Styles A Literary Review

The idea of learning styles have been around for many years. Benjamin Franklin once said: 'Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn'. This quote is all about learning styles and how one does not learn from audio or visual but from kinaesthetic learning. However, the studies done on the topic have been inconclusive and unable to be proven that such learning styles do exist. The first journal written by Micheal Reynold is looking into the research done at the time of the 1960's to the 1970's, Micheal questions the claims and theories worked upon. Secondly Peacce Kiguwa and Adilia Silva, also took an in-depth look into the research done and how it has been forced into the curriculum of schools, but they did not conclude that these styles do not exists. Thirdly Harold Pashler, Mark Mcdaniel, Doug Rohrer, and Robert Bjork also took an in-depth look into education and learning styles, evidently concluded that their is no such thing and no evidence from research done to prove such learning styles exists. Lastly Marjolein G. M.C Berings Rob F. Poell, go past the educational side of learning and attempt to put the research into a work place environment, and therefore researching different situations other than a teacher student based situation. Overall, all research has come to an agreement that more research is needed to give assurance that learning styles do exist and thus allowing them to be put into practice.

The idea of learning styles has been around for many years, but more recently researchers have been looking into the cognitive styles that was popular between the 1960's and 1970's. However what gee from the 1970's was the interest in gaining the knowledge or concept to educational settings and how they learn. Throughout time their have been different approaches within research and definitions, but all these are just attempts in order to make sense of the diversity to which people learn. in addition the debates about the validity of the number of interments that have been developed, and their contra-dictionary claims. Management have been able to pass this confusion about what approach to adopt by adopting two approaches, 'given the preoccupation in management and management development with measurements, and the overriding preference for psychological over social or political interpretations of organization'. The first section of this journal reviews experiments done by Curry, Joughun and Riding and Cheema. The second sections introduces concepts and its implications, but does not pretence the full elaborating on the social and political difference on discrimination, feminist, and abut-racist critiques. The conclusion of the journal was that doubt had been placed on alternative theories and test positive reactions from educational research on the literature management led to influence on the practice. When examined the theories and assumptions which outline the 'learning styles' the approaches are worrying.
Popkwitz analysis on the characteristics of learning styles:

contemporary pedagogy maintains a view of individualism based on the political theories of the corporate society and secularized protestant beliefs about profess through hard work and merit. the language of education adopted metaphors of learning and community in manner that glorified the individual through myths about self realization, personal development and individual differences (popewitz, 1988b: 86)
Even though individualistic has become common sense within management, and has brought manager to shift their responsibility for developing their careers towards their employees. There are many different situations the learning styles may be an asset in the work place, at school. Even though the approaches may be different sometimes all environments are more ales the same.
'Biggs and Moore (1993) postulated that students enter a learning environment with various preconceptions'. These students may also have knowledge and skills, personal objectives, and cognitive abilities, that most likely effected their success of achieving goals. These teachers and their preconceptions about learning informed different instructions that eventually lead to modifying the students overall view of the different learning environments. Teaching self-efficacy in this model becomes a salient mechanism for informing the self-regulatory processes involved in the meta-teaching concept postulated by Biggs (1993). Their complex components of interaction within Biggs's model, the students choose to engage their learning styles using a variety of different components based on which fits their circumstances the best. The deep approach describes active engagement with the learning content, which leads to extensive elaboration of the learning material while seeking personal understanding (Entwistle, 2001a; Peng & Bettens, 2002). Moreover, surface learning students tend to want only to pass the examination. They also consider the strategies used towards a task as well as the motive. The strategy is to maximize high marks, and to gain approaches that may be linked to surface achievers who who use memorization to gain high grades or to thought who use organization and planning to gain high marks. The questions asked throughout this article we're
'1. Does a heavy emphasis on external rewards reinforce strategic and even surface types of learning to the detriment of fostering fuller understanding and critical interrogation of subject matter?
2. Were the students ready for a shift in learning style, especially at a stage when they are still becoming accustomed to a new learning environment?
3. Should issues of learning styles be of central focus in this exploration?
4. If so, how do we even begin to foster such an environment?
5. How do we address students' lack of interest and dissociation from the subject matter that we prescribe, without sacrificing our ideals of quality teaching?
6. Finally, it is impossible to imagine any real impacting effect from the preceding measures discussed without considering the strong influence and role of lectures (and lecturers) themselves'(Peacce Kiguwa and Adilia Silva).
The conclusion was that it was recommended is rigorous longitude investigations with the effects that result from the intentions, and therefore there are no real answers to the problems that raised, but it is hoped that more research and questions will be asked there fore more critical reflective engagement will be show though out teachers and their practices. Moreover, the conclusion was not only a recommendation as well as a push for researchers to do more, and take a more in-depth look into the research.

