Transactional analysis (TA)
Transaction analysis (or TA as it is often called) is a model of people and relationship that develop that was found on year 1971 by Eric Berne. It is based on two philosophy, where the first piece we have three parts of 'ego-states' to our personality and second that these converse with another on transaction.
A transaction is an exchange of information. Every stroke is information. The transaction also can contain more information than a simple stroke does. It can be seen to emanate from separate, distinct systems in the person each with its own specification function. Berne constructs three systems and called them ego states: The Parent, The Adult, and The Child.
The Ego State
The three ego states are the visible manifestations of evolutionarily developed neural expert network each with difference functions. We each have internal model of parents, children and also adults these play roles with one another in our relationships. It does with us in our internal conversations.
The parent is a judging, tradition based, prejudiced, regulatory ego states. From the three ego states, the parent is the mainly metaphorical in nature. It can be visualized as a microchip implant with recorded external messages, and has been referred to as a witch or ogre an electrode and so on.
The Critical Parent
It is a system in placed in the highly dependent on the dominance of the critical parent. It start at the end of the second millennium authoritarian system there have been global struggle to replace coercive, authoritarian method with democracy, equality, universal human right, cooperation and non-violence in support of every person goal. The movement in TA term, is every child is OK, that the Child need are legitimate and that the most desirable and advantageous form of interaction is a cooperative, non-violet, nurturing relationship. Whose premise is that the Child is not OK (stupid, bad, ugly, crazy, sick or damned) that children require physically and emotionally the curtailment of strokes. This educational see change requires that the function regulating the Child, therefore performed by the Critical Parent, be performed by The Adult and Nurturing Parent instead.
The adult in us is the grown up rational person who talks reasonably and assertively, neither trying to control nor reacting aggressively, toward others. The adult is comfortable with them and is, for many of us our ideal self. The Adult is the rational, problem solving ego state. It was devoid of powerful emotions, which lean to disorder understanding and logic.
There are type of child we can play there are 'The Natural Child', 'Little Professor' and 'The Adaptive Child.
The Child is the emotional ego state. All the primary emotions and their communication such as anger, sadness, fear, shame, happiness, on one hand and love, joy, hope on the other have their origins in the child. From the research, the emotional portions of the brain have capacity to flood and disable the stimulation in what can be interpreted as an asymmetrical relationship of dominance of Child over Adult or 'contamination' of the Adult by the Child.
Analysis of strokes
According to Dr. Eric Berne (1971) stroke is defined as a Unit of recognition. A stroke is a unit of attention which provides stimulation to an individual. Strokes are dividing to two types where it is positive and negative stroke.
A positive stroke is one which the receiver experiences as pleasant. Positive stroke are in endemic scarcity due to a set of inhibiting social and internalized rule that prevent people from exchanging them freely. The scarcity of strokes creates heightened stroke hunger that stimulate stroke seeking behavior.
A negative stroke is experienced as painful. Any kind of stroke is better than no stroke at all. Example of negative stroke is when someone say something bad such as hate you, stupid you and you are ugly.
These strokes are necessary for the development of psychologically healthy people from their emotional and their actions. People prefer the positive stroke but will seek and accept negative strokes when stroke hungry and positive stroke are not available.
Analysis of life position
At some stage early in our lives we adopt a position about ourselves and others that determines how we feel about everything we do. The position I'm OK, You're OK is a negative position shared by successful and unsuccessful people alike, contaminates our rational Adult capabilities, leaving us vulnerable to inappropriate emotional reactions of our Child and uncritically learned behavior programmed into a Parent.
I'm OK, You're OK ' is a positive continues by providing practical advice to begin decoding the physical and verbal clues required to analyze transactions. Example, Francis suggests sign that a person is in a parent ego state can include the use of evaluative words that imply judgment based on an automatic, axiomatic and archaic value system: such as the words like ugly, stupid, naughty, disgusting and ridiculous.
I'm Not OK, You're Ok ' it is a common position. As a children their see the Adult are large, strong, clever and competent and that their feel they are little, weak and often to make a mistakes. Children who are abused may conclude I'm Not OK, You're Not OK or I/m OK, You're Not OK, but it is must less common.
