A STUDY OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' PERCEPTION TOWARDS MEDIA VIOLENCE AND ITS EFFECT ON YOUTHS IN MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research is to classify the university students' perception towards media violence on youths in Malaysia. It is also aims to identify the media capability of affecting youths in their development of individual characteristics. Media has become common to everyone because the exposure towards media is wide. University students' and youths are the future leader of the country and it is important to know that how they perceive and the effects of media violence. Social Learning theory was use as the basis of this research. After the obtainable literature review, a quantitative research was conducted with 100 sets of questionnaires survey are given to the target respondents to address the problem highlighted above. The data collected was from the sample of 99 were analyzed and discussed. The result of this study was able to provide useful information about university students' perception and its effect on youths in Malaysia. The media violence effect on youth is still under control in Malaysia where most of the university students' childhood and teenage life were not affected by media violence. It also identified that the youths today is not as innocent if were to compare with the older generation.


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Over the years, researchers have examined the effects of before and after the introduction of media to the community. The constant question which crops up on the effects of media is, will the exposure of youth to media violence cause increased levels of aggression and violent behavior. According to Huesmann (2001), he said that the young adults may behave aggressively if they are exposed to media violence since young. Ones characteristics can be formed when they are young due to the exposure of media such as television, can determine what kind of a person he/ she will grow up to be.

Media violence is reputably hard to explain and define. Violence is the act of a threat in harming and hurting where it could end up with life being sacrificed. The exposure towards media violence may arouse the aggressiveness in the behavior of a person. The connection between media violence and aggressiveness is interrelated because whenever there is aggressiveness it can somehow be linked to media violence. How media violence affect youth nowadays is indeed very important in order to have a clearer view of the society because if this matter is not taking seriously eventually violence in youth might contributes to a major portion of the increasing crime rates. Thus, the media indeed plays an important and major role in developing of morals and values of youth.

Numerous shooting cases have taken place in schools, colleges and universities all around the world for the past few years. Many innocent lives have been taken due to the aggressiveness in youths. A youth who grew up surrounded by violence may have the tendencies of getting themselves involved in crime and violence at a higher rate compared than those who were not exposed to the media (Huston and Wright, 1997). There are many things around the world will influence a youth's behavior, but in this research we will only be focusing on entertainment that is media such as television, wrestling and video games.

The reason for researching on this topic is due to the fact that youth nowadays tend to develop characteristics by imitating behaviors from the media. One of the main influences of mass media would be media violence, where the printing and writing of the mass media won't have a big impact, because it is only visual compared to the media which has audio and visual effects at the same time. In many cases, youths tend to develop a violent behavior through media, and violence among youths is growing exponentially. Therefore, this study will focus on the university students' perceptions towards media violence and its effects on youth in Malaysia. The specifications of media violence in this study are television, video games, internet games, music videos and music lyrics.

1.2 Problem Statement

This research is trying to find out what is the university students' perception towards media violence on youths in Malaysia is because the media has the capability of affecting youths in their development of individual characteristics. The uncontrolled media violence incidents could be the birth of a more violent community and society in the future. Besides that, people may confuse reality by observing violence on media and develop unrealistic fears.

It is an undeniable fact that entertainment media plays an important role for the future generations. Take the television for example; it has grown from a black and white small image set to full high definition wide screen. Today, it is a constant companion to most youths. Its influential properties are indeed undeniable, and the effect of media violence on youths is consistent. With parents working most of the time, youths are left alone depending on media as the sole source of entertainment, this of course leads to the youths tending to believe that all the behaviors and results are real and logical.

University students can be categorized as youths where youths are generally visual learners because students at the university level is able to visualize the information given whether is it true or not rather than just trust whatever the information given. Visual learners think in pictures rather than in words. At this stage, they learn better visually, and usually would see the big picture first before learning the minor details. Most media nowadays depends a lot on visual effects; this includes media violence as well. The false admiration of heroes or heroines will cause youths to imitate the actions and behaviors from the entertainment source, and apply it in the real world. Youths will draw a quick conclusion and perceive that aggression could solve problems in life directly and generate rewards easily.

1.3 Definition of the Term

Mass media is any medium used to convey mass communication, and the mass media sources, which includes books, newspapers, magazines, radio, movies, television, and internet. It is a fact that mass media has grown by leaps and bounds, and the importance of it has also grown significantly throughout the years. Therefore, the influences in today's society are an unquestionable fact. One of the main influences of mass media would be media violence.

