Chapter-1: Introduction

This paper is focus on the challenges faced by the city logistics globally, basically the paper has been divided into two part first is to develop the discussion on the challenges of city logistics. The outline of the paper has been drawn from the literature of the various authors to analyse all aspect of problems and challenges faced by the logistics within the cities from distribution to storage to congestion and legal restriction impose by the city council of the different cities. And the second part of the paper is focus on developing the methodology considering the issues of city logistics arise from the literature of the first part while analysing the problems the paper has come across different cities have different problems and challenges and the solution shows in this paper has been drawn after deeply analysing the problems depending on the cities.

For better understanding the relevant examples has been indicated. Three major cities have been selected which has recently carried out the project on the development of the city logistics all three cities are among the European countries the aim of the project is to the development of the all aspects of transport running with the cities the work has been carried out to analyse the current logistics activities and the best way to improve by imposing legal restriction on delivery of goods and also the other measure carried out to improve the logistics activities on public transport.

1.0 City Logistics

City Logistics is the process to fully optimize transportation and logistics company, as private companies in the metropolitan area and urban areas are considering congestion, traffic, environment and energy within the framework of market economy, which means reaching freight distribution in urban areas.The basic concept of City Logistics is to increase the efficiency of freight transport system in urban areas and reduce the environmental impact.(Tanigichi and Thompson 2007)

1.1 Challenges of City Logistics

Under 'Crainic et al' (2009) is generally the challenges of City Logistics is to limit and control the volume of freight vehicles operating in cities and improve the effectiveness of the free movement of goods wagons and verify the empty trucks per mile, is alsoaim to reduce impact on the movement of freight vehicle system within the city living condition and the goal is to improve pollution condition, which actually damage the historic City Centre, Low Emissions in, improve Congestion & Mobility while not affecting city's economic and social activities.But the challenge of City Logistics is directly to the City authorities, companies in relation to freight carriers and stakeholders.Under 'Davidson' (2005) one of the primary challenge is the intermodal transport involved regarding communication between several actors.
In the study of "Visser et al" (1999) challenges City Logistics is directly pointing at improvmentation of air pollution, traffic noise, common in terms of accident reduction of genes consumption of room at the city freighter and reduce emissions.

1.2 Problems of City Logistics

The growing numbers in the number of urban trucks are related to the growing population and sustain economic growth in cities and metropolitan areas, the majority of European citizens live in urban areas.(Stantchev and Whiteing 2006)

The study of 'Rotaris and Maggi' (2004) increasing number of vehicles that run on European cities represent 10% of the vehicles used to transport supplies, which significantly affects the quality of urban residents life.

It pointed to research by 'Crainic et al (2009) 30% of street capacity is covered by trucks in the major cities in France.But the most commonly mentioned problems that affect the city environment because of trucks are congestion, pollution, accidents, noise, loss of green field sites, using non-renewable fossil fuels that produce waste products such as oil, tires and other materials increase as trafficincreases.(Rotaris and Maggi 2004)

Actually trucks contain 40% of air pollution and noise impact of the problems are economic and societal, this problem is not only decreasing efficiency and productivity of the city freight, but also influence the quality of life in urban areas.(Stantchev and Whiteing 2006)

Compared to the above problems their are other problems that underlie the concept of City Logistics System is the selection of cargo deliveries scheduled in cities, planning of trucks for departure and Time Synchronization and coordination of truck operation, the core of the problems.(Crainic et al 2009)

According to the Visser et al '(1999) the biggest problems for City Logistics is pollution, noise, safety, congestion, burglary, costs, political considerations, a high percentage of in house transport, lack of reading, a high proportion of commercial traffic and poorutilization of vehicles.

1.3 Effects of growing cities on City Logistics

Cities around the world has grown steadily, as more and more people migrate to cities to seek jobs and better living conditions.The growth of cities and urban areas in the 21century has put more pressure on resources and conditions of urban life.This movement of people across cities in different parts of the world has been made possible by revolutionary changes in the way travel is made affordable on a larger scale.More and more people in India can now afford air travel.Changes in air traffic has significantly affected the migration of people to different parts of the world for various social and economic reasons.Migration to developed countries from developing countries over the past two decades has increased several times.Cities like London, New York and many other U.S. cities have experienced a gradual increase in the number of migrants from developing countries like India, China and many Asian countries.The effects of both positive and negative is obvious by looking at the actions taken by various governments and councils to restrict immigration in order to cope with the stress on public services caused by migration.I'm sure that's not only the public services are affected.Services such as logistics is affected without an exception.
Increasing urban population and innovations in information technology has revolutionized the way we do business.It is now possible to buy and sell goods without leaving home.With the advent of the Internet e-commerce, although it made it easy for people to buy and sell goods, logistics is still involved in the transport of goods from seller to buyer.The growth of urban population has directly affected the city logistics as people consumed more goods and services, which in turn increased the pressure on goods delivery and traffic in urban areas.The effects are multi-fold.Human Populations have always presented environmental challenges and logistics is no exception.Companies have suddenly begun to look at outsourcing of logistics to specialized companies, so they can focus on their core business activities.Companies servicing the logistics are now in great demand.This has put all other related services in demand and hence affect the entire logistics chain for a great program.
City management boards have to spend billions of dollars to improve the city's infrastructure to cope with growth.They need to look for innovate solutions to growth.This is not confined to big cities like London, New York.Cities in developing countries like India and China are also increasingly under pressure to improve the city's infrastructure to cope with double digit growth over the last decade.Cities like Bangalore and New Delhi have to look at solutions to ease congestion, reduce pollution and improve the quality of urban life.This has led to the development of public transport projects such as Metrorail.The whole scenario resembles a viscous circle.Since services and livelihoods, urban population is improved, more and more people attend urban population and this in turn increases pressure on the city administration and this continues.
But one thing is constant.Dependence of the logistics of meeting this demand for a clear growth in cities and for the needs of developmental projects are never ending task.City Logistics must meet the ever increasing demand for more resources for consumption by villagers.Governing Council City Council throughout the world have realized the need to act on the city's population growth, congestion, and logistics and so on.Some of the cities in Sweden have implemented projects to improve good distributions to reduce congestion, save costs and also reduce the harmful effects of various forms of pollution.I would like to discuss a simple example of how the old town of Stockholm, as implemented solution to manage demand on the city's logistics.

