The Purpose And Outcomes Of Career Counselling

INTRODUCTION
The nature of employment has changed due to the evolvement of the economy, decreasing raw resources, free trade, downsizing, re-engineering, growth of information technology and globalisation (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2007). The changing career patterns indicate that individuals can expect to hold various careers throughout their lives. The need for career counselling grew due to the various career transactions an individual goes through. This paper will first define career counselling then discuss the purpose and outcomes of career counselling'.
DEFINITIONS
Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs (2007) state that career counselling is about empowering clients with choices regarding their lives and careers. mentions that career counselling is a one on one interaction between the practitioner and the client involving the use of psychological theory and communication skills. The key focus is to helping the client make career related decisions and deal with career related issues. Stead and Watson (2006, p.81) define career counselling as a 'service provided to a single group of clients who came seeking assistance with career choices or career adjustment problems'. Maree and Beck (2004) say career counselling is a process of helping a person to develop and accept an incorporated and sufficient picture of them self and of their role in the world of work.
THE PURPOSE AND OUTCOMES OF CAREER COUNSELLING

The career counselling process is a verbal process in which a trained career counsellor and client are in a mutual relationship, focused on utilising on the clients strengths and resources to make important career related decisions and manage career related issues (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2012).The counsellor uses a collection of diverse methods and techniques to help the client make an informed decision on career choice. This decision can only be made once the client has reached a point of self understanding and understanding the career concerns involved as well as behavioural options available (Maree, 2004). Career counselling deals with problems involving the clients work, career, life and roles. The questions clients seek help for regard how clits view the current social, occupational expectations and opportunities for career choice. Career counsellors assist clients in analyzing expectations and opportunities and guide clients to take action and ease the anxiety and reluctance related with personal work life experiences(Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs,2012).Career counsellors should provide a person with the ability to understand and explain the what, why, how their overall life and career development tasks, challenges and the career goals they may have or the problems they may face is important especially in a complex society and disorderly workplace(Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs,2012).
Individuals develop a sense of identity and importance through their careers, therefore counsellors should view clients in a comprehensive manner by approaching career and lifestyle planning in a personal and developmental way. An effective career counselling process helps people to (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2012):
' Discover their passion identify ones life purpose and to build a game plan for life
' Understand how to apply ones unique skills, talents, values inner resources and life experience to achieve goals
' Identify and change discouraging beliefs about themselves and others
' Add value to the workplace and individual they interact with
' Strengthen valued relationships by learning how to deal with their own and others emotions by looking at things in a different perspective
' Remove the barriers to their own creativity and innovation and embrace new challenges and opportunities
' Resolve career crisis as well as to take charge of their own career development
' Deal with things in an emotionally intelligent way such as life events and transitions
' Work life balance and deals with potential stressors and conflict situations in an emotionally creative
Career counselling outcomes indicate changes that occur either directly or indirectly as a result of career counselling measured in terms of instant effects for example, the client's response to specific career interventions and intermediate effects for example, changes that occurs as a result of the entire career counselling intervention (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2012). The objective of the career counselling process is to improve the career maturity and career self efficacy of clients so that they are self assured in making a choice that will bring fulfilment. This requires the career counsellor facilitate career maturity, career adaptability, and career resiliency as significant career psychological resources (Maree, 2004). The counsellor will be required to guide the client to develop their emotional intelligence to promote self confidence, career adaptability, career resiliency and a sense of self efficacy in handling career transitions, breaks, unemployment or underemployment. Career counselling outcomes also include relearning and new learning, simply clients may have to unlearn messages about their ability to achieve in a particular field or their decision making abilities (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2012). They will have to relearn who they really are , before they compromise of life and restrict their career path they may for example, need to relearn their love for science .They many also relearn old lessons such as they are responsible for their own happiness even when others try to make decisions for them.
THE ROLE OF THE CAREER COUNSELLOR IN THE WORK PLACE