Media violence is the visual portrayal of acts of aggression, and the action could be portrayed by anyone or anything, from human beings to animals. In many cases, the highly influenced group would mainly be youths. Such aggression behaviors include damages to properties, verbal abuse, emotional or physical abuse. In an important study carried out in Canada, children were found to have become significantly more aggressive two years after television was introduced to their town for the first time (Kimball and Zabrack, 1986).

Children who prefer violent television shows when they are young have been found to be more aggressive later on, and this may be associated with trouble with the law in adulthood (Huesmann, 1986). The increase of violence among youths would reflect the growing numbers in violence among adults as well. This would lead to a crisis in society where violence would wander freely.

University students are the future leaders, where the practice of media violence is normal to them could lead the world to an unhealthy trend by using aggressiveness to settle problems instead of using a peaceful way such as negotiation and meetings. Many wars could be waged and innocent citizens could be the victims of the violent world. The foundation behavior of a person is important because how a person grows up really depends a lot from the condition a person being raised up.

1.4 Purpose of Research

The purpose of this research is to find out what are the university students' perceptions towards the media violence effects on youth in Malaysia. The research purpose is to analyze media violence on youths in contributing to a negative impact on society. This research also includes about how university students' perception about the seriousness of the media violence affecting the younger generation compare to the older generation in this century.

1.5 Research Questions

There are three research questions which will be conducted in this research, they are:

  1. What are the university students' perceptions towards the media violence effect on youth?

  2. Does the media violence affect their lives?

  3. What are the impacts of media violence on youths?

1.6 Theoretical Framework (Social Learning Theory)

"Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action." (Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977)

The social learning theory is considered the most influential theory of learning and development which was proposed by Albert Bandura (1977). In many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning concepts such as observational learning, imitation, and identification.

The theory are as follows, people learn by observing the behaviour of others and outcomes of it. Imitation is another direct mechanical reproduction of behaviour and learning can occur without a change in behaviour. Behaviourists say that learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behaviour. Social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone, not necessarily to be shown in their performance. People can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors. The observational learning and modeling process involved are attention, retention, reproduction, motivation.


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 The importance of Media

In the society nowadays, the media has become an essential need that everyone must have such as food and clothes where is it indeed true that media is playing an important role to play. With advance improvement in the field of science and technology today, the media has become a crucial part in our modern society. Media is a social device in our communication lives. The media can be obtained in everywhere such as newspaper, television, radio, films and internet. The society exposed to media everyday. In fact we seek knowledge through media (Tan, 2009). According to Devrani (2008), the duty of the media is to inform, entertain and also to educate the people in the society. Despite of that, the media help everyone to know what is going on in the world from time to time. Media shape lives and the society's lives will not be complete without media (Devrani, 2008).

The media's impact is through psychological and intellectual where the media shape public opinion and help frame the society. The media's information is what we read, listen to and watch (Angel, 2008). According to Adedamola (2009), he explained that the media had always played the leading role in the way we think and do things, he also point out that the idea of perception is the central role of the media. Besides that, media also affects a person's perspectives not only through television but at the same time through radio, newspaper and the internet (Devrani, 2008). A person cannot rely completely with the media because a person has to filter and critically analyze the situation before judging on something. It is also important to know that the media is able to influence our thinking and minds. With this is also explaining the reason why the media is so powerful to manipulate one person's mind (Tan, 2009). In parallel, the media influence the people on making the decision, the products to buy, questions to ask and choices to make in the daily life (Angel, 2008). It is often use by the leaders to make full usage of the media to influence people and by controlling the media means controlling the flow of the communication among the society.

2.2 Media Violence

It seems like that the violence among children is growing rapidly in our society today. It happen almost every parts of the world but the question still remains a mystery. How do children develop to be so violent? Is violence genetically programmed in them even before they are born? It is possible to ever change their attitude again? In many cases, researchers found that nowadays, the entertainment media plays a powerful role in the formation of values and morals in children. "For a variety of reasons, it is now time for a new assessment of what is known scienti?cally about how media violence affects young people and what can be done to mitigate these adverse effects". (C. A. Anderson et al, 2003).

