3.0 The four skills of learning are the foundation to language learning. Listening and speaking are audio-lingual skills. Reading and writing are graphic skills .Reading and listening are the receptive side of language learning. Speaking and writing belong to the expressive side of language learning. The receptive side is the passive aspect of language learning and expressive side is the active aspect. Thus reception is easier than speaking or writing. Structure, vocabulary, idiom, and grammar are common to all four skills of learning. But there are some abilities which are not shared in common. While pronunciation, fluency, expression, rhythm and intonation are essential parts of speaking and listening, spelling, handwriting, and grammar and sentences are essential to writing.
3.1. Listening is attending to and interpreting oral English. Listening improve the speaking skills. Listening is a fundamental of the entire process of mastering and using a language first, second and foreign language .listening is important in everyday life. Listening for casual conversation, face to face encounters telephone messages, watching TV programs, formal lectures and many other activities. In the past, listening was labeled as passive skills, along with reading. No doubt it is a receptive skill. Listening is a reception of information, information and discrimination of sounds form major part in listening, and active involvement is necessary for efficient performance of listening.
Speaking is one of the important and essential skills that need lot of practice to communicate. Speaking cannot be separate another elements in English teaching learning process. speaking influences the ability of students in studying English languages by mastering speaking skills people can carry out conversation with others, give the idea and exchange the information with other people .in this case, everyone should be able to speak English to face the global error because the English language has become international languages
Speaking is one of the important and essential skills that need a lot of practice to communicate. Speaking makes the people know the kind of situation happens in the world. people who have ability in speaking will receive the information better .language is not only thought and learned but it is used has a habit therefore a student of English must be able to speak English fluently because the people identify the English mastering with the English speaking .speaking skills is emphasized to make them speak the components of king such as grammar vocabulary pronunciation, fluency and comprehension. The way of speaking is intended to give basic competence about the language.
Reading is an interaction between the reader and the text (RUMELHART) it is a complex communicative process of receiving and interpreting the written word, reading means the process that ; discarding ,comprehending 'analysis 'responding.
Reading must be developed. It can be only improved by means of extensive and continue practices. People learn to read and read better by reading, (ESKEY).reading any language is a cognitively demanding, involving coordination of attention, memory perceptual process and comprehension process (TESAL).Reading begins with accurate, swift and automatically visual recognition of vocabulary independent of a content in which it occurs (ADAMS).
Reading process is too folded; it is sensory process and a perpetual process. As a sensory process reading is a dependent on certain visual skills. It involves to identification in symbols where in eyes plays an important role. The eyes look at the text and perfume horizontal and vertical movements. The letters of words are recognized, the words that identify and the meaning assigned to them.
Writing may traditionally be regarded as a solitary process, because the isolated writer communicates a particular reader. Some of the reading skills such as selection of key ideas, organization, comprehension, development of thoughts and ideas are also relevant to writing. Writers are also readers as they evaluate, interpret, summarize and present in writing.
Although writing is consideration as a visual representation of speech, it is regarded as a dull work. Students are asked to write with emphasis on information structure, accuracy, range of lexical patterns and composition. It is rumored that writing is quite an effective way of punishing young readers for unruly behavior during the lesson.
Despite the fact that writing occupies a significant role in language pedagogy, the ability to speak a foreign language is regarded as a highly rated shills than writing. Though writing in English is the requirement of many learners, playing an important role in empowering them, the rise of interest in spoken communication and the usage of electronic gadgets for rapid communication have challenged the status of writing. As a result writing in English has now become an end in it
3.1.1 Thinking Involved in Writing.
Writing involves a number of thinking processes. A writer has to present relevant ideas, evaluate these ideas in relation to purpose, topic and audience. He has to consider the knowledge, attitude, tastes of the intended reader and make decisions about the amount of information shared with the reader. The kind of information that has to be made explicit and the need for indirectness, take account of the separation in time and place between the writer and reader. He has to form the conventions of style , format in the social group concerned, grammatical and other language conventions, organized and structure ideas, content and purposes into a coherent whole, write a draft, revise and improve the draft and produce a final revision to be published.
3.1.2. Heuristic Technique.
Hughey, Wormuth, Harfield, Jacobs have discussed the heuristic techniques in writing. This technique includes brain storming, mapping, outlining and fast writing. Its main focus is on content and meaning. There should be no inhibition in speaking and also in writing. An uninhibited approach to idea generating give freedom to the writer before involving questions of judgments or evaluation. Andre Braton talks about automatic writing in which the learners are 'fully aware of their surrounding but not the action of their writing hand'. This kind of automatic writing may result in incomprehensible scribbling, failing in the attempt to interpret what they were striving to communicate, but at a later stage, they could combine many different writings as possible to build one concrete idea.
3.1.3. Creative writing.
It is substituted by the word expression creativity offers different meanings to people creative is taught as a separate reality. When learners are engaged in creative writing lifelong thinking activities is planned in them. Some of the characteristics ties such as integrity, spontaneity, sincerity and originality are valued in creativity. Though creative writing is becoming self-centered, the kind of organic development associated with expressive writing has a useful role in the approach of teaching writing. Expressive writing does not aim at literary goals. Imaginative and creative writing can be promoted at quite basic levels, drawing on such universal genres as the story, the fable, and the fairy tale. These genres embody fundamental elements such as narrative sequence, a plot, conflict and resolution, as well as morality, without which any writing, expressive or imaginative, lacks focus and purpose. Developing awareness of such elements, within the context of imaginative writing, will lead the learners to acquire concepts that can be transferred to other writing.
Science is concerned with creativity .It requires divergent thinking and the ability to look at information in a new away. Learners need mental capacity to understand things. It is quite important to acquire awareness of the thinking process.
Expressive writing involves intercultural sharing when the learners work together with National level learners. Tales and fables, particularly, illustrate and encourage intercultural understanding. In fact stories are the most fundamental literary form and learners engage in group activities through various techniques for devising, telling, and sharing stories. The group activities shift expressive writing from eco-centric to the social writing.
Creating and Criticizing Skill
The Teacher transfers from the World of teaching to the World of teaching writing. The teacher instructs the students generally and the students bounce around the parameters to resolve the self-created problems. This, in fact, is very effective in teaching writing.
Writing revolves on two skills which conflict with each other, creating and criticizing. In other words, writing calls on the ability to create words and ideas of the writer but it also calls on the ability to criticize the words and ideas. These two mental processes can occur at the same time. Then writing becomes inventing, rich, and well ordered. Writing freely generates as many words and ideas as possible, without worrying whether the words are good or not, adopting a critical frame of mind and revising thoroughly. This leads writing to something strong. These two mentalities need an inventive fecundity and a tough critical mindedness for the two processes when they operate separately.
When a draft is produced it can be evaluated as a way of improving it by a writer or reader. The reader or the peer group will be engaged in evaluating the draft. Learning from it and contributes to each other which shaping the text the writer moves from one draft to another. The writers begin to shape the text to conform to organizational and format conventions. Ideas are not simply assembled in random order. Lines are not simply scattered the page in a disorderly manner. Writers have to organize the ideas in a coherent way which is logical to a reader. In the same way the display of text upon the page required organizing into visual units which reflect the organizational structure while helping the reader to make the way through the text. For many types of writing there are very explicit organizational and format conventions which writers are expected to follow learning and applying these conventions in writing are part of the induction into the writing community.
The interactive approach, the eclectic approach and communicative approach are some of the recent developments in the teaching of English.
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