Managing change in organisation unit 2

Managing change in organisation Unit 2


Introduction

Today world business is changing rapidly cause of changing in environment, changing in customer demand, change in political and economic front. There is tight competition also affect change. Change also changing with respect of situation and demand of change. Change gives future vision and without change we cannot getting better opportunity. Change is intact in today world.

Sainsbury's is longest standing major food retailing chain in the United Kingdom's. Their supermarket offers 30,000 products, 50% of which are Sainsbury's own brand. Sainsbury's success depends in wide range of quality food and grocery products, many stores offers meat and fish counters, pharmacies, coffee shop, restaurant and gas stations. Sainsbury's need change in HR training system. I observe that employee of Sainsbury's get training normally in the store. I would like to change training system by developing centralise training system.

In this assignment I explain background to change in Sainsbury's than I develop a system that involves stack holder introduction of change. After that I discuss merits and demerits of system which is use for change in Sainsbury's. I use appropriate models for change in Sainsbury's and finally, I implement change through this model.


1. Background to change affecting Sainsbury's

1.1 Background to change that exist in today's economy

Change management is plan, initiate, realize, control, and finally stabilize change processes on both, corporate and personal level. Change may cover such diverse problems as for example strategic direction or personal development programs for staff. (Oliver Recklies, 2003)

Internal forces

Human resource problems and prospects

This problem is stem from employee perception of how they are treated at work and the match between individual and Sainsbury's need and desires. The relationship between employee's unmet need and job dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction is a symptom of an underlying employee problem that should be addressed. Unusual or high level of absenteeism and staff turnover also represent forces for change. Sainsbury's might respond to these problems by reducing employee's role conflict, overload and ambiguity and also by removing the different stressors. Positive change stem from employee participation and suggestions.

Managerial Behaviour and decisions

Excessive interpersonal conflict between managers and their subordinates is a sign that change is needed in Sainsbury's. Both the manager and employee may need interpersonal skills training and the two individuals may simply need to be separated. For example, one of the parties might be transferred to a new department. Inappropriate behaviour shown by leaders, such as inadequate direction or support may require change in the response to these human resource problems.

External forces

There are four key external forces change demographic characteristics, technological advancements, market changes and social and political pressures.

Demographic characteristics

Demographic changes are occurring in the workforce of Sainsbury's. Two key trends identified in this discussion were that: workforce is more diverse and there is a business imperative to manage diversity affectivity. They are to receive maximum contribution and commitment from employee.

Technological Advancements

Service organisation is increasingly using technology as a means to improve productivity and market competitiveness in Sainsbury's. Companies, for instance, have automated their operation with computerised numerical control, which is used for mental cutting operations and computer aided design. Companies also use computer integrated services. This high technical process attempts to integrate product design with product design with product planning control and operations in Sainsbury's. Centralise training system can develop by latest technology.

Market change

The emergence of a global economy is forcing Sainsbury's to change the way they do business. For example, many Japanese companies have to discontinue their job for life philosophy because of increased international competition. To get competitive advantage Sainsbury's can use centralise training system in department of HR.

Social and Political Pressures

These forces are created by social and political events in Sainsbury's likewise harmful product selling give a lot of pressure to company. This pressure is being exerted through legislative bodies. Political event can create substantial change. Although, it is difficult for organisation like Sainsbury's to predict changes in political forces, many organisation hire lobbyists and consultants to help them detect and response to social and political change.

1.2 Bureaucracy in Sainsbury's

Bureaucracy is concerned with efficiency, with division of labour, with rigid chain of command, with clear distinctions and rationality.

Job specialization

Job specialization is the process to give particular task to the employee with limitation of performing activities.

Strength

Every employees of Sainsbury's know their duty and area of contribution so all members of Sainsbury's do specific tasks to achieve goal that given by company. This way employee gain specialisation in their job. It increases efficiency in work through repetition of job. Job specialization gives more and more expertise in work.

Weakness

To do repetitive work through employee can reduce overall productivity and it also prevents their knowledge and skill in Sainsbury's. There is limitation to do work in employee choice. Employee got one part of skill rather than complete skill in organisation. Job specialization does not give training of all area of knowledge which reduces the confidence of employee to do other activities.

Employment and career

Strength

It is necessary to appoint appropriate person to particular position in Sainsbury's. Sainsbury's have a wide range of learning and development available using variety of methods like workshops, activity and coaching training, workbooks at all. Sainsbury's also recruit graduates because they need quick thinking innovators leading the business. Sainsbury's offers promotion to the employee in the basis of their performance.