I'm OK, You're Not OK and I/m Not OK, You're Not OK ' is a negative life position where it was characterized powerless of feeling compared with other. But in other hand, this position is know as the position of futility and frustration. Individual have lost interest in life and may see life as a stupid thing that come around them. This self-destructive stance as characteristic od individual who are unable to cope in the real life, a returning to infantile behavior or violent behavior resulting in injury or death of themselves or others individuals
Dear Sir/ Madam,
RE: THE STEPS TAKEN TO PRODUCE AN EFFECTIVE TEAM
As a new manager in the Marketing Department, there are some issues of how the manager manages their staff to turn ineffective and unproductive team into an effective and productive team. To achieve the goal, we need to choose the new team concept to improve the performance of the staff in the department.
First of all, I need to explain to my team members the concept of team that I have chosen. The team concept that I want to inject to the Marketing department is 'Cross Functional Team'. This is an effective means if allowing people from diverse areas within or between the organization to exchange information, develop new ideas, solve problems and coordinate the complex project. After give some briefing to all, than I selected new team member.
Here I have selected three methods to build the effective team that are selecting team members, team roles and multi-displinary teams for the first stage. For selecting team membership, I was choosing based on setting that dictated by the organization of the company. Here, I need to consider the prospective members in different categories of their specialist skill and knowledge, experienced and political power in the organization, access to resources and competence. To be a good team there required three different types of skills, where firstly in Technical expertise that mean the experience would be the most obvious choice, next problem solving and decision making skills to identify the problems, generate and evaluate alternative and make competent choices. Finally, a team needs people with good listening, feedback, conflict resolution and other interpersonal skills.
To build a high quality team in the organization, team roles are needed where it defined as tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular ways. Based on RM Belbin there are nine types of team roles,firstly the coordinator or chairman, plant, shaper, monitor or evaluator, resources investigator, implementer, team worker, finisher and lastly specialist. I further changed the team roles of my existing team where I just choose to use the implementer, the plant, the finisher and finally the specialist. Implementers are the people who get things done. They turn the team ideas and concepts into practical actions and plan. It typically conservative, disciplined people who work systematically and efficiently, these are people who can count on to get the job done. Secondly the plant is the creative innovator who comes with a new idea and approaches, plant are often introverted and prefer to work apart from the team. While specialists are people who have specialized knowledge that need to get job done. They pride themselves on their skills and abilities and work to maintain their professional status. Lastly the finisher, there ensures through, timely completion. They ensure there have been no errors or omissions and pay attention to the smallest details. They need to very concerned with deadlines and will make sure their work complete on time.
In second stage, there are three ways to build the team building that are team identify, team solidarity and commitment to shared objective. Here I also explained the importance of team identity and team solidarity. Creating a team identity can help to manage our project run smoothly, to have a good team identity we have give our team a name, beside clarity team vision mission and working relationship, work with team members to develop the job that member can understand and support. To make people know about us, I have decided to give the team a badge and uniform. Finally define team procedures that encourage my team to develop its own work procedures instead of allowing people to use the approaches of their respective functional group.
Team solidarity is defined as a union of interest, purpose and sympathies among the team member. I have chosen some practical suggestion for my group, first the expressing solidarity, this is one of the most important uses of team slogan in a team group. Next, encouraged interpersonal relationship mean where team member need to trust each other and willing to work together as a family member in organization and lastly controlling conflict among team member, mean personality clashes and disagreements should be dealt with immediately in a open not left to fester and infect the whole team.
About the importance of the commitment to shared objective, I need to involves the clearly setting out in the teams objective and their place in the activity of the organization, I also need involving the team in setting specific targets and standards and agreeing, method of organizing work to reach the goal. As a manager or the team leader also I need to providing the right information, data, resources, training and environment for my team member so that their can achieve the goal and target in complete the job and project.
For the third method, I further gave a talk on the characteristic of an effective team. There are showing that a low absenteeism or failure to report to work, and have a high output and productivity where produce a good quality of output. Many of the target and goal have achieved. In addition, team member also give a high commitment to achievement of target and in organizational goals beside team member also clear understanding of group work and role of each person in the team and their also can solve the group problem. There also sharing the idea with each other, and mutual help and encouragement. Team member also can motivation and ability work in the leader absence, desire for self development through the work and career.
