Turabian referencing style

Examples on this page:
  • book (by author/s)
  • book (by editor)
  • chapter in an edited book
  • journal article
  • artwork as a primary source, where no image is provided in the text
  • artwork where a photocopy of the image is provided in the text
  • artwork cited from a book
  • non-print resources (videorecordings)
  • internet

Based on guidelines from the Department of Theory of Art & Design (Faculty of Art and Design) as outlined in the publication Almost everything you need to know to succeed in the Department of Theory of Art & Design. In this system sources are cited in footnotes. A superscript number in the text 1 indicates a reference. Most word processing programs have an automatic footnoting system which will number footnotes consecutively even when their original placement in the text is changed. Information about the reference is then given in the footnote at the bottom of the page to which it refers.

The first reference to a source must give all the information necessary to identify it. Later references should be abbreviated. A bibliography should be supplied at the end of the work and must include all works consulted even if they do not appear in the footnotes. The form of the reference in the bibliography is slightly different to the form of the reference in the footnote, see the examples below. List the works in alphabetical order by the author's surname, or the title in the case of edited books and non-print resources.

 

Examples

Book (by author/s)

Example: as Footnote: S. Barnet, A Short guide to writing about art, 7th ed., (New York: Longman, 2003), p. 130.Later reference to the same source: Barnet, A Short guide to writing about art, p. 130. In Bibliography: Barnet, S. A Short guide to writing about art, 7th ed. New York: Longman, 2003.

Book (by editor)

Example: as Footnote: Isobel Crombie, ed. Flagship: Australian art in the National Gallery of Victoria, 1790 - 2000, (Melbourne : National Gallery of Victoria, 2002), p. 16.In Bibliography: Crombie, Isobel, ed. Flagship : Australian art in the National Gallery of Victoria, 1790 - 2000, Melbourne : National Gallery of Victoria, 2002.

Chapter in an edited book

Example: as Footnote: R. Layton, "Traditional and contemporary art of Aboriginal Australia: two case studies." in Anthropology, art and aesthetics, ed. J. Coote and A. Shelton, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 137.In Bibliography: Layton, R. "Traditional and contemporary art of Aboriginal Australia: two case studies". In Anthropology, art and aesthetics, ed. J. Coote and A. Shelton. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Journal article

Example: as Footnote: O. Sohm, "Caravaggio's deaths," Art bulletin 84.3, (2002) : 453In Bibliography: Sohm, O. "Caravaggio's deaths." Art bulletin 84 3, 2002.

Artwork as a primary source, where no image is provided in the text

Example: as Footnote: Pablo Picasso, Weeping woman, 1937, oil on canvas, 55.2 x 46.2 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.Later reference to the same source: Picasso, Weeping woman. In Bibliography: Picasso, Pablo. Weeping woman, 1937, oil on canvas, 55.2 x 46.2 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Artwork where a photocopy of the image is provided in the text

Images should be referred to as figures and numbered successively. Example: as Footnote: Jackson Pollock, Naked man with knife, c. 1938-41, oil on canvas, 127 x 91.4 cm, Tate Gallery, London. (fig. 1).Later reference to the same source: Pollock, Naked man with knife, (fig. 1). In Bibliography: Pollock, Jackson. Naked man with knife, c. 1938-41, oil on canvas, 127 x 91.4 cm, Tate Gallery.

Artwork cited from a book

Example: Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa (La Gioconda), c. 1503-5, Louvre Museum, Paris in M. Laclotte, Favorite old master paintings from the Louvre Museum, Paris, New York, Abbeyville, 1979, p. 31.

Non-print resources (videorecordings)

Example: Footnote and Bibliography: Art of Barbara Hepworth, London, Illuminations, 2003(videorecording). 'Romanticism', Landmarks of Western art part 5, Cromwell Productions, 1999 (videorecording).

Internet

Example: as Footnote: M. Nunes, 'Baudrillard in Cyberspace': http://www.gpc.edu/~mnunes/jbnet.html [accessed 21/9/03]Bibliography: Nunes, N. 'Baudrillard in Cyberspace': http://www.gpc.edu/~mnunes/jbnet.html [accessed 21/9/03]

Sources of further information:

K. Turabian, A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations, 6th ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

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