In the past few years, there has been an onset of school shootings, and many teenagers had been sacrificed. One of the examples is the Columbine High School massacre in Littleton, Colorado on April 20, 1999, which killed 13 people and wounded 23 others. The incident was committed by two students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, which involved imitation of characters of video games. They both committed suicide after the tragedy. In other case, Cho Seung-Hui has been identified as the gunman responsible for the two Virginia Tech attacks that claimed 33 lives to become the deadliest shooting rampage in U.S. history in April 16, 2007. Cho's inability to handle stress and the "frightening prospect" of being "turned out into the world of work, finances, responsibilities, and a family," Cho chose to engage in a fantasy where "he would be remembered as the savior of the oppressed, the downtrodden, the poor, and the rejected." The panel went further, stating that, "His thought processes were so distorted that he began arguing to himself that his evil plan was actually doing good. His destructive fantasy was now becoming an obsession (The Virginia Tech review panel, 2007). Media violence contributes in making the student to have such evil plan mentality with a heavy heart that this world is so terrible to live anymore.

In many situations, it seems that minority groups are usually targeted. The teenagers who kill seem to feel that they are being shunned and made fun of by their fellow classmates. The feeling would soon developed into hatred and revenge, thus sparkle off any undesirable incidents. Some of these tragedies have led to the killers killing themselves at the end in search of peace of mind. "Violence (homicide, suicide, and trauma) is a leading cause of death for children, adolescents and young adults, more prevalent than disease, cancer or congenital disorders" (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001). It is possible for those who are naturally aggressive to be the most affected by the media violent while the most vulnerable at the risk of increasing in aggressiveness (Gentile, 2004). Family history and background does contribute to the violence because when the children grow up in the aggressive family tends to behave more aggressive.

2.2.1 Television

Watching television is also one of the main factors contributing to the media violence on youth. "By the time a child is eighteen years old, he or she will witness on television (with average viewing time) 200,000 acts of violence including 40,000 murders" (Huston, et al, 1992). Williams (1970) have studied both before and after the television was introduced in a rural village in British Columbia where after two years the introduction of television, the violent incidents had increased by 160 percent. In?uences that promote aggressive behavior in young children can contribute to increasingly aggressive and ultimately violent behavior many years later.

Therefore, it is important to recognize factors including media violence that, separately and together, may play a role in these outcomes in childhood (Huesmann & Moise, 1998; Tremblay, 2000). In 2001, the Surgeon General's conclude on youth violence that the media violence rises up youth's physically and verbally aggressive behaviour in the short term rather than violent behaviour. According to the National Commission in 1969, television violence encourages violent forms of behavior that they do not propose that television is a primary cause of violence in society but they do propose that it is a causative factor. In 1993, American Psychological Association stated that there is totally no doubt that often watch violence on television are interconnected with increased of aggressive attitudes and increased aggressive behaviour.

Other than that, in 1972, the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior has set a television research impact on children. They have come out with the result that the evidence supports, a beginning and uncertain indication of a causal relation between viewing violence on television and aggressive behavior for some children who are prone to be aggressive. In July 2000, the, American Psychological Association, American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association, and American Academy of Family Physicians stated with a joint statement that over 1,000 studies point overpoweringly to make a connection in some children between media violence and aggressive behaviour.

2.2.2 Video Games and Internet Games

Most video games and internet online games nowadays would consist of violence or sexually elements and characteristics on the games to increase sales and popularity. Most of the youths seem to be indulged in the video gaming world until they apply the gaming world into the real life situation. "Violent video games can cause people to have more aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and lessen sympathetic, helpful behaviours with peers". (Anderson, 2004; Gentile, 2003). In video game industry, particularly violence in general and sexual violence, the current trend is for gamers to be the bad guys. It creates acting out criminal fantasies in order to earn points for attacking and killing innocent passerby in the game. Even though these games are targeted for mature audiences but it is common and popular to be played by the teenagers.

In the recent research about the video gamers by Anderson and Bushman (2001) shows that although the youth who only play the video games just few hours daily would also behave aggressively in the real world. By just playing the video games it can affect the youth negatively. This is a serious fact that cannot be ignored. According to Funk, Flores, Buchman, & Germann (1999), the ratings provided by the video-game industry do not match with those provided by other adults and game-playing youngsters. The youngster and the adults totally disagree with the industry that has classified the cartoonlike character in many games as appropriates for general audiences.

A study by Anderson & et al. (2001), about a 14-year-old boy arguing that he has even killed somebody even though he has been playing video games for many years is indeed correct. Example for the 45-year-old two packets a day cigarette smoker also argues that he still does not have lung cancer. According to Anderson & et al., both of them are wrong because their exposure to their respective risk factors of media violence and cigarettes has not unintentionally increased the likelihood of the people around them in future that one day suffers the consequences. Anderson and Dill (2000) also stated that violent video games may be more harmful than violent television and movies because they are interactive, very interesting and require the player to classify with the attacker. Anderson (2000) says, "One major concern is the active nature of the learning environment of the video game". "The exposures of the video games are potentially more dangerous than the exposure to television violence to have significant effects on aggression and violence". (Anderson and Dill, 2000). In other meaning, playing video games may bring more significant violence effects on youths as they have the opportunities to be in the character and do the task in the games.