THE CAREER CHOICE THEORY JOHN HOLLAND
Holland's theory describes how individuals merge with their environment and how individual and environmental characteristics result in career choices and adjustment. The theory deals with particular personality types and environmental models and explores the interaction and fit between person and environment (Stead & Watson, 2006). In this sense the theory makes it possible to explain the interaction between the environment and personality and the behaviour that emerges as a result of this interaction. Individuals are drawn to a specific personality role demand of an occupational environment that meets their personal need for using their skills and abilities and expressing their attitudes and values which will provide them with fulfilment( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).
Holland mentions that by late adolescences people will resemble a combination of vocational personality/interest types .The personality types are R Realistic type Investigative type I Artistic type A Social type S Enterprising type E Conventional type C. Holland s six personality types and six environment types exist parallel to each other forming a hexagon reflecting the traits of the respective individual. So, for example the Artistic types have a closes relationship with the Social type. The theory states that most people resemble more than one and in some cases all the types in some degree. An individual's personality is a unique combination of the all the different types Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs (2007). The closer and individuals resembles a certain type the more they display the traits and behaviours of that type. The types consistently show characteristic ranges of behaviour, patterns of likes and dislikes, specific values and particular self descriptions. Career and occupational environments can be characterised by the resemblance and support of the six personality types.
Holland's theory demonstrates four constructs which are helpful in career counselling process:
' Congruence refers to the correspondents between a personality type and the environment .The more similar the personality type is to the environment the more congruent the relationship. Individuals respond better to environments which match with their personalities these environments provide them with opportunities and best fulfil their needs. For example, an artistic type would fit better in an artistic environment. High congruency may lead to high job satisfaction Stead and Watson (2006.
' Differentiation some individuals or environments show greater compatibility to a single type for example only artistic is differentiated. An individual or environment that shows different types of the same degree for example, one is more or less equally artistic , investigative and enterprising is undifferentiated
' Consistency refers to the degree to which some types and environments have more in common than other types and environment. Types on opposite corners of the hexagon are opposites while those adjacent are similar. For example, the realistic, investigative types have more in common with the than the realistic social types.
' Identity refers to the degree to which an individual has a clear stable current and future picture of their goals.
The Holland system is a popular model should a counsellor consider using this system they should consider the following :
' Holland's theory is not only meant for psychologist the theory can be applied by teacher's personnel workers human resources mangers and career exhibition organisers.
' The theory is not restricted to one on one counselling only. Holland's mentions that career assistant actions can be in a broader context.
Holland's theory is useful to clients because it helps to incorporate occupational information into the counselling process by providing a theoretical frame work of possible occupations for clients.
THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORY OF DONALD SUPER
Supers theory is associated with the developmental approach to careers. Super believed that an individual's career choice is the result of his/her self concept. One's self concept can be described as ones view of their own personal characteristics for example their ones abilities, values, interests, and choices. Self concept develops through an individual's interaction with the environment, in which the individual develops concepts of themselves in certain roles, such as a student, worker, friend or family member. The degree to which an individual feel they can apply his/hers self concept through their work choices, influences the level of satisfaction in a specific occupational environment( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).
One of Supers major focuses is the concept of life roles and represents the realisation that work role may not be the main role in an individual's life space. The work role needs to be understood in terms of the context of all the life roles of and individual. Role playing begins at childhood when roles such as nurse ,sales person and teacher are acted out and it continues in adulthood when individuals imagine themselves in the role for example of a CEO, manager. Role playing is functional whether it is in fantasy or reality, or in a work or non work related situation it will contribute to career adjustment. The importance of any life role will rely upon the individual's life stage( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).
An individual will go through a series of life stages called mini cycles and maxi cycle, each requiring the accomplishment of different career developmental tasks. The career related stages are referred to as mini cycles while the adult life stages are referred to as the maxi cycle's .Career adjustment is related to career maturity which includes behaviours that are favourable to adjustment. Career maturity is not age related but measures the readiness to make career decisions and to cope with the developmental tasks of distinct life stages. The success of a transition between the five life stages depends on the individual's career maturity. Career maturity is the decision making ability; career planning and understanding of the world of work .A career counsellor can assess an individual's career maturity by evaluating the individual's decision making skills, planning ability, realistic self appraisal, client's knowledge of developmental tasks and occupations. As adults move in to the establishment phase of their lives and careers they need a high level of career maturity and a need to develop career adaptability to continue being employed in the changing world of work ( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).
This theory can be useful to career counsellors in considering the possibility of age related issues being relevant to clients. Career counsellors should also note how an individuals values have changed during the life stages.

APPLYING CAREER THEORIES TO CAREER COUNSELLING
One reason for studying career theories is to develop a framework that counsellors can use to guide the interventions with clients .Each career theory offers a tested approach to understanding and helping clients with career problems and issues. Each theory provides the counsellor with a guide to particular aspects of career development and decisions making process( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007). If a counsellor uses one theory or more is a personal decision, there is no appropriate number of theories that can be used. It is often suggested that counsellors choose from different approaches to select the most appropriate approach for the unique needs of the client. It is important for career counsellors to note that not all theories will be equally applicable to all populations. Each career counselling approach should focus on what will develop the client's career, personal growth and enhance their career adaptability in the world of work. The Diagnostic Framework of Career Services assists career counsellors as a guide to their choices of careers services and the most appropriate career theories to use as a framework in understanding career needs and concerns( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).

CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
The nature of employment has changed due to the evolvement of the economy, decreasing raw resources, free trade, downsizing, re-engineering, growth of information technology and globalisation (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2007). The changing career patterns indicate that individuals can expect to hold various careers throughout their lives. The need for career counselling grew due to the various career transactions an individual goes through. This paper will first define career counselling then discuss the purpose and outcomes of career counselling'.
DEFINITIONS
Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs (2007) state that career counselling is about empowering clients with choices regarding their lives and careers. Maree (2010) mentions that career counselling is a one on one interaction between the practitioner and the client involving the use of psychological theory and communication skills. The key focus is to helping the client make career related decisions and deal with career related issues. Stead and Watson (2006, p.81) define career counselling as a 'service provided to a single group of clients who came seeking assistance with career choices or career adjustment problems'. Maree and Beck (2004) say career counselling is a process of helping a person to develop and accept an incorporated and sufficient picture of them self and of their role in the world of work.
THE PURPOSE AND OUTCOMES OF CAREER COUNSELLING
The career counselling process is a verbal process in which a trained career counsellor and client are in a mutual relationship, focused on utilising on the clients strengths and resources to make important career related decisions and manage career related issues (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2012).The counsellor uses a collection of diverse methods and techniques to help the client make an informed decision on career choice. This decision can only be made once the client has reached a point of self understanding and understanding the career concerns involved as well as behavioural options available (Maree, 2004). Career counselling deals with problems involving the clients work, career, life and roles. The questions clients seek help for regard how clients view the current social, occupational expectations and opportunities for career choice. Career counsellors assist clients in analyzing expectations and opportunities and guide clients to take action and ease the anxiety and reluctance related with personal work life experiences(Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs,2012).Career counsellors should provide a person with the ability to understand and explain the what, why, how their overall life and career development tasks, challenges and the career goals they may have or the problems they may face is important especially in a complex society and disorderly workplace(Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs,2012).
Individuals develop a sense of identity and importance through their careers, therefore counsellors should view clients in a comprehensive manner by approaching career and lifestyle planning in a personal and developmental way. An effective career counselling process helps people to (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2012):
Discover their passion identify ones life purpose and to build a game plan for life
Understand how to apply ones unique skills, talents, values inner resources and life experience to achieve goals
Identify and change discouraging beliefs about themselves and others
Add value to the workplace and individual they interact with
Strengthen valued relationships by learning how to deal with their own and others emotions by looking at things in a different perspective
Remove the barriers to their own creativity and innovation and embrace new challenges and opportunities
Resolve career crisis as well as to take charge of their own career development
Deal with things in an emotionally intelligent way such as life events and transitions
Work life balance and deals with potential stressors and conflict situations in an emotionally creative
Career counselling outcomes indicate changes that occur either directly or indirectly as a result of career counselling measured in terms of instant effects for example, the client's response to specific career interventions and intermediate effects for example, changes that occurs as a result of the entire career counselling intervention (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2012). The objective of the career counselling process is to improve the career maturity and career self efficacy of clients so that they are self assured in making a choice that will bring fulfilment. This requires the career counsellor facilitate career maturity, career adaptability, and career resiliency as significant career psychological resources (Maree, 2004). The counsellor will be required to guide the client to develop their emotional intelligence to promote self confidence, career adaptability, career resiliency and a sense of self efficacy in handling career transitions, breaks, unemployment or underemployment. Career counselling outcomes also include relearning and new learning, simply clients may have to unlearn messages about their ability to achieve in a particular field or their decision making abilities (Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs, 2012). They will have to relearn who they really are , before they compromise of life and restrict their career path they may for example, need to relearn their love for science .They many also relearn old lessons such as they are responsible for their own happiness even when others try to make decisions for them.