1.4 Logistic Centre for Old Town of Stockholm

Co-transport of goods is the key word used in the development of the concept.The old town of Stockholm is situated on a small island and is known for its narrow and small streets.Business has been setup and run with little or no space for storage, and therefore directly affects the supply of good periodically one day to meet the consumption demand.This has directly affected the congestion and noise pollution, and safety of residents.The impact of this chaos is so large that it required about 150 000 deliveries in a single day to meet the needs of businesses around the city.
To solve this problem a local company named "Home 2 you" with civic authorities have setup logistics center that coordinates and provides relatively better opportunities for supplying goods to the city's businesses.This coordination has shown dramatic effects on the good distribution.The system has reduced the number of direct deliveries to stores.This has directly reduced congestion, decreased noise and air pollution, and providing safe environment for visitors and thereby improve quality of life for villagers.Besides the above efforts, they have also limited delivery times in the off-peak hours, and this has led to savings of stores.They have begun to take fewer deliveries.
After analyzing the implications of creating a city logistics center on a trial basis, they have expanded services to other businesses and other areas in the city.The logistics center has reduced the small supply of the average of 17 percent and increase mileage for shops and restaurants.Once it has been proven popular, more and more companies were expected to deliver goods to logistics distribution center in place of direct delivery to stores.They have successfully managed the demand and they have been able to handle pressure to improve urban life in a better way.This model is produced by the city of Stockholm.There are several other similar initiatives started by civic and entrepreneurs worldwide cities.

Chapter-2: Literature Review

The solutions of logistics is in the city is not a great advantage for city logistics, but it would be an attempt to monitor deliveries and handle them in a better way in urban areas.The main objective result or solution to the problems facing the city logistics will be to reduce collisions between logistics companies and stakeholders in the supply of goods Jesus Munuzuri, Juan Larran ETA Luis Onieva, Pablo Corte Union concluded that the congestion problems and its impact on citylogistics and implementation of transportation goods system is not satisfactory, the result of research, must not change the current government policy.In this type of situation Jesus's Munuzuri, Juan Larran ETA Luis Onieva, Pablo Corte's suggesting that those things should be left as they are, because he believes that the changes could undermine the economic conditions if the solutions used in a particular areawhere it may be beneficial for another.

After a few researchers have made a plan for city logistics of finding a solution for urban transport which is associated with several issues like congestion, environmental and pollution to the total satisfaction activities of private businesses with the advanced information available with them focusing on the citylogistics with many things in mind such apart from those mentioned above, such as health and safety, energy conservation and keeping the commercial economy in mind (Taniguchi et al, 2001) has identified several ideas related to logistics and few of them are as followsI might consider them for my design or model for solutions to city logistics example.Underground freight transport systems, public transport systems such as the London transport system, etc. (Taniguchi et al, 2001) also gave us a route planning and scheduling model (VRPTW-D) with real time travel information and the test result is a decrease in the cost of collecting goods pickupand delivery trucks by 3.7%, which was compared with VRPTW-F model, which takes information from the previous day.Another important aspect was the penalties were reduced by airlines using real travel time that gives better service.The final and important were related to congestion and costs to set up everything using the VRPTW-D model.

The municipal sector offers a range of services related to logistics and to benefit society, most of them are based on the routing problem (VRP) demand from a single repository, using a similar car Capacitated and vehicles movinga steady speed.Since its first formulation of Dantz and Ramses (1959), problems, provide solutions for routing problems which face in the real in our daily lives.

This journal tells us about problems in Finland, especially on the delivery system of health care for older people.In this journal, we can clearly analyze solutions for future problems related to (VRP) and cost effectiveness of the local municipality.This paper concludes with the limitations of funding opportunities for the effectiveness of software to be used on home care and transportation and delivery for older people.

We see many different problems in different areas of supply chain and logistics sector.Recently, to eliminate these problems they have introduced soft skills, Information Technology can be used for this sector where we can identify and reduce the questions that minimum and further research can be done to solve the problems.

In this paper the author suggests that the use of logic is the best practice techniques to solve problems in supply chain management especially in manufacturing management and shopping area.The use of neural networks can increase sales and performance.The introduction of IT as a tool which was useful for the decisions that managers on major issues like the relation between logistics, manufacturer relations.

Another important aspect of IT, e-commerce, which can make life easy by finding solutions to the issues in the logistics segment and supply chain management and the author also suggests that they can solve many problems by integrating and implementing IT andsoft skills are not only the limited part, but also for the end user of the manufactured products.

The reverse logistics has many negative effects of it, such as time, cost, environmental, transportation, etc. to combat this type of questions that are growing day by day we have a very good IT support to reduce it to minimumand such unpredictable and uncertain events of reverse logistics should be addressed by a high

tech value added service where we can reuse, repair, reproduced and re-package of products should be using the latest information technology available worldwide, which can reduce the cost of logistics and transportation costs by 10% annually.

The journal tells of the paper and the role that globalization plays in Taipei border, ethnic business networks in particular he author developed a theory that fits the issues of globalization of cities that want to develop their regions by transnationalism.Trans-border economic networks shows that the economic basis for Taipei City evolved from acting on new structure of the city in the early 1990's.The city's role as an interface city that is connected to both Silicon Valley and China's coastal cities, especially Shanghai and discuss coordination and regulation and political tensions associated with cross-border investment a number of issues concerning City's long term development.Finally the paper ends with considerations about the global city debate and points to two problems that are related to development and transnationalism.