In conclusion, this is what I provide to my new team member so that the department can achieved the target easily.
New Manager Marketing Department
The Concept of Conflict Management
Conflict is a process of limiting the negatively aspects of conflict. It begins when one individual perceives that another individuals that has negative affected, or it about to negatively affect. Conflict has difference in perspective that can inherent in the organization. Conflict also implemented within a business environment usually involves effective communication, problem solving and good negotiating skill to restore the focus to overall company goals.
Conflict is a state of unresolved differences within an individual between individuals, an individual and a team, or two or more team. Sometime conflict can occur throughout the career. To turn it into positive aspect, it must be managed in a way that will give assistance to the organization. Each individual should have an attitude and work together where can eliminate the relationship among them, in order to cultivate a positive attitude which will reduce conflict, by leaving or by refusing to interact with other individual.
Process of Conflict
There are five step of the process of conflict that is potential opposition/incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior and outcomes.
First step potential opposition / incompatibility: This first step is the presence on situation that creates opportunities for conflict to happen. They need not lead directly to conflict, but one of these situations is necessary if conflict is to surface. For simplicity sake, these situations have been condensed into three general categories: communication, structure and personal variables.
Communication: Communication in different words connotations, it exchange the information and noise in communication channel are all antecedent conditions to conflict. Too many communication as well as too small communication can rely foundation for conflict.
Structure: The term of structure is used, the context include the variables, leadership styles, reward system, jurisdictional clarity, team member / goal compatibility, degree of specialization in tasks assigned to team members and degree of dependence between teams.
Size and specialization act as forces to stimulate the conflict. The larger of the groups are and the more specialization its activities, the greater the likelihood of conflict. Term and conflict have been found to be inversely related. Potentials for the conflict tend in a groups is when the members in the group are youngest and when turnover is high. The greater ambiguity in define where responsibility for the action, the best the potential for the conflict to emerge like Jurisdictional ambiguity increase inter team fighting to control or resources and territory.
Personal Variable: Personality type where the individuals who are highly authoritarian and dogmatic to lead the potential conflict. Another cause of conflict is alteration in value systems. Values are the finest explanation of various issues such as prejudice disagreements over one's contribution to the team and rewards one deserve.
Second step is cognition and personalization: It explains that conflict must be perceived by the parties to it whether or not conflict occurs is a perception problem because it not means that it is personalized.
Step 2 is a placed in a process where the parties come to a decision what the conflict is all about and sentiment plays a main role in shaping perception.
The third step is intention: Intention is the result to act in a given method intentions intervene between people perception, behavior outright and emotions. There are five conflict handling intentions can be identified such as competing, collaborating, avoiding, accommodating and compromising.
Competing: When a person seeks to satisfy their own interests regardless of the impact in other parties to the conflict, he is competing.
Collaborating: Situation in which the parties to the conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all the parties. It mean in collaborating the intention of the parties solving the difficulty by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various point of views.
Avoiding: It is where a person that may recognize that a conflict exists and what to withdraw from it or suppress it. To avoiding the conflict a person should trying to ignore and avoiding other with who you disagree with.
Accommodating: Is a situation where the willingness of party is a conflict lace up the challenger above his or her own.
Compromising: A situation on which party is to a conflict is agreeable to surrender on something.
Intentions afford general guidelines for parties in a conflict situation. During the conflict, they force change because of an emotional reaction to the behavior of other party.
The fourth step is Behaviors: In this step the conflict is turn into visible. In this step the behavior include the statement, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are generally overt attempts to implement each party intention.
The last step is outcome: Outcome is the action reaction between the conflicting and the effect in consequences. These outcome maybe functional or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance. Functional mean conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decision simulates creativity and innovation encourages interest and curiosity among the team members. While conflict is dysfunctional when uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent which act to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the team.
How Conflict can be Resolved in a Team
Resolving the conflict is that when groups disregard the mark of healthy differences of judgment, resolving conflict requires respect and patience. An individual experience of conflict involves our emotions, perceptions and actions. In this case study Jacob is a person who is not very well thought of, a lot of problem with this person, he'd always been caught going off site in the middle of the day, leaving early and etc. Jacob has been involved with another team of the department and had been supplying all the information of the current department he is working at to that department. Cyril and other members find Jacob mildly arrogant and have difficulty in liking him, although he seems to have great deal of respect. So the conflict has occurs between Jacob and Cyril and other group members where none of them are co-operating with Jacob and one or two rather catty remarks are being made behind his back.