THE ROLE OF THE CAREER COUNSELLOR IN THE WORK PLACE

THE CAREER CHOICE THEORY JOHN HOLLAND
Holland's theory describes how individuals merge with their environment and how individual and environmental characteristics result in career choices and adjustment. The theory deals with particular personality types and environmental models and explores the interaction and fit between person and environment (Stead & Watson, 2006). In this sense the theory makes it possible to explain the interaction between the environment and personality and the behaviour that emerges as a result of this interaction. Individuals are drawn to a specific personality role demand of an occupational environment that meets their personal need for using their skills and abilities and expressing their attitudes and values which will provide them with fulfilment( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).
Holland mentions that by late adolescences people will resemble a combination of vocational personality/interest types .The personality types are R Realistic type Investigative type I Artistic type A Social type S Enterprising type E Conventional type C. Holland s six personality types and six environment types exist parallel to each other forming a hexagon reflecting the traits of the respective individual. So, for example the Artistic types have a closes relationship with the Social type. The theory states that most people resemble more than one and in some cases all the types in some degree. An individual's personality is a unique combination of the all the different types Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs (2007). The closer and individuals resembles a certain type the more they display the traits and behaviours of that type. The types consistently show characteristic ranges of behaviour, patterns of likes and dislikes, specific values and particular self descriptions. Career and occupational environments can be characterised by the resemblance and support of the six personality types.
Holland's theory demonstrates four constructs which are helpful in career counselling process:
Congruence refers to the correspondents between a personality type and the environment .The more similar the personality type is to the environment the more congruent the relationship. Individuals respond better to environments which match with their personalities these environments provide them with opportunities and best fulfil their needs. For example, an artistic type would fit better in an artistic environment. High congruency may lead to high job satisfaction Stead and Watson (2006.
Differentiation some individuals or environments show greater compatibility to a single type for example only artistic is differentiated. An individual or environment that shows different types of the same degree for example, one is more or less equally artistic , investigative and enterprising is undifferentiated
Consistency refers to the degree to which some types and environments have more in common than other types and environment. Types on opposite corners of the hexagon are opposites while those adjacent are similar. For example, the realistic, investigative types have more in common with the than the realistic social types.
Identity refers to the degree to which an individual has a clear stable current and future picture of their goals.
The Holland system is a popular model should a counsellor consider using this system they should consider the following :
Holland's theory is not only meant for psychologist the theory can be applied by teacher's personnel workers human resources mangers and career exhibition organisers.
The theory is not restricted to one on one counselling only. Holland's mentions that career assistant actions can be in a broader context.
Holland's theory is useful to clients because it helps to incorporate occupational information into the counselling process by providing a theoretical frame work of possible occupations for clients.
THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT THEORY OF DONALD SUPER
Supers theory is associated with the developmental approach to careers. Super believed that an individual's career choice is the result of his/her self concept. One's self concept can be described as ones view of their own personal characteristics for example their ones abilities, values, interests, and choices. Self concept develops through an individual's interaction with the environment, in which the individual develops concepts of themselves in certain roles, such as a student, worker, friend or family member. The degree to which an individual feel they can apply his/hers self concept through their work choices, influences the level of satisfaction in a specific occupational environment( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).
One of Supers major focuses is the concept of life roles and represents the realisation that work role may not be the main role in an individual's life space. The work role needs to be understood in terms of the context of all the life roles of and individual. Role playing begins at childhood when roles such as nurse ,sales person and teacher are acted out and it continues in adulthood when individuals imagine themselves in the role for example of a CEO, manager. Role playing is functional whether it is in fantasy or reality, or in a work or non work related situation it will contribute to career adjustment. The importance of any life role will rely upon the individual's life stage( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).
An individual will go through a series of life stages called mini cycles and maxi cycle, each requiring the accomplishment of different career developmental tasks. The career related stages are referred to as mini cycles while the adult life stages are referred to as the maxi cycle's .Career adjustment is related to career maturity which includes behaviours that are favourable to adjustment. Career maturity is not age related but measures the readiness to make career decisions and to cope with the developmental tasks of distinct life stages. The success of a transition between the five life stages depends on the individual's career maturity. Career maturity is the decision making ability; career planning and understanding of the world of work .A career counsellor can assess an individual's career maturity by evaluating the individual's decision making skills, planning ability, realistic self appraisal, client's knowledge of developmental tasks and occupations. As adults move in to the establishment phase of their lives and careers they need a high level of career maturity and a need to develop career adaptability to continue being employed in the changing world of work ( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).
This theory can be useful to career counsellors in considering the possibility of age related issues being relevant to clients.Career counsellors should also note how an individuals values have changed during the life stages.

APPLYING CAREER THEORIES TO CAREER COUNSELLING
One reason for studying career theories is to develop a framework that counsellors can use to guide the interventions with clients .Each career theory offers a tested approach to understanding and helping clients with career problems and issues. Each theory provides the counsellor with a guide to particular aspects of career development and decisions making process( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007). If a counsellor uses one theory or more is a personal decision, there is no appropriate number of theories that can be used. It is often suggested that counsellors choose from different approaches to select the most appropriate approach for the unique needs of the client. It is important for career counsellors to note that not all theories will be equally applicable to all populations. Each career counselling approach should focus on what will develop the client's career, personal growth and enhance their career adaptability in the world of work. The Diagnostic Framework of Career Services assists career counsellors as a guide to their choices of careers services and the most appropriate career theories to use as a framework in understanding career needs and concerns( Coetzee & Roythrone- Jacobs 2007).

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