In this journal the author tells us about the city weather, and how badly it had been effected by transportation, which mainly focuses some of the larger cities are facing difficulties to control the weather condition, which affected the transport system.But the large capacity vehicle produces the large amount of NO2 and other toxic gases have a major impact on the planet, which leads to global warming and green house emissions should be checked to save the environment, traffic accidents by large trucks involved in logistics, someCommon problems

In this journal the author tells about the implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for city logistics and talk about price reductions, reduced so that individual companies and consumers are changing their behavior and this had an influence on the city's logistics system.Another important aspect is the e-commerce, which makes life easy for consumers, especially if they want to buy a product they want at their door step.This technology has a huge impact on logistics, as this was an increase in the movement of trucks, and it had an increase in traffic congestion and environmental problems.

This enables companies to monitor demand via the Internet makes it possible to produce certain products exclusively on the demand and reduce the stock in the warehouse and transport demand in the same time organizations can use the Internet and intelligent transportation systems (ITS) to find solutions to problemsthey face in real time real time.It used to purchase transportation services from third-party logistics (3PL).This implies that the Internet and ITS can provide efficiency in logistics, where multiple possibilities for e-commerce emerge in the near future.ICT has changed the logistics completely, we found that the Internet and ITS, and showed its influence not only on the city's logistics system, but also the B2C and B2B e-commerce but also e-logistics, e-fleet management LAN amends S2L and L2L market for logistics servicesand it is an improvement of logistics operations of freight companies with ITS.It is known that the e-commerce and mobile commerce will continue to grow the market, although it was said earlier that we do not know whether the net amount of consumer spending would rise, but know that it is increasing with ahigh speed.The freight can be reduced by outsourcing logistics services to other parties.ICT will provide the government more effective measure to implement the policies at the city's logistics to provide the basic transport and information infrastructure and also data on the digital maps and traffic information.

Implications of ICT difficulties when comparing data from different countries by stating the major concepts and setting out the basic indicators provide more and better performance of ICT.

This book has all the current and future issues related to logistics and distribution planning, it has many useful ideas and practical information on several topics covering the logistics strategy, global expansion, supplier and buyer relationships, performance, storage and distribution strategies acrossclock it also has information on customer priorities, and it also tells us how well organized logistics management can reduce costs and still offer a better service.It has a list of pros and cons of various strategies related to customer service.

The author who was born in 1952, he was educated at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, he was several years experience in teaching and he was also responsible for computer and organizational nature and industrial enterprises.In this book, he discussed the developments in e-business, concepts, functions and concepts of supply chain management and also discussed the master planning measures in depth.He drew up a series of measures on stock calculation and determination of factors serve to level the maximum.He also included the clarification, modification of terminology, which covers the planning and management of the supply chain, suggestions and techniques were also driven many concrete examples from industry were also taken into account.

In this journal the author talked about the importance of integration of the logistics solution to efficiency and effectiveness of performances, where he talks about the integration of structure, which consists of logistics services, shipping, IT vendors, infrastructure providers, marketing, regulatory bodies etc.In this journal he also clearly marked with the implementation of the various stages of industry projects related to supply chain management by taking examples based on

practical issues that arise in the industry, which can also be used for other business activities with integration.

The author gave enormous information on how to handle the problems that electronic data interchange (EDI), although it is a time consuming process for its implementation.This journal and the result of it is very important to implement EDI globally.Data over 50 companies have used for research purposes and to bring out this journal.The authors have identified the main issues in the United States, standards for EDI links with trading partners, the level of support from top management and their commitment to their work, the available data on value added networks (VANS), the security and audit control issues identified as important factors forto achieve success.But there has to be some disadvantages and problems in his research with the following factors in telecommunication infrastructure, international vans, hard country's laws dealing with global trade and security issues in electronic data was the main issue.

In this journal the author clearly tells us that substantial growth in the near future and he will also indicate whether the challenges and business models for the future where he sees the constant growth in logistics infrastructure.He sees many opportunities to develop business models for logistics and the long term.In his diary he focuses on the challenges that I believe in my thesis, which deals with the growth in trade, freight movements, stocks, and he talks about preserving the economic and environmental sustainability, he also stressed "about the efficiencies forabove questions.The city logistics is a way for labor, travel, skilled workers from many other opportunities that are related to it both domestically and globally.

In this article author describes about the benefits of the city of Melbourne through the implementation of city logistics in its enterprise architecture.It outlines in detail that the motive behind implementing logistics city not to have a temporary solution to the economy, but to achieve long-term economic stability and sustainability.The business architecture Melbourne has been shown to have a reliable infrastructure which has been constantly trying to maintain economic stability.On the other hand, logistics city provides an opportunity to develop business models for achieving their future goals.It describes how the economic, social and environmental requirements can be met through implementing measures enterprise architecture that focuses on collaboration business model.Different types of workers can be generated through logistic city, which can then be used in accordance with their skills in different parts of the economy as business customers to national or international markets, etc.

In this journal the author for the optimization of logistics system in cities, taking into account the benefits and various schemes for the benefit of residents and private sectors related to freight and forwarding business.With the idea of congestion and environmental problems which can be minimized from the above study.This paper also tells us about the programs and development using mathematical computerized models that can be used for planning to develop and predict the future of logistics in urban areas.

This article was published by CRRELT authors evaluated solutions to the problems associated with transportation system faces in planning City Logistics.The author explains how we can minimize freight transport problems in urban cities, which favors all aspects of city development such as environmental issues.City Logistics encourages an advance transport system for a city where we can get all customers different business sections to collaborate with each other and work towards using environmentally friendly vehicles efficiently.In this article the author introduces a completely new task class & brings forward a general model with its systematic elements and identify those cities where it can be implemented for better results.

In this journal the author indicates the group based logistics resource and
allocation procedures for demand in city logistics and distribution segment.The examination paper that was developed was found with the five development procedures (i) demand (i) customers (iii) customer locations (iv) container assignment and (v) transport-related tasks.In this case study were several findings regarding time management, different customers for data and logistic resources quickly with an effective resource in the town of logistics tasks.The results of the study by the writer tells us that the operating costs and average delivery time was reduced by 27.4% and total costs reduced by 8.7%.