2.2.3 Music Videos and Music Lyrics

According to Waite, Hillbrand, and Foster (1992) says after the removal of Music Television (MTV) show a significant decrease of aggressive behavoiur on a forensic impatient ward. In 2003, Gentile, Linder, & Walsh conducted a study on the fifth grade children where the children who watch MTV regularly reported to be involved into more physical fights compare to the children who do not watch MTV regularly. The regular MTV watcher also rated by their teachers is radically more aggressive and less prosocial. Music videos are also concern because these videos are sometimes stuffed with violence. The assumption of attitudes, behaviour and values portrayed in lyrics of the music that influence the young listeners on how to think and react received the most criticism from the public. (Carey, 1969; Christenson & Roberts, 1998; Fedler, Hall, & Tanzi, 1982; Roberts, Henriksen, & Christenson, 1999). The songs and lyrics in the older days is totally different from now and the fact of the youths mindset also have change according to the pace of the society.

Other the other hand, a group of mice were trained to run mazes in a high school science-fair experiments in where the group of mice were to put to listen to classical music, hard rock or no music. According to the student who perform the study says that the classical mice became faster in running the maze, whereas the hard rock mice became slower because the hard rock mice is killing each other while none of the classical mice did that (Eaton, 1997; Health, Wealth, & Happiness, n.d.). Other than that, according to Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) stated that the college students who prefer heavy metal, rap or hip hop music are more aggressive than other students who prefer music such as country and pop where this bring a connection between the types of music youth listen and a broad range of troublesome attitudes and behaviours.

2.3 The effects of media violence on youths

Youths that often expose to the media violence tend not only behave aggressively but are more prone to have attitudes that support violence and aggression as a way of solving conflicts because the youths dun trust people around them and they view the world as a aggressive place. According to New Scientist ( 2007), by the time the average U.S. child starts elementary school he or she will have seen 8,000 murders and 100,00 acts of violence on TV. Besides that, Cyber (2006) says that after 15 years the researchers followed 329 subjects, they found that those who as children were exposed to violent TV shows were much more likely to later be convicted of crime. Researchers also state that, any children from any family regardless of social class or parenting can be affected by media violence. There is no word of escaping in the exposure of media violence because it is widely spread among the society and communities with the world.

Girls who watched and expose more than an average amount of violence tended to throw things at their future husbands. In parallel, boys who grew up watching violent TV shows were more likely to be violent with their future wives (Cyber, 2006). Every violent TV show increases a little-bit the chances of a child growing up to behave more aggressively in their life. In the same way after many years looking for accumulated data, the society is now recognizing a relationship between violence in the media and social problems. According to Barry (2002), the one of her study result shows that tracked 700 male and female youths over a seventeen-year period showed a definite relationship between TV viewing habits and acts of aggression and crime in the later life. Barry (2006) also states that the findings of this study help strengthen the link between TV, violence and youths. This shows a relevant result in between the violence is connected with the youths from watching television.


2.4 Perception of University Students' Towards Media Violence and its Effect on Youths

Murray (2002) says that media violence is one of the factors in contributing to forming of aggressive and antisocial behavoiur when a young boy becomes a young man. In a study Anderson, Carnagey, and Eubanks (2003) has reported that among 500 university students that violent music and lyrics increased the students' aggressive thoughts, behaviours and hostile feelings. There are now good conclusion and practical reasons to expect perception and effects of media violence among the university students. According to Mortimer, 2005 (as cited in Caez, E, 2006) the students thinks that they may become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others, they may become more fearful of the world around them, and they may be more likely to behave in aggressive or harmful ways towards others.