Weakness

Individuals throughout the Sainsbury's are promoted to their level of incompetence and it can restrict the psychological growth of the individual in their job. Global changing environment directly effect on employment and career. Current economic situation shows that generation of new employment and career growth get harder.

Rules and procedures

Strength

All employees know that what are Sainsbury's rules and procedures which improve work efficiency. Strict rules on position qualifications and code of conduct, Sainsbury's get proper information which is helps to achieve company objectives.

Weakness

With the help of rules give minimum level of acceptable performance in Sainsbury's. Employee leads to individual and sub unit goals which replace Sainsbury objectives. It gives delay in work and employee cannot produce more productivity in work


1.3 Alternative forms of organisational development

Total Quality Management

Quality is a difficult criterion to assess because it depends on the expectation of a product on services. Sainsbury's may choose radically for qualities of their output apply Total quality management. TQM exist when the needs of the customers of Sainsbury's may try to meet and communicate about these needs with its customer. Furthermore, all departments in Sainsbury need to aim for high quality, the back office departments included. Finally, quality is a continuous improvement project because quality can always be improved and it also depends on customer needs, which are frequently changing. TQM may be part of Sainsbury's because TQM trough we can change in centralise training system.

Kaizen

Kaizen is Japanese export, and have been used worldwide. Sainsbury's Membership is voluntary, and member are drawn from a particular department, No financial rewards are given for team suggestions, Members receive training in problem solving, statistical quality control and team processes, Their problem solving domain is defined by management, Meeting are held weekly, usually in company time, often with trained facilitators helping members with training issue and helping them to manage the meetings. Sainsbury's may include quality improvement, quality enhancement and employee involvement. Kaizen may be part of Sainsbury's, with the help of kaizen we can change centralise training system.

Business Process re-engineering

Sainsbury's may report significant improvements in performance as a result of applying re-engineering methods. The fresh start, blank sheet approach ignores past history and current practice in favour of considering how best to structure of the Sainsbury's and design work to meet the needs of today's business and customers. The process orientation also represents a departure from most traditional approaches to analysis Sainsbury's. A process is simply a set of activities that delivers a product or a service to a customer. The customer of Sainsbury's may be eventual user of the product or service, or it could be an 'internal customer' the person or section responsible for the next set of activities in the overall process. BPR may be part of Sainsbury's, we can use BPR to change centralise training system in Sainsbury's.

Learning organisation

It is generally recognised that Sainsbury's ability to learn is a key strategic weapon. They emphasised a range of activities that are all part of knowledge management. Learning is in its simplest form 'a process of retention of response patterns for subsequent use' but it can also be active process of experimenting and understanding the reasons behind events. Sainsbury's learning requires the institutionalisation and acceptance of knowledge spread again among the member through socialisation. Organisation needs 'tools' for this institutionalisation process, such as communication channels, storage systems, knowledge sharing processes, storytelling at all. Sainsbury's may one that proactively creates, acquires and transfer knowledge and that change its behaviour on the basis of new knowledge and insights. Learning organisation may be part of Sainsbury's so we may change centralise training system with help of learning organisation in Sainsbury's.



2. System for involving other in process of change in the Sainsbury's

2.1 system involve appropriate stake holders in the introduction of change

A core element of the functioning of system is the interdependence between the component parts of a system. (Kelly, Ryan, Altman & Stelzner, 2000)

In this assignment I would like to change in HR training system and I would like to develop centralise training system in Sainsbury's. To develop this system, I involve stakeholders like employee, customer, manager, line manager and management of Sainsbury's.

Advertisement

Management give advertisement to aware about the change in centralise training system which can through employee, manager, line manager get centralise training. This centralise training will help to achieve company target and their own goal. Customers get benefit about services of Sainsbury's. Advertisement is effective way to promote and get aware about change in centralise training system in Sainsbury's. Employee, manager and line manager to make video add which can help to implement centralise training system in Sainsbury's. Advertisement through employee, manager and line manager can aware about change in advertisement system.

Print media

Print media is very effective way to promote change in centralise training system. Quick turnover of newspaper is good medium to reach the customer. With magazine advertise can focus in on a specific target audience. Poster is more effective way of outdoor advertising. Employee, manager and line manager make printed paper of centralise training system change in Sainsbury's. Customer can get detail printed paper. Print media through employee, manager and line manger look change in centralise system in Sainsbury's.