Agree to Communicate: the most important thing throughout the resolution practice is for everyone to keep communication open with each other. So based on this case study, Jacob and Cyril which involved need to talk about the problem and try to discuss their strong feeling. There should listening to each others, where is essential here because to move on you need to really understand where the other person is coming from.
Straight negotiation of individuals or team group will agree on a stalemate and solving all their differences. In sentence case, they may turn to a third party who will be in no way associated with them to help them find a solution.
Third party negotiation is very ordinary, where the third party who actually makes sense to disputants for reaching a conclusion.
There are four basic third party characters that a third party could play in a conflict negotiation, where it is mediator, arbitrator, conciliator and consultant.
Mediator: Is a natural third party, where career is to facilitate a negotiated conclusion by reasoning and influence, suggesting alternatives to the concerned parties. Mediator also very ordinary in labor-management conflict in civil court disputes.
Arbitrator: third party that has the ability for dictating an agreement between the parties. It can be requested by the parties or can be compulsorily enforced on the parties by court or deal. The big benefit of arbitrator over mediation is that always result in a settlement.
Conciliator: Is a trusted third party whose career is to establish an informal communication link between the negotiator and opponent. It is used commonly in international, labor, family and community disputes. It generally acts as more than mere communications conduits.
Consultant: Is a talent and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem solving through communication and investigation. It is most likely to have much familiarity of conflict management. Consultant role is not only to settle down the problem among them but it instead of putting forwards specific solution, consultant tries to encourage the parties to learn understanding working with each other. In addition, this approach has a longer term focus to build the new and positive perception, behavior and attitude between the conflicting parties and individuals.
MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE
1. Maslow's Theory
According to Abraham Maslow, Maslow's theory is a needs that similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Maslow termed the highest level of the pyramid as growth needs. Growth need do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person.
There are five levels in a Maslow's hierarchy of needs where it are Physiological Needs, Security Needs, Social Needs, Self Fulfillment Needs and Esteem Needs.
Basic Physiological Needs mean these a basic need that vital to survival, such a food, drink, sleep, sex, warmth and shelter. Maslow's believe that these needs are the most basic and instinctive need in the hierarchy because all need become secondary until these physiological needs are met.
Security needs or safety needs are very important for survival, but it not demanding as the physiological needs. Security needs are such as health care, safe environment, safe neighborhoods, shelter from the environments, law, stability and freedom from fear.
Social Needs is for belonging, affection and love from work group, family, friend and romantics relationships. These relationships help to fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance as doe's involvement in social, community or religious.
Self Fulfillment Needs is a highest level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Self fulfillment mean is self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with opinion of others and interested fulfilling their potential.
Esteem Needs has been satisfied, esteem needs become increasingly important. These include the need for thing that reflect on self-esteem, achievement, mastery independence, status, dominance, self respect and respect from others.
Advantages of using Maslow's hierarchy of needs
' You will not make the mistake of trying to appeal to audience higher needs when there; ore basic need not yet satisfied.
' This theory is provide a useful summary of human need, which can be used in product design product positioning, pricing and retail outlets designs.
' It help marketer to focus their advertising appeals on specific needs shared by a large segment of their target.
' Disadvantages of using Maslow's hierarchy of need are that since your audience member is unique, just like everyone else, it difficult to place him or her in a box.
' People can fulfill their higher level needs when unexpected circumstances may suddenly threaten their much shorter term needs, furthering complexity.
' It cannot be tested empirically, there is no way to measure precisely how satisfied one level of need must be before the next higher need become operative.
2. Herzberg Hygiene Theory
Herzberg finding revealed that certain characteristics of job are consistently related to job satisfaction,
According to Herzberg, individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower order needs at work such as minimum salary levels or safety and pleasant working conditions. Rather, individual look for the gratification of higher level psychological need having to do with achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and the nature of the work itself.
Herzberg added a new dimension to this theory by proposing a two factor model of motivation, based on the notion that presence set of job characteristics or incentives leads to worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job characteristics leads to dissatisfaction at work.
