1. What are the major developmental tasks of young adults' What other special problems exist for young adults that cannot be ignored by counselors?
The construct of developmental tasks received great interest after the work of Havighurst in early 1950's. Developmental task according to Havighurst is one which arises at or about a certain period in the life of the individual, succseful achievement of which leads to his happiness and to success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness in the individual, disapproval by the society, and difficulties with later tasks.
These tasks arise from maturation, the cultural pressure of society, the aspiration and values of the individual. This factors play role when combined toghether as a group for each different development period that have to be mastered.
Havinghurst describes the period between age of eighteen to thirty asone of storm and stress.
Corey (1962) describes developmental task as nessessary learning experiences, these experiences have to be learned for certain time period, they are interdependent, involved variety of learnings types, and they define the concern of the individual.
In a research done by psychologist J. Arnett argued that young adults nowadays are facing some challenges that are considered new and related to the resent socio-economic changes.
According to Tanner (2006), from a life span developmental perspective the main psychological task for young adults is the RECENTERING. The consept of recentering is ephasising the change that individual is experiencing from dependace status (as parents) to a more independent one. During this stage the individual moves from receiver of guidance, support and resourses to a relationship and state that power is shared, along with responsibilities. Young adults also are engage in exploring new fields as schoo;, jobs and intimitae relatioships. Following the exploration stage individuals are emerging to a more stable phase where commitments are made towards career, marriage, parenting.
Studies that use developmental methods provide empirical support for the proposition that resentering is the fundamental process underlying development during emerging adulthood. Such studies demonstrate that emerging adults renegotiate relationships with parents.
According to J. S. Phinney young adults from minority groups are facing even more challenges due to their unique cultural and economic status. Often they have to help and take care of younger siblings and assume adult responsibilities earlier in life and the cost for them is dallying their education. Another challenge is resulting from conflicting cultures and expectation that young adult with different cultural upbringing have to face. Often they struugle to find their identification.
Young people that cannot afford college are facing low paying jobs and moving from one dead-end job to another through their life.
Based on these areas (see other side of page), Colarusus (1992) as referred to in Glover (2000) proposes that the following should be considered when
developing intervention strategies to facilitate students in their personal development process:
- Provide opportunity for students to enhance interpersonal communication skills and intellectual competence (i.e. active learning, skill building)
- Address issues of self-awareness, encourage autonomy and guide students toward developing a sense of purpose
- Coordinate group structured events to promote interaction with other students so that supportive relationships can be developed (i.e. group work)
Glover (2000) argues that the transitional struggles of young adults to shape their identity and better understand their world is wreaked with complexity and
confusion, yet our society lends little support in this process. Fleischer (2005) claims that without established 'markers, young people tend to create their
own' (p. 1) which may involve rituals such as bullying younger students and other maladaptive behaviors. Haggan (2000) recommends that an ideal approach
when counseling and teaching is one that integrates the academic and the personal aspects of a student 'that considers transitions and loss in the context of
the life span' (p. 2). This would entail a consideration for coping skills that are usually developed to manage these transitions. The coping skills involved during
late adolescence (15-19 years old) include behaviors that enhance interactions with others such as 'trusting, sharing, fulfilling promises, accepting
responsibility and cooperating' (p. 4). As a person moves into early adulthood (20-40 years old), the coping skills lead to solidifying identity through some 'risk
taking behavior, value consistency behavior and reciprocity of intimacy and commitment' (p. 5).
Fleischer, L. (2005). The Development of authentic identity: Implications for the soul of education. Reclaiming Children & Youth, 14, 179-183.
Glover, R. J. (2000). Developmental tasks of adulthood: Implications for counseling community college students. Community College Journal of Research &
Practice, 24, 505-514.
Haggan, P.S. (2000). Transition counseling in the community college. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 24, 427-442.
2. List and discuss the typical tests and inventories used by counselors in their counseling sessions with college students.
College counselors use various tests and inventories that are helping to assess problems, give deeper self-awareness and points challenges that have to be addressed. Widely used tests are the Outcome Questionnaire ' 45, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).
The Strong Interest Inventory, the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey, and Self-Directed Search are used to help with career choices.
Numerous studies and researches have been done for creating reliable and effective instrument for screening substance use. Regardless of the screening individual honesty and accuracy the goal is substance abuse to be detected. In SASSI (Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Instrument) are used 'indirect scales' that ask indirect questions. The direct scale that have face value and question is direct it is relatively easy false answer to be given. Earlier version are used in Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory but with no great success because falsifying answer were easy to be given. In contrast SASSI is recently developed and used very often because can detect substance abuse regardless of the individual motivation. It include both direct and indirect scales that are dynamic and influence each other and can detect contradicting answers. Counselors preferably use SASSI.
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