Training and development

There are many problem also come forward when we introduce change so to introduce change in effective way training and development is require. Sainsbury's all staff like employee, supervisor, line manager, manager need to require training to introduce change in centralise training system. Training gives more reliability toward change and it direct connected success of change. Training through employee knows benefits of change and how it directly affects the Sainsbury's growth. Employee, supervisor, line manager and manager make centralise programme which help to introduce change in Sainsbury's.

Word of mouth

The word of mouth marketing is most effective way to affect services business. Centralise training system in HR, this change involves employee, customer and manager. It is positive change in training system which gives credibility of the service. It can promote by employee can discuss about the new services of Sainsbury's. It is the way to give common response from the target market. This is long term marketing method. It is more successful and cost effective selling tool. Word of mouth through employee, customer and manger hear or listen about centralise training system change in Sainsbury's.

Online

Online marketing mainly possible uses the internet and World Wide Web. To introduce change in centralise training system company involve customer and all employee of Sainsbury's. Customer and all employee make online report of change centralise training system in Sainsbury's. Company use Sainsbury's website to promote change in centralise training system. Sainsbury's employee sends e-mail by their customer to inform new change in services. To use online classified advertisement through company reach to the people. Online through customer and all employee get online information about change in centralise training system.

Meeting

When employee, mangers, supervisor discuss the change in centralise training system in HR and try to find out effective way of change. It is only possible by organising meeting. Meeting through they can discuss the problems that arise to introduce change and how can we solve the problem and knows the different view about development of system. Meeting through employee can aware about change in centralise training system.


2.2 Analyse and evaluate the system

Advertisement

Merits

Advertisement helps to promote centralise training system of HR department in Sainsbury's. Advertisement of change in HR system gives positive image to their customer, employee and manager. Advertisement through us can directly cover mass number of customers.

Demerits

Advertisement is expensive things because for advertisement need so many activities, planning and time in Sainsbury's. If change is not properly promote than it gives negative feedback to all the stakeholders of Sainsbury's.

Print media

Merits

It has a general and wide appeal. It can be repeated as long as advertise desire. The effectiveness of advertisement can also be estimated. The life is such longer than life of a newspaper. The get up is more attractive and use of colours is possible. Advertisement is accessible to each class of the society. Because of large circulation, low cost advertising.

Demerits

It has a very short span of life. The use of colours is often not possible. Illiteracy is also affects the utility of newspaper advertising. Advance planning is necessary limited circulation of magazines. Repetitive advertising is not possible.

Training and development

Merits

It will increased productivity and reduce employee turnover. It increased efficiency resulting in financial gains and decreased need of supervision. It will build a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team which enhance the company's competitive position and improve employee morale. It will give sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and Sainsbury's goal.

Demerits

Training requires new investment, time, training programme, training place as well as trainee. Particularly in Training period, employee cannot work that who already was working for Sainsbury's because they spend time on acquire training. Training and development directly effect on company financial.

Word of mouth

Merits

Word of mouth is very important and long term marketing approach. It is also cost effective and time consuming. It gives more powerful effect to the customer and employee of Sainsbury's. There is no need any kind of training and knowledge.

Demerits

Word of mouth sometime creates conflict between customer or employee and Sainsbury's change. Word of mouth increase confusion about the change which does not provide evidence of change. It may give wrong perception of change in Sainsbury's.

Online

Merits

Online marketing is give visual and written detail of change in Sainsbury'. It is time consuming and less expensive. It depends on online presentation of change in Sainsbury's which give positive image to their customer, employee and manager.

Demerits

Online promotion through us cannot correlate all customer, employee and manager about change in Sainsbury's. It only targets particular target group rather than all of them.

Meeting

Merits

Meeting require discussion of change in Sainsbury's with their employee, customer and managers. It is effective way to decrease problems as much and try to solve by meeting.

Demerits

It only focuses particular target group so we cannot get feedback of all to introduce change in Sainsbury's. It require place to organise meeting and in meeting, cannot get clear feedback of change in Sainsbury's.


3. Implement model for ensuring on going change in Sainsbury's

3.1 appropriate models for change

There are so many models available for change but Business process re-engineering and total quality management are more appropriate implementation model for HR training change in Sainsbury's.

Business process re-engineering

When considering change, start with black sheet of paper and redesign from scratch. Second, advocate a process orientation to the analysis and redesign of centralise training system in Sainsbury's.

The fresh start, blank sheet approach ignores past history of training system and current practice in favour of considering how best structure of centralise training system in Sainsbury's and design work to meet the needs of today's business and customers. BPR is not a 'context sensitive' approach.