Another key issue of transportation logistics is to maintain transportation during animal disease outbreaks.This article aims to transport procedure of vehicles traveling to and from farms and between farms can be managed in a safe and efficient manner.This type of transport process can be embedded in veterinary geographic information system to manage animal disease outbreaks.As mentioned in the article transport logistics problem in this case can be divided into two categories.

1stRound Itineraries - which is where the sales person's problems such as how to plan his trip after his convenience.
2ndOne-to-one services-This category focuses on the use of heuristic, user-friendly ways routes.

This type of transport process is developed in such a way that certain lines will meet national and international rules in disease out breaks, intern helps in having safe and secure transportation.

In the above article the author primarily focuses on three major problem areas of urban logistics, which is the free movement of goods in the inner part of urban politics freight need to be re considered as the author believes that they are ineffective and another important aspect wasthat cities grew very rapidly and logistics services were unable to obtain the phase of this significant growth in European cities.The author previously worked for about six years with large metropolitan transportation authorities and with the French government research

program on "Goods in Cities" and "Best Urban Freight Solutions" and "European Network".After several years of work, he came out with a conclusion about the problems of urban freight industry, which should provide for immediately providing efficient service in city logistics.Indeed, many initiatives coming forward to make the sector more efficient in how it treats the past mainly focused on environmental issues and the scope of services for industry.

The author gave enormous information on how to handle the problems that electronic data interchange (EDI), although it is a time consuming process for its implementation.This journal and the result of it is very important to implement EDI globally.Data over 50 companies have used for research purposes and to bring out this journal.The authors have identified the main issues in the United States, standards for EDI links with trading partners, the level of support from top management and their commitment to their work, the available data on value added networks (VANS), the security and audit control issues identified as important factors forto achieve success.But there has to be some disadvantages and problems in his research with the following factors in telecommunication infrastructure, international vans, hard country's laws dealing with global trade and security issues in electronic data was the main issue.

During research carried out the author has come with new and different problems in the city logistics.Stakeholders are not financially sound to support the changes to be done in fast moving goods service he finds out that this has an effect on the city's logistics systems at all.Apart from the above is that the government sets new rules especially for freight in the logistics field for urban areas that support customers and local businesses primarily consider the various aspects of weather and pollution.Another problem in the city logistics is to create a new business where it is a very risky option and with low profits or can also end up in losses.

The author also proposed some measures that can be performed, and some are given during the first, he hopes that local carriers interested in improving the way of his business is part of urban policy and planning.The author also says that it seems simple, but it has its own problem in relation to the law (French).The author suggests that the inner transportation practitioners and planning department to work closely together to eliminate the problems of transport.He says that 'No zoning regulation "should be designed without prior approvals from the transport department to forget about off-street and on street parking.A proper supply or parking bays should be created while constructing new buildings or industries.

He also mentions about the size, weight, control of vehicle pollution to be monitored, last but not least, I think he says that the wide range of consultations should be done with business managers of transportation and logistics, while actively involved in decisions whilerules so that practical and all the related problems while making cities more comfortable place to live with the environment and a sound noise-free zone, which improves living standards.

Some of the challenges for city logistics, as described in the work Ramokgopa, LN is the economic, social, road safety and the environment.In economic terms, he says that the challenges will mainly be to save the costs incurred, the social factors that must be attributed to traffic accidents that occur as a result of heavy population congestion in cities.Road safety challenges can be attributed, according to Mr. Ramokgopa, LN, to the design of roads, design of the car, and other traffic issues.Pollution caused by these vehicles will be one of the biggest challenges for the environment.

As a recommendation, he says that the city logistics are not absolute concept and tool in urban planning.He says: 'There may be areas that perhaps not enough to offer solution. The city environment is complex because it always attracts all kinds of activities, especially economic and financial and as such demand for urban space will almost always exceed its availability. It is therefore important for proper planning to take residents, business associations, politicians and NGOs to create a favorable environment may lead to an easier time to implement the necessary changes. "

He also says that the role players must be aware of the necessary changes before they can be implemented, and the challenge is to turn corporate organization 'logistics functions from a short-term perspective to a long term one and to ensure supply chain competitiveness.Among other things, he suggested possible measures as:

  • 1stDevelopment of freight plans.
  • 2ndDeveloping strategies for logistics and related services
  • 3rdCollection of existing statistics and data on urban freight movement.
  • 4thIdentification of the effectiveness of existing measures and operations.
  • 5thInvestigate viability of HGV dedicated routes.
  • 6thBetter use of incident management information
  • 7thDeveloping ITS to improve access, safety and reduced congestion
Mr. Ramokgopa, L.N.proposes to integrate all these elements to ensure sustainability and competitiveness of cities.

Introduction of IT in the logistics industry especially with the introduction of B2c E commerce has made a major impact on the city's logistics.In a research project which is based in Germany, funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research in 2003, it was found that B2c E-commerce introduction has led to a reduction of the private shopping traffic in cities, but there has been ansignificant increase in traffic driving to deliver goods to customers homes.This research has been led by Klaus Essar and Judith Kurt on behalf of Kurt & Esser, Gbr, Germany.In this research it was found that due to the introduction of this new shopping facility customer traffic to the stores have come down.This means that traffic in consumers also have come down drastically.At the same time the traffic of the vehicles delivering goods to consumers has gone up.According to K. Essar and J. Kurt delivery traffic statistics for 2003 and estimates for the year 2006 was

City Centre Delivery Traffic

(Million vehicle kilometres)





Chapter-3: Research Methodology

3.0 Advantages of Integration of Works

  • The Freight Logistics Industry in a city consisting of storage and distribution of wide-ranging goods and commodities.
  • Each company has its own design and structure in place for its logistics operations.
  • The increasing number of logistical operations within the parameters of a metropolitan city like London would increase pressure on a number of factors, both internal and external to an organization or a logistics operation.
  • The external factors that will allow Transportation facilities in the city, environment, pollution and other factors when the public, city administration and business are all stakeholders or interested parties.
  • The internal factors will become operational costs, variable costs, capital costs and other similar factors, where the parties are players in the organization.
  • A significant portion of efficiency could be achieved both external and internal factors of Logistics Operations through innovative integration of Works

I would like to explain the concept of integration of works using an example:

There are many courier companies in London.All of these courier companies have their own facilities for storage, sorting and distribution of tools but most of these operational opportunities for Logistics structures are not used to the optimum level and there is a significant amount of wastage.There is waste in the form of storage space, office Operations, Staff from all these organizations are domestic factors.