Harold, Mark, Doug, and Robert take that in-depth look into the research performed by specialist, trying to prove that learning styles do exist. The argument is that 'learning styles have acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarden to graduate school' (Harold). They review studies and concluded that they all consist of random students being divided into groups on the decisions of their learning styles, than each student is assigned a learning style to learn from, to conclude the study each student is given a test. they concluded in these studies that 'the instructional method that proves most effective for students with one learning style is not the most effective method for students with a different learning style' (Harold). The journal came to the conclusion that there is no adequate evidence form the experiments to which they judged to be preconditioned in validating the different types of learning styles. In addition 'given the lack of methodologically sound studies of learning styles, it would be an error to conclude that all possible versions of learning styles have been tested and found wanting; many have simply not been tested at all'. Harold, Mark, Doug, and Robert believed that learning styles do exist and that their may even be learning styles that are undiscovered, Marjolein and Berings furthered that idea by going outside the box and attempt ion to use learning styles in a work place environment.
Marjolein G. M.C Berings Rob F. Poell aimed their 'study to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities, which can be used to help them improve their on-the-job learning'. Marjolin and Berings are argued that even though people are continuously learning new competencies, there fore employees need to learn how to be efficiently, and able to adjust to every situation. On-the-job learning refers to 'implicit or explicit mental and/or overt activities and processes, embedded in working and work-related performance, leading to relatively permanent changes in knowledge, attitudes or skills' (Berings & Doornbos, 2003, p. 48). But yet this does not refer to how people actually learn on the job? how can this be stimulated. This study was c inducted because even though their are studies done on learning styles their are none that are focused on on-the-job learning. The questions that are asked within this journal are
'1. How are learning styles defined and categorized, in general?
2. How does learning in on-the-job settings differ from learning in educational
3. To what extent should the definition and categorization of learning styles be
adapted to be feasible to on-the-job learning situations?
4. How can organizations and employees benefit from knowledge of employees' on-
the-job learning styles'?(Marjolein G. M.C Berings Rob F. Poell).
To start off Marjolein G. M.C Berings Rob F. Poell examined the concepts involved in learning styles within a job setting, secondly they defined what a learning style actually was, lastly discussing how this research can be implemented. The conclusion to this study was that their needed to be more to the definition of learning styles for it to be feasible within on the job situations. Therefore 'On-the-job learning styles are therefore defined as the tendency to use a particular combination of implicit and explicit learning activities that a person can, and likes to, perform on the job'(Marjolein G. M.C Berings Rob F. Poell). Their needs to be special attention put one both interpersonal and interpersonal learning styles. They concluded that more research is needed in order to distinguish the differences of on the job learning steles in all areas of categorization. in addition that it could be address to research methods in which have been used to support different conceptualizations of on the job. 'At this time, no learning style instruments are available that are well suited to on-the-job learning situations" (Berings & Poell, 2002).
Therefore, after examining different papers, journals, and research it can only be concluded that learning styles are apparent in ever type or learning in our life. Even though their has not been enough research performed evidently there is no denying the truth to learning styles and how they can effect information being learning. But research is still very far from analysis every angle that is included within learning styles especially outside the classical student teacher approach. Thus concluding that more research is needed to allow for a better understanding of what learning styles really are.

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