The process orientation also represents a departure from most traditional approaches to organizational analysis. A process is simply a set of activities that delivers centralise training system to employee, manager and line manager. Employee may be the eventual user of centralise training system or it could be an 'internal customer' the person or section responsible for the next set of activities in the overall process. This is potentially radical because it requires a horizontal analysis of work along an activities chain.

A typical business process re-engineering project has four main stages: (1) Process mapping: draw a flow chart of centralise training activity sequence. (2) Identify 'moment of truth': decide which step are critical, add value and introduce errors. (3) Generate redesign proposals: streamline the process, avoiding duplication and overlap (4) Implementation: put the redesign into effect change in Sainsbury's.


Total quality management

Total quality management means that the organisation's culture is defined by and supports the attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organisational process, resulting in high quality product and services. To do it rights the first time to eliminate costly rework and listen to learn from customer and employees. Make continuous improvement and every day matter. Build teamwork, trust and mutual respect.

Quality consultant Richard J. Schonberger sum up TQM as 'continuous, customer centred, employee driven improvement. TQM is necessarily employee driven because service quality cannot be continually improved without the active learning and participation of every employee. Thus, in successful quality improvement programmes, TQM principles are embedded in the organisation's culture. Despite variations in the language and scope of TQM programmes, it is possible to identify four common TQM principles.

Quality is a difficult criterion to assess because it depends on the expectation of a product or service. Organisations who choose radically for quality of their output apply Total Quality Management. TQM exists when the needs of customers of the organisation are heard and the organisation tries to meet and communicate about these needs with its customers. Furthermore, all departments in the organisation need to aim for high quality, the back office department included. Finally, quality is a continuous improvement project because quality can always be improved and it also depends on customer needs, which are frequently changing.


3.2 implementation process and outcomes

Unfreezing

Sainsbury's run training and development of LGV1 driver, warehouse shift manger, team manager and warehouse operation individually. There is no centralise training programme for employee so Sainsbury's get difference in productivity. Sainsbury's identify this problem and they do planning to introduce centralise training system with help of developing perfect training programme with the help of employee, line manager, manager and management. Sainsbury's can use Business Process Re-engineering model for change in training system. Sainsbury's can use special trainer to give training and with the all equipment which is necessary for training.

Moving

Sainsbury's ready to implement centralise training system for employee. This centralise training system improve productivity of employee. Sainsbury's can open centralise training different store so employee cannot get problem to take centralise training in Sainsbury's. Sainsbury's can make live atmosphere in centralise training place so employee can enjoy training. Centralise training through company get more efficient staff.

Freezing

Sainsbury's implemented centralise training system after that Sainsbury can get feedback from the employee, manger, line manager and supervisor. Sainsbury's gather review of centralise training system. If is there any problem or treat remain, Sainsbury's can implement problem by identify solution. When Centralise training system is resolving the entire problem than centralise training system runs perfectly in Sainsbury's. Sainsbury's try to consolidate this centralise training programme.


Outcomes

  • Centralise training system give same quality of training to every employee in Sainsbury's.

  • Centralise training system will help to increase productivity in Sainsbury's.

  • Centralise training through get motivation in work.

  • Employees of Sainsbury's get confidence in job and do their best in job.

  • It helps to improve managerial and leadership quality in Sainsbury's.

  • It will reduce conflict and problem of employee, manager, line manager, and supervisor in working environment.

  • Sainsbury's may achieve high quality organisation in the UK by using centralise training system.

Conclusion

Sainsbury's is the larger retailer in UK. Sainsbury's need to give better customer services in UK. It can be possible by better training programme and Sainsbury's can use centralise training programme through every employee can get same training in Sainsbury's. It will directly affect Company performance and productivity. With the help of centralise training system employee can get motived and employee best work can come out through training. Sainsbury's knows to get better satisfaction in customer service can possible with the help of centralise training system. Centralise training system boost more confidence in employee.


Reference

Pettinger Richard (2002), Introduction to Management, Third edition, PALGRAVE, New York.

Buchanan David and Huczynski (2004), Organizational Behaviour an Introductory Text, fifth edition, Pearson Education Limited, England.

Armstrong Michael (2009), Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 11th edition, Kogan Page Limited, United kingdom.

Buelens Marc (2006), Organisational Behaviour, Third Edition, McGraw Hill Education (UK) Limited, Berkshire.

Mullins Laurie (2007), Management and Organisational behaviour, Eighth Edition, Pearson Education Limited, England.

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