Courier Companies may be a common office space to an extent possible, especially when it comes to their ground handling activities in ports.This would reduce the operational costs for a company.

Meanwhile, in the form of external factors is a waste in terms of levels of use of distribution vehicles, fuel and energy and distribution staff.

All these factors have a spillover effect on a number of other factors that affect not only the organization or company, but also the wider public, and administration.
The concept can be further explained by taking a special study of a courier company account.

DTDC or desk To Desk Courier Company is an Indian company with operations in London with both external and internal courier services targeted at different destinations around the world and receiving courier packages / letters from various destinations worldwide.
Courier companies do carry a high degree of integration in some parts of the overall logistics of their business operations.Specifically actual transfer of the courier letters and packages from airport to witness the "integration of work, however, the same degree of integration can be applied to many other phases of the overall logistics of courier companies.
The other areas where integration of work can be applied are as follows:

3.1 Office Space

Courier companies could be a common office space for a possible extent, especially when it comes to their ground handling operations in ports.This would reduce the operating costs of a company.

3.2 Distribution and Collection

The distribution is the area of general business logistics messaging integration of work will be a significant change and offer solutions to the problems that day town Logistics.

To begin with, the distribution is a great marketing tool to many companies already established national and international courier.Courier vans have their company logo on the sides of vehicles and provide a very effective way to advertise on the respective companies with relatively minimal cost advertising.Thus courier companies pride themselves on their own vehicles for distribution in the city.
Could be the integration of technology works through innovative, well-working distribution patterns of distribution, a significant reduction achieved in the number of vehicles used in a normal working day for all the courier companies for distribution and collection.

In a city like London where there are many bottlenecks in the entire city.Every small reduction of used cars of all public sector business and the city a direct impact in reducing traffic in general

Many courier companies offer Collection Services, including Same Day collection services for a premium cost.A client may be glad to pay the extra costs, and the company provides services, but the question of what the price will be too many external factors are untouched and unanswered.This is where the integration of work among courier companies will come into play.

A better management of the collections can be done in a more environmentally friendly way by adopting innovative methods and especially with advanced and "green" use of technology.

For example, if a group of courier companies meet and maintain a joint office only for collections 100 collections from 10 different parts of the city must be on behalf of 10 companies, instead of 10 to 15 vehicles out to continue the same number of collections.

Such integration would reduce traffic, emissions of greenhouse gases, reduces noise and many other factors affecting the environment in a city.The technology can be used to maintain and achieve such integrated operations need not necessarily be expensive, but it is not managed effectively serve the common objectives and targets companies.It requires only minor modifications of existing technology Operations majority of courier companies with a small degree of integration with other businesses in the proposed consortium for the integration of distribution and collection

3.3 Global Warming / The Environment

Global Warming, the biggest challenge facing humanity today.The scientific evidence is growing every day to prove that man made pollution is the biggest contributor to the increase of the levels of greenhouse gases, which ultimately contributes to the warming of our world and create catastrophic climate change make our daily lives and it is increasing inmore and more corners of the globe.
It is imminent that we are aware of this growing problem and are working to minimize the effects of global warming.

Even though there are skeptics about the science behind Global Warming, it is high time to stop discussing and start acting.

Many efforts are made to bring a consensus among global nations towards consensus in emission reductions of greenhouse gases, but with minimal or near zero results.

Kyoto Protocol was a failure, and the recently concluded United Nations conference on global warming was considered to be a pretty successful event as a sort of agreement with the emission reductions associated with some of the biggest polluters in the world: the United Stated of Americaand China, but emission reductions reduction target of 17% agreed the U.S. would become a law and get implemented when it is passed and adopted by the United Stated Senate and House of Representatives and it is no easy task for the bill to be transmitted on Capitol Hill,and it is more likely to never emerge victorious from Capitol Hill.
Therefore, the challenge is Global Warming solved efficiently when it is treated in several small and basic levels instead of at national and international level, or at least take the first step.

Thus, global warming and pollution in general is clear and present challenge for City Logistics.The fact that the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by Intra-urban world is much more that they are emitted from commercial airlines shows the need to act quickly and swiftly working towards significantly reducing the emissions of a city to city basis.

City logistics mainly contributes to traffic in a city and is the biggest polluter, in the form of greenhouse gases, noise, from the fact the largest user of roads in the city and help to increase the density of traffic in cities.

City Logistics has a responsibility for global warming pollution.It is highly recommended to City Logistics must turn to Environmentally Friendly Initiatives and take a step in the overall contribution to reducing global warming.
The environmentally friendly initiatives can be many, and some might appear as follows:

  • Effective management of operations to reduce and avoid waste
  • Innovative concepts such as integration of work
  • Use of biofuels and investing or conducting vehicles running on alternative fuels in their operations.
These few leaders and major environmental initiatives Logistics City will be a great springboard to combat the threat from global warming and maintain cleaner and greener cities.

3.4 Future City Logistics

We have discussed about what the city logistics concerns, problems and challenges as Logistics service, City governing bodies, environmental impacts and risks to growth in freight transport in cities.We have rightly pointed to the need to focus on sustainable city logistics, if we ever need to meet the growing demand for cleaner, greener and safer logistics in cities.While government plays the role of regulator to promote innovative solutions, private companies and government have to do their part to improve the scenario.

Living conditions improved in developing countries would put enormous burden on all stakeholders to meet this growing need to provide cleaner and safer logistics.As developed countries find innovative solutions to unique problems in cities, they should be more than willing to offer technology solutions and implementation assistance to developing countries.

