Chicago Referencing

The Chicago Manual of Style uses a simple method for footnotes or endnotes. References to publications which you cite in your paper can be listed in an Endnote list (1, 2, 3) called References, Bibliography or Endnotes. References can also be cited in footnotes at the bottom of each page.

The Chicago Manual of Style uses "Ibid." (in the place of) as a method to reference a work which has been referenced previously. It also encourages a method of simplified referencing which allows the researcher to use an abbreviated form of the document citation in subsequent references or when the reference has been cited in its extended form in the bibliography.

The Chicago Manual of Style uses both a reference page and a bibliography page. Each footnote or endnote is numbered. The bibliography is in alphabetical order and includes all resources used; not just those cited in the references.


(Note: The first example under each category is a foot or endnote and second is a bibliographic citation.)
Books - one author 1. Dick Francis, Come to Grief (New York: Putnam's Sons) 1994). Francis, Dick, Come to Grief. New York: Putnam's Sons, 1994. Books - two authors (p. 529)

2. Liam P. Unwin and Joseph Galloway, Peace in Ireland (Boston: Stronghope Press, 1990).
Unwin, Liam P., and Joseph Galloway, Peace in Ireland. Boston: Stronghope Press,1990. Journal Article - one author (p. 571)

3. Rush Limbaugh, "The Best of the Reagan Years," National Review 29(1990): 22-25.

Limbaugh, Rush, "The Best of the Reagan Years." National Review 29(1990): 22-25. Newspaper Article - (p. 578) 4. Williams Robbins, "Big Wheels: The Rotary Club at 75,"New York Times, Sunday, 17 February 1980, sec. 3. (Note: A bibliography for a newspaper article can look just like a journal entry or it can be no more than the name of the paper and section.) (p. 578) Interviews - (p. 585) 5. George Bush, Interview by Dan Rather, CBS Evening News Columbia Broadcasting System, 8 February 1989. Bush, George. Interview by Dan Rather. CBS Evening News. Columbia Broadcasting System. 8 February 1989. 6. Karen Hardie, interview by the author, High Point, NC., 24 December 1995.

Payne, Jim. Interview by the author. High Point, NC. 24 December 1995. Documents (p. 634)

7. Judith Glazer, "The Master's Degree Tradition, Diversity and Innovation." in ERIC

- Education Resources Information Center, (1986), Identifier number ED 279260 (22-23). Glazer, Judith. "The Master's Degree Tradition, Diversity and Innovation." in ERIC

- Education Resources Information Center, 1986. Identifier number ED 279260.


8. T. S. Bixley, "Sentient Microfilaments: a tempest in a test tube." [Available Online]

Princeton University [cited January, 1996]; Available from psyc.92.3.26/consciousness/11.html.
Bixley, T. S. "Sentient Microfilaments: a tempest in a test tube." [Available Online]. Princeton University [Cited January, 1996]. Available from http://www.princeton. edu/pub/harnard/psyc.92.3.26/consciousness/11.html.


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