Emotional Behavior Disorder (EBD) refers to emotional disorder(s) or behavior(s) that fall outside the norms of typical behavior, is often chronic in nature, and is considered socially or culturally unacceptable. Two organizations that focus on this disorder are Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA'04) which is federal. The CCBD concentrates on early identification and intervention supporting the idea that students can have more than one disability. IDEA's criterion for placement centers on emotional disturbance, however, they tend to exclude socially maladjusted students. There is no clear line to define the students who do or do not have emotional or behavior disorders. Many students go un-identified with having EBD due to social stigmas, lack of funding, and few assessments to facilitate identification. EBD fosters characteristics like aggression, bizarre behaviors, conduct disorders, fear, worry, and even withdrawing. EBD is assembled into three categories: externalizing behavior, internalizing behavior, and low incidence disorder. Externalizing behavior exposes aggression, impulse, and noncompliance. Internal behavior conceals inward feelings of anxiety, depression, loneliness, and withdrawing. Low incidence disorders occur very infrequently but are very severe when they occur. Schizophrenia, bizarre delusions, and hallucinations can be manifested with this type of disorder. Students with EBD are serviced under Response to Intervention (RTI). Tier one, involves implementation of teaching rules and consequences based on research of universal strategies for general classroom management. Tier two, focuses on small groups using self-control, self-monitoring, and self-management skills. Tier three, begins with a comprehensive functional behavior assessment. This assessment defines the target behavior and monitors it while collecting data. The data collected helps to develop an intervention plan that reflects antecedents and reinforces. Literature reveals that the dropout rate for students with EBD is 50-55% and they are at greater risk to be incarcerated. Literature for EBD provides techniques and strategies to service students with EDB such as, cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM), mediation, muscle relaxation, prevention strategies, self-management /parent participation, and training for specific praise. Being able to understanding what EBD is and how to apply techniques/ strategies provides a positive outcome for both the student and the teacher.
In the article, Cognitive 'Behavioral Interventions with Students with EBD, the authors Mayer, Lochman, and Acker explain that Cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) applies strategies and therapeutic techniques to teach individuals to participate in understanding and modifying their own thoughts and behaviors. CBM is based on the idea that inner speech facilitates behavior, therefore changing an individual's language results in behavior change. Cognitive- behavior intervention is used to treat a wide spectrum of disorders ranging from anger or aggression to schizophrenia and has been successful in a variety of settings. Therapeutic programs incorporate research from CBM as part of their intervention program. Coping Power Program, Second Step, The Incredible Years, and Tools for Getting Along Curriculum are among some of the these programs.
According to authors, Sutherland, Alder, and Gunter of the article, The Effect of Varying Rates of Opportunities to Respond to Academic Requests on Classroom Behavior of Students with EBD, describe how students with EBD struggle with academics. Difficulties in academic performance can occur from poor instructions, negative feedback, and little positive reinforcement. Placing EBD students in general education classrooms with teachers who have very little training on the characteristic of EBD or who lack intervention training on how to deal with these students intensifies the situations for both the teacher and the student. In the article, Training General Educators to Increase Behavior-Specific Praise: Effects on Students with EBD, the authors, Allday, Hinkson-Lee, Hudson, Neilsen-Gatti, Kleinke, and Russell, reveal that behavior 'specific praise (BSP) is effective in increasing on-task behavior. BSP gives a student praise that describes a specific behavior. This technique was used in training teachers using RTI. In tier 1, training focused on conditional praise along with verbal recommendations on ideal rates of praise. Tier 2 training gave teachers examples of BSP and looked at the ratio of positive to negative interactions. Tier 3 involved training by using scripts and modeling specific praise. After providing the teachers with training and coaching data reveals that teachers were able to increase behavior specific praise resulting in an increase in students engaging in classroom task. Physical aggression plays a role in student's academic success. Sutherland, Alder, and Gunter suggest that aggressive behavior may result in negative relationships with teachers. When a student displays bad behavior teachers often provide little academic instructions. By looking at opportunities to respond (OTR) this support students with EBD by allowing them response time, less disruptions, and increased engagement during a task.