Some figures are drawn from "Sustainable urban transport plans" published in September 2007 to characterize the importance of freight transport in cities:
  • Urban freight is typically between 20% and 25% on road space use (use x hours)
  • Urban transport typically contribute between 10% and 20% of Urban Road Traffic (vehicle x km)
  • In 2030, 45% of transportation-related energy consumption is expected to be caused by freight
  • In 2030, freight tonne-kilometers are expected to grow by 63%
We need all the involved parties work together in coordination if we were to produce the right results on time.Identification of stakeholders and ensure that all stakeholders are aware and adequately trained in all aspects of logistics to achieve the final result of providing clean, sustainable and secure logistics.The identified stakeholders are:
  • Producers of goods / Traders (Shippers)
  • Supply Chain Logistics companies (freight carriers),
  • Consumer
  • Civic authorities in the town, state and national level
Now that we have identified the stakeholders, it is necessary to understand that all stakeholders may or may not share the same views and responsibility to accept the need to change the way we do business together.This can lead to conflicts between different stakeholders.However, it is clear that a trend surface to face the challenges.

According to stakeholders the problems of city logistics are quite different and they range from overloading, loading and unloading duration taxes, sound and air pollution and safety.All these reasons have a direct impact on the sustainability of urban areas.Questions can cities sustain growth momentum or will they fall under their own weight in flux matter?Environmental issues, accessibility issues can bring alive, colorful and sustainable urban areas.Goods distribution systems are also influenced by the range of issues described above.

However, the survey shows that there are many solutions to the problems encountered and can be roughly divided into four categories.

"Functional effects which deals with the city as a whole and especially the technical response to the need for circulation and simultaneously integrate the flows of goods in the total traffic;

Consequences of the economy since the performance of freight transport is related to quality and efficiency of the road;

Integration of planning, because the frequency and occupation of space is actually closely related to accessibility for both people and goods;

Social and environmental impacts that have a direct impact on quality of life."

It is not the only solutions we have to look at, but rather optimized methods are needed to address the entire spectrum of topics.All parties concerned should make concerted effort in making these solutions duties.We not only need solutions to existing issues but also develop innovative ways to distribute products deliver innovative and efficient mass transportation, economic policy changes beneficial green technologies to reduce carbon emissions.Other aspect to be taken seriously, are affordable for innovative technologies that are developed.They should be made available to developing countries in emissions from developing countries like China and India are expected to rise in spite of voluntary emission reductions achieved both Asian giants.Western countries have changed the way that cooking gas is distributed to homes.Countries like India still has old distribution methods.Cooking gas cylinders are still distributed across several Indian cities suffocation city's roads with distribution trucks.With over one billion people, India may find it difficult to resolve the whole spectrum of issues at once, but given enough importance and attention, can strategists and experts propose innovative solutions that can handle such issues.

Governments around the world have increased spending on a large scale mass transport and green transport solutions.More and more citizens are encouraged to use public transport to enjoy a pleasant trip by train instead of unpleasant, congested ride of a car.Local councils have developed offsite parking initiatives such as park and ride.Park and ride schemes to help reduce congestion in cities as consumers or customers can park the vehicles in a designated parking space outside the cities and then travel with the mass transport by train or a bus.In some cases, free travel available to the city, and when a portion of their cards at offsite parking locations.Cities like London have set limits on city tours and enforce congestion charging in central London to prevent motorists from driving on busy roads and reduce congestion and pollution.When it is pleasant to travel by mass transportation, consumers are encouraged to leave their cars behind at home and hop on a bus or train.This will increase capacity utilization.Companies such as Transport for London should aim to increase capacity utilization by using IT tools to analyze travel patterns, peak travel times, and busy routes.Collected data must be used to increase capacity utilization, to reduce emissions.

Solutions to more complex issues requires methods to identify the data to analyze and research to identify new solutions.Two types of approaches have been used to identify and implement solutions to urban logistics.First method is practical experimentation and the second is based on modeling.Experimental method was used by cities and they have given information.A first list of measures that describe the consequences of urban freight was prepared by the COST 321 Action, where 60 measures were identified and classified according to eight categories: logistical measures, modal choice, price policies, infrastructure development and planning, transport, technical measuresconcerning the vehicle, measures relating to driving and "other measures".Subsequently, the European Commission launched several actions, including BESTUFS network.

About modeling power, although the first model of urban movement was developed in 1974, has more realistic approach has been created since the early 1990's.They fall into two categories: models based on products and models based on different dynamics.At the recent macro-economic models seemed to simulate the spatial distribution of goods between different zones in the city and create original trip destination matrices.This led to the design of software-based simulation tools, among them FRETURB © (France), GOOD TRIP © (Netherlands) and WIVER © (Germany), all three based on a different dynamic.

Technological innovations such as RFID technology to label every product will revolutionalise the way we distribute goods and the way we shop.CIVITAS Initiative has identified eight categories of innovative measures that form the base blocks of holistic approach to solving logistical problems.Cities can now select the action from CIVITAS categories and combine them find practical solutions to the unique problems each city faces.

The categories identified by CIVITAS is
  • Access restrictions
  • Clean fuels and vehicles
  • Collective Passenger Transport
  • Demand Management Strategies
  • Integrated pricing strategies,
  • Less car intensive lifestyleSafe and Secure travel
  • Soft measures
  • Transport Management
  • Urban Goods Transport

CIVITAS has used the above measures for the past 5 consecutive years refining them based on case study results and also based upon the implemented solutions.Each measure has sub steps to resolve the deeper questions.Cities have implemented several solutions to make changes in vehicles used for urban supply, used effective IT tools for optimized routing, designating loading / unloading zones in cities, creating urban distribution centers and so on.The solutions developed by CIVITAS used throughout Europe.One of the German cities Gdansk never been a Traffic Management Solution before.But CIVITAS has been involved in designing and planning of Intelligent Traffic Management System to resolve problems with key populated area of Gdansk.