This theory suggest that to improve job attitudes and productivity, administrator must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that an increase in satisfaction lead to decrease in unpleasurable dissatisfaction.
To concern Herzberg theory, you need to adopt a two step process to motivate people. First, you need eliminate the dissatisfactions they're experiencing and next, you need to help them find satisfaction.
Step one: Eliminate Job Dissatisfaction
' Provide job security and safety.
' Provide effective, supportive and non-intrusive supervision.
' Build job status by providing meaningful work for all positions.
' Create and support a culture of respect and dignity for all team members.
' Ensure that wages are competitive.
All this step action helps you to eliminate job dissatisfaction in an organization.
Step two: Create Conditions for Job Satisfaction
To create satisfaction, you need to address the motivating factors associated with work. It calls job enrichment. Things that need to consider include:
' Provide opportunities for achievement, to advance in the company through internal promotions.
' Offering training and development opportunities.
' Giving as much responsibility to each team member as possible.
Advantages of Herzberg theory
' In identifying that there are factors that in general will motivate and demotivate group of employees.
' It can be used to identify broad issues that need to be addressed or mitigated in general.
Disadvantages of Herzberg theory
' Herzberg model are more of a generalization that may not be appropriate to all groups of employees or individuals within a group.
' Herzberg theory more on interview with accountants and engineers. His findings are not necessarily directly applicable to vastly different employee group.
3. Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory is described as a process theory involved in making choice. In organizational behavior, expectancy theory embraces how motivation was defined by Victor Vroom.
Expectancy theory proposes that work motivation is dependent upon the perceived association between performance and outcomes and individuals modify their behavior based on their calculation of anticipated outcomes. This theory is build upon the idea that motivation come from a person believing they will get what they want in the form of performance or rewards.
Expectancy theory is classified as a process theory of motivation because it emphasizes individual perceptions of the environment and subsequent interactions arising as a consequence of personal expectations.
Figure 2: The three component of the Vroom Expectancy theory.
The theory is based upon the following beliefs:
I) Valence (reward)
It refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes (rewards). The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic (money, promotion, time-off, benefits) or intrinsic (satisfaction) rewards.
II) Expectancy (performance)
Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable or doing. Management must discover what resources, training or supervision employee needs.
III) Instrumentality (effort)
The perception of employee as to whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and those employees are aware of that. Vroom suggests that an employee belief about Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence interact psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that bring pleasure and avoid pain.
' It provides a framework for understanding how motivation operates in a given situation.
' It will break down if employee does not believe in the motivation or reward.
' You cannot expect people all act in a rational manner and weigh the various alternatives open to them.
The way that managers should follow to motivate is as follows:
Job Satisfaction come about through encouraging if need be by pushing to make employees to accept responsibility. There are four ingredients such as careful placement of people in jobs, high standard of performance in job, providing the worker with the information needed to control their own performance and opportunities for participation in decision that will give the employee managerial vision and mission.
Job enrichment is a deliberate, planned process to improve the responsibility and challenge of the job.
' Giving the gift ' employee giving the greater variety although this could also be described as a job enlargement.
' Allowing the employee greater freedom to decide how the job should be done.
' Encouraging employees to participate in the planning, making decision of their managers.
' Ensuring that the employee receives regular the feedback on their performance.
Job enlargement is an attempt to widen job by increasing the number of operation in the job holder. It is a horizontal extension of an individual work where job enrichment is a vertical extension.
Participation are certain guidelines that must prevail if participation to be effective in raising motivation. Participation must been seen as a part of a continuing approach not just a one-off exercise. In addition, the participation must be genuine while people must have ability, equipment and will to be involved.
The Cash incentive for present the characteristics of a good manager of the company's leaders to employees, employers need to be alert that some of the employees who come to work to earn money and want to get cash alternative to meet daily needs. As a managers we want to be caring to employees by giving some extra money for employee morale - workers inject so much passion to do the work.
Non-cash incentives are as a manager of the company will offer assistance in conditions of medical, motivational, help transport to work and so on. In order so some employees will feel comfortable to work in a company that gives us some flexibility in the form of non- financial but in terms of our basic needs to get to work.
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Lecturer Note, 2014
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