Aggression in students with EBD is a challenge that teachers sometimes face. The authors Lopata, Nida, and Marable of the article, Progressive Muscle Relaxation: Preventing Aggression in Students with EBD reveals that three-fourths of students with EBD exhibit aggressive behavior. Reducing aggression in EBD students is essential due to the injuries that can be inflicted on peers, teachers, and the student themselves. The authors of this article noted that aggression plays on both the psychological and neurophysiological systems. EBD students can suffer from long- term effects including peer rejection and a long life of psychosocial problems. By identifying students with EBD and immediately beginning intervention allows aggressive students to follow a stable course. According to the authors of this article, arousal is the key element of physical aggression. One intervention strategy is known as reactive approach, which targets aggression as soon as or after escalation, begins. The second intervention strategy is known as the proactive approach which targets behavior before escalation begins. A technique used to decrease arousal and improve self-control is relaxation. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) works on the physiological response system of students with EBD by targeting the areas of arousal and aggression. PMR can reduce or prevent aggression by lowering respiration, blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle tension. The overall goal of PMR is to reduce any factors that may lead to aggression, thus leading students into self-regulation. PMR teaches students to focus their attention on specific muscle groups by tensing and relaxing the muscles. This is done by having the student lie on their back with arms to their side. The teacher will lead the class in this technique by walking the students through tensing and relaxing muscles while using a quite relaxing voice. This intervention strategy lessens the chance of aggression issues in the classroom.
In the article, Teacher-mediated interventions for children with EBD and their academic outcomes, the authors Pierce, Reid, and Epstein considered the effectiveness of teacher-mediated interventions and academics. Students who have EBD often struggle with academics. Teacher-mediated intervention is a technique in which the teacher takes responsibility for treatment. The teacher manipulates antecedents and/or consequences to improve academic performance. The studies based on this method suggest that teacher-mediated interventions can improve academics in students with EBD; however, it is important to note that this technique should be monitored while being implemented.
According to Cancio, West, and Young authors of the article, Improving mathematics homework completion, and accuracy of students with EBD through self-management and parent participation, references teaching parents of students with EBD to participate in homework completion program. This program focuses on helping students manage their own behavior. Prior to entering the program parents received a one hour and fifteen minutes training session. The training for parents is used to familiarize parents with homework procedures. Parents also receive training on self-managing homework skills and are given a notebook containing details about the program. Several case studies used in implementing self-management strategies and parental involvement reveals that many students after completing the program increased homework completion and accuracy. Prevention strategies for at-risk students and students with EBD in urban elementary schools written by authors Kamps, Kravits, Stolze, and Swaggart list several programs designed to provide universal preventions. Some of the programs were geared towards classroom management and social skills. By utilizing student in an urban elementary school, a team of experts was able to directly observe different groups in interaction and aggression. What the study found is that early prevention efforts should be given to positive behavioral support systems.
In conclusion, EBD is a serious disorder that effects three fourth of students. The earlier students are identified as having EBD the greater chance that intervention can occur. EBD can be hard to diagnosis based on the guidelines used by both the CCBD and the IDEA. Both organizations have their own ideas as to what qualifies a student to be diagnosed with EBD. Techniques and strategies such as, cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM), mediation, muscle relaxation, prevention strategies, self-management /parent participation, and training for specific praise are just a few techniques that classroom teachers can use to help EBD students. If applied correctly a positive outcome for all parties can prevail. Knowing how EBD manifest itself and knowing the correct techniques or strategies to apply helps students with EBD to be able to function in a general education classroom.
Allday, R. A., Hinkson-Lee, K., Hudson, T., Neilsen-Gatti, S., Kleinke, A., & Russel, C. S. (2012). Training general educators to increase BehaviorSpecific praise: Effects on students with EBD. Behavioral Disorders, 37(2), 87-98. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1022488807?accountid=10403
Cancio, E. J., West, R. P., & Young, K. R. (2004). Improving mathematics homework completion and accuracy of students with EBD through self-management and parent participation. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(1), 9-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214926555?accountid=10403
Kamps, D., Kravits, T., Stolze, J., & Swaggart, B. (1999). Prevention strategies for at-risk students and students with EBD in urban elementary schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 7(3), 178. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214905308?accountid=10403
Lopata, C., Nida, R. E., & Marable, M. A. (2006). Progressive muscle relaxation: Preventing aggression in students with EBD. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(4), 20-25. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/201145048?accountid=10403
Mayer, M., Lochman, J., & Richard, V. A. (2005). Introduction to the special issue: Cognitive-behavioral interventions with students with EBD. Behavioral Disorders, 30(3), 197-212. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219678555?accountid=10403
Pierce, C. D., Reid, R., & Epstein, M. H. (2004). Teacher-mediated interventions for children with EBD and their academic outcomes: A review. Remedial and Special Education, 25(3), 175-188. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/236260816?accountid=10403
Sutherland, K. S., Alder, N., & Gunter, P. L. (2003). The effect of varying rates of opportunities to respond to academic requests on the classroom behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(4), 239-248. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214917003?accountid=10403
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