3.5 CITY Logistics Global Developed Cities

3.5.0 New Design

I would like to explain an example from earlier, where three towns in Denmark carried out theoretical analysis and research to create efficient transport logistics for their three cities.

3.5.1 Tri-City Cooperation

During the 1990s, and Germany, Holland and Switzerland have carried out a series of pilot projects on alternative models of distribution centers - known as the city's logistics - while Denmark primarily performed theoretical analysis and research projects.

In 1995 the City of Copenhagen established a working group to use a solution model for a specific project.

Exploration of alternative solutions, and testing of alternative models in smaller urban areas led three Danish municipalities - Aalborg, Aarhus and Copenhagen - preparing a joint program for development of freight transport in urban areas.The primary goal is to create transportation solutions for the benefit of the city environment, in terms of road safety, air and noise pollution, accessibility, energy consumption, safety and the visual environment.This applies to the transportation of goods and services to and from urban areas.At the same time freight level playing field for retailers in the city area and major shopping malls outside the city.

Other objectives are to ensure the sharing and dissemination of experiences and to maintain consistency in the various pilot projects be undertaken.This prevents the implementation in Denmark of different arrangements, which would require unreasonable demands on the nationwide airlines.

The three cities have also begun developing experiments to test different models and parameters for the city's logistical.The three cities and the Ministry of Transport has created a steering committee, which has established a joint forum - Forum for City Logistics - with its own secretariat.The guiding principle behind the creation of Secretariat is a practical, experience-based approach to the problems rather than a theoretical approach.

The aim is:
  • Establishing a forum for new ideas and solutions for efficient transport of goods.
  • To teach and learn from other European countries.
  • If you want to share our experience and expertise to municipalities in Denmark and other European countries.
Secretariat of the Forum coordinate pilot projects in three cities, and otherwise act as a consultant to other Danish municipalities.A municipality can draw on the knowledge and resources of the Secretariat for advice on a city logistics project.The Secretariat also collects information in the form of reports, studies and other documents and make this knowledge accessible to other similar projects.Another task is to network with Danish and international actors such as public authorities, organizations, carriers and shippers and receivers of goods.

3.6 Copenhagen - Certification Scheme

In February 2002, Copenhagen implement a mandatory certification scheme in the old medieval center with capacity requirements and engine technology.The system is regulated by environmental zone scheme as the first project approved by the Ministry of Transport.

The purpose of the experiment is to reduce the environmental impact of freight traffic in the center and make the narrow medieval streets more accessible.In a two-year trial is scheduled to vans and trucks can only deliver goods in the town where they have a certificate.The certification covers both suppliers and transporters who supply goods to shops and residents.
The old medieval center has an area of one km2 and 6,000 vans and trucks driving into the area each day.Only 15% of these vehicles are loaded more than 60% and more than half of them less than 20%.Better capacity utilization will reduce the number of vehicles and reduce the visual impact from street traffic.
The mandatory trial is designed from a 1 ½ year voluntary trial, where 80 carriers met the requirements certification scheme.

3.7 Aalborg - Transportation Coordination

In 1996 Aalborg conducted a thorough investigation of charges and the potential for rationalization.In 1999 a preliminary analysis was conducted to investigate the basis for the establishment of a city logistics company.This has resulted in a coordination of the transportation project in which Danish Cargo Men and Post Denmark jointly undertake the distribution of goods to selected areas in the city in collaboration with the recipients of the goods.Initially focused on voluntary measures to ensure a more efficient freight transport.This means that beneficiaries will receive the goods on time, the carriers benefit from a more efficient transport, and the number of cars in the city reduced.

3.8 Aarhus - environmental zone Scheme

Aarhus intends to implement a trial environmental zone scheme for the network of pedestrian streets.The primary objective of the scheme is to reduce the size and weight of vehicles to solve the problem of vehicles destroying the visual environment, making noise, emission of exhaust gases and destructive street circuit.The intention is to introduce a maximum total weight to 6,000 kg limit.Moreover, the demands on engine technology and capacity introduction

3.9 Projects in the Tri-city Cooperation

The projects in the three cities Copenhagen, Aalborg and Aarhus are described here in more detailed terms and the current status of the project is also presented.

3.9.0 Copenhagen

From February 2002 Copenhagen Municipality is carrying out an experimental two years notice in the center of Copenhagen.The announcement will have implications for all indigenous and foreign vehicles, which have a combined weight over 2,500 kg Certificate for the Medieval City

From February 2002 all trucks and vans than 2,500 kg shall be required to have a license to stop in the heart of Copenhagen city center.The network of streets that comprise this area are from the Middle Ages, and therefore the name of the medieval city:

Number of trucks and vans has been steadily increasing number makes it hard to navigate in the Medieval City's small winding streets and leading to increasing traffic density.

For these reasons, the political arm of the Copenhagen Municipality decided to implement a mandatory two-year trial notice - City Goods Ordinance - with the goal of reducing and / or the size of trucks and vans that run in the medieval City.

The following No Stop signs are placed on all city streets that fall within the range:

The Three Types of Certificates the City Goods Ordinance stipulates that from February 1st 2002, all lorries and delivery vans over 2,500 kg in total weight are subject to a fine of DKK 510 (68 €) if they park in the Medieval City without a certificate.

There are three types of City Goods Certificates:

  • The green certificate costs DKK 325 (€ 44) and is valid for the entire two year trial period.To be eligible for green certificates, 60% of the vehicle load capacity must be utilized.In addition, motor vehicle not be older than 8 years.The Green Certificate gives exclusive right to use 20 special loading zones established under the City Goods Ordinance.
  • The yellow certificate - costs DKK 325 (€ 44) and is valid for six months.This certificate serves as an opportunity for those vehicles which cannot meet the Green Certificate's restrictions.
  • The Red Certificate - costs 50 kroner (€ 7) and is valid for one day.This certificate is intended as a service for these supplies, which only occasionally comes into the innermost parts of Copenhagen Centre.Red certificate can be purchased at City Gods Secretariat and at petrol stations are on the street leading into the designated area in Copenhagen.
  • Application forms for the green or yellow certificate can be obtained at City Gods Secretariat or can be printed from the Internet.There is no specific application form for the red certificate.In the period from May 2001 to December 2001 the flow of goods in Slotsgade has Aalborg been recorded and analyzed. Results Among other things provided interesting information about delivery times and the scale and quantity of goods.

The status of the project in Aalborg later was a period of registration. The transport record time to get into the city area and the size and scope of the goods in the period from 04/02/2002 to 30/04/2002. After this period of registration of different ideas will be tested in practice by carriers:

This test period was from 05/01/2002 until 03/31/2003 and participation is voluntary. After the trial members of the steering group shared their experiences.

3.9.1 Aarhus

In Århus city council approved a proposal to declare the pedestrian areas such as environmental zones.Trucks and vans over 6,000 kg, should not be allowed to stop in the area during the trial period.The aim is to reduce noise, emission of exhaust gases and damage to the street course.The reduction will be implemented as a result of small vans with a better capacity utilization.Aarhus has no experience at this time but want to use a lawsuit to collect information.Some of the goals listed below

  • To map the quantity of goods delivered in 5 central streets in the city.
  • To map and evaluate barriers against more efficient distribution.
  • To put up solutions to make distribution more effective.

3.9.2 Aalborg

In Denmark a case study has been made - the case is about “How to make the goods transportation more efficient in Aalborg?”

The results of this investigation show that:

  • It is possible to make the delivery of goods more efficient
  • A large theoretical potential for reducing the haulage in the city is possible.

The studies show that:

  • Many conflicts seem to appear between the city centre's function as a commercial zone and as an area where people live, shop and relax.
  • The lack of available space in the inner city can be regarded as one of the major city problems and underlines the demand for appropriate solutions.

In May 2000 - a Conference on Efficient Goods Transport was held in Aalborg. On a local basis one of the outputs from the Conference was the establishment of a local user group.

The aim of this local user group is:

  • To establish a forum where Public Authorities, The Police, Transport Suppliers and Goods Receivers (shopkeepers) can discuss ideas concerning Efficient Goods Transport in Aalborg.
  • To find solutions on Efficient Goods Transport that will benefit most of the partners involved.

This innovative scheme implemented by the three cities of Denmark could be closely studied and adopted partly if not fully by any major global developed city.

The city of London and other major cities of United Kingdom could implement schemes to control the freight logistics in the cities and work to better the environmental aspects.

Types of hypotheses-

  1. Inductive is a generalization based on specific observations.
  2. Deductive derived from theory and demonstrate that support, expand or contradict the theories.
  3. Non-directional - states that the relationship or difference between variables exist.
  4. Directional - called the expected direction of the relationship or difference.
AD Null - says that there is no significant correlation or difference between variables

This thesis is based on an inductive hypothesis method, which will be based on a specific observation, and it may also be related to a second hypothesis approach which must be clearly explained in my thesis.
Chapter-4: Results and Analysis

4.0 own research and suggestions

I have done my research in and around London town, mainly Courier companies.
I designed a Three Point questionnaire to gather information and establish a community of problems associated with general environmental issues in the city, primarily in the transport aspect of their activities.

The three questions were as follows:
  • What percentage of space utilized they think they achieve in their collection and distribution vehicles, on a day to day basis?
  • What is the relationship between the number of trips to collect the number of collected items, on a monthly basis?
  • Have the conviction that through cooperation and integration of work with other similar companies, a degree of kindness can city's transportation and environment?
By interviewing Operations Managers and storage and sorting Office Managers of various Courier and Freight Businesses around London town, the conclusions that I did is surprising.

When he was asked if maximum use of space, an overwhelming majority indicated that they could do much better when it comes to the use of space in their vehicles.A better use of space on the vehicle seems to be a minor point on his own and do not seem to make any difference, but if we add the space benefits of any car from a company in a whole month, adding that with the same benefitscross-sector Courier and Freight Companies aroung London / Greater London area and we therefore have a substantial gain on Transportation Structurein city and a positive impact on overall environmental conditions.

The relationship between the number of trips for the collection of numbers collected items is a very important parameter to measure the environmental consequences, especially when it comes to Courier companies.Almost every courier company offers a Premium Service for collection and delivery same day or within a time limit for a premium price.This is a Premium Services offered by enterprises, and such systems makes business sense for companies when they meet some specific customer needs.Customers are happy to pay the premium price.But Environment Prize is not treated at all.

For a problem of this nature, they would be very useful.A better way to manage this problem is to develop knowledge about the environmental impacts of the companies providing such services, and promote cooperation and integration of certain aspects of their activities.Finally, all most all leaders in the Courier and Freight companies I spoke with agree that most of their logistical aspects could NBE has reviewed and refined to make them more environmentally friendly by cooperation and integration of works.

Chapter-5: Conclusion

In the light of the above literature it has seen measure taken to solve the problem that highly impact the concept of City Logistics. Compared to the Cities discussed above generally different Cities needs different kind of solution and has to be kept in mind each solution need deep analysis before its implementation.

In every city, as far as the City Logistics are concerned there are two major players and a range of stake holders. The two major players are City Administration and Businesses. Apart from the above mentioned two players also being Stake holders, the general public is also another major stake holder.

Regulations implemented by the City Administration could achieve objectives to control the menaces of City Logistics to some extent. However, there is a golden rule that could be applied anywhere, anytime - CHANGE - Change has to come from within, Change when implemented externally would not last in it's entirety or would not last at all.

Therefore, I believe that a better understanding of the environmental effects of the menaces of City Logistics should be taken by all the businesses and administration and by everyone who contribute to it.

The onus is on the administration to inform and educate all the stake holders and then regulate the City Logistics operations.

From the study of my interviews and research and the proposals mentioned so far in my paper, I believe an effective change to the menaces of City Logistics could be achieved only by all of the stake holders working together.

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