According to Cantor and Harrison (1999), they found out that 138 university students have perceive frightening memories of media images still continued to disturb them after many years. Cantor and Harrison (1999) also states that over 90 percent of the university students have trouble to sleep and phobia in certain situations continued suffer due to the scary experience from images they viewed as a child. In a survey conducted by Gossellin, Guise and Paquette (1977) found out that among 360 university students perceive that the heavy television viewers are more likely to think and mostly believe that the world is a dangerous place and the viewers are not particularly scare of it. This shows that the students were not bothered by the violence around them and do not see there is anything wrong with the violence (Mortimer, 2005, as cited in Caez, E, 2006). In Mortimer, 2001(as cited in Caez, E, 2006) another research also found that the students who are fear of being a victim of violence would prefer to carry a weapon with them and has the mentality of behaving aggressively and plan to hurt the people before the people get hurt them. This shows that the universities students have the perception of protecting themselves is important rather than just sit there and wait for protection.

2.5 Youths Media Violence in Malaysia

           There have been many reports of youth involved in the rapes, sex crimes, and extortion including stabbing of school childrens. In Malaysia, police statistics on these crimes indicate that they are on the rise (Loh, 2004). This media report arise the sense of panic, curious and anxiety among the citizens. The violence convicted by the youth in Malaysia becomes more serious nowadays. There are eight juveniles are charged in killing a 16 years old student in Seremban (Loh, 2004). In another case reported in The Star in 2004, a mother and her daughter were reportedly raped by two youths who had escaped from a nearby reform school in Jerantut.

           According to The Star (2010), mention that there is this article back in the year 2002, a 12 years old boy was charged for murdering his tuition teacher's 11 years old daughter by hitting her with a hard object. As 12 years old boy, he might not even realize that his action can kill a girl. Other than that, The Star (2009) report that a 17 years old youth was charged in the Juvenile Court by intentionally hitting and attacking a policeman and two Rela officers. Besides that, there is also a 20 years old youth ran amok and stab his father to death while his elder brother with serious injuries in an article in The Star (2010).

The Star (2007) review that the Deputy Youth and Sports Minister Datuk Liow Tiong Lai, it is very important for the youth and youngsters to know how to say no to violence at the National Youth Week. The media also hold an important role to play in investigating and reporting on media violence on youth. Moreover, the media is responsible to decrease the causes of crime but not contributing in increasing the media violence in Malaysia.


3.0 Methodology

3.1 Introduction

Methodology can be explained as an appropriate method use to examine a field of study when conducting a research. Besides that, methodology also ensures that findings are relevant with the research questions in order to have discussion over the results before making a conclusion about the research. In this research, theoretical frameworks will be formed and tested, where as the quantitative research in primary research methods are planned. From there the methodology covers the research approach and preliminary layout of study that consists of the theoretical/conceptual framework, research questions, questionnaire design, statistic methods, analysis and finally with a conclusion.

3.2 Quantitative Research

Quantitative research is a category of research tools used when precise results are needed. The results are expressed in numbers or statistics form. There are two research form of quantitative which are survey questionnaire and content analysis. For this study, the survey questionnaire is designed to collect primary data. This method was chosen because survey questionnaire is more appropriate to be use in this research to find out the university students' perception towards media violence and its effect on youths in Malaysia. Furthermore, this survey questioannaire method is not expensive, consuming less time, easy to collect data entry and the questionnaire can be design according to the research questions that at the same time suit to the target respondents' mentality. The questionnaire will be printed out and send out to the target respondents for this study.

3.3 Questionnaire Design

The questionnaire is design according to the three research questions of this study. Each and every of the questions in the questionnaire must be able to relate back to the research questions which is about the perception of university students' towards media violence and its effect on youths in Malaysia. It is important to know how the university students' perceive this situation. Hence, this questionnaire is design to study the opinions, perceptions and experience of them on media violence.

3.3.1 Structure of the questionnaire There will be four sections in this questionnaire where the section A consist of the target respondents demographics such as the gender, age, marital status and educational level while section B questions are on the university students' perceptions, section C is about the media violence effects and the last section D emphasize on the impact of media violence on youths.

3.3.2 Sampling Size The sample size of this research is 100 targeted to university students in Selangor state in Malaysia because there are quite a number of university in this area. All respondents are required to be honest with the answer and respond during the questionnaire is conduct to avoid inaccuracy of data collected.

3.4 Methodological Limitation

In this research study, there were few limitations in conducting this questionnaire survey. Limited time in conducting this survey has leads to the inaccurate of data collection. The small sample size due to time constraint has become one of the obstacles encountered because it is not representing the overall university students in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. In total, 100 questionnaires were distributed, a sum of 99 filled-out with valid responses was returned. Therefore, the effective response rate is 99%. Besides that, existing theories by the western researchers, might not be suitable apply into the Asian context.


4.0 Findings and Analysis

4.1Introduction

In this chapter, data collected from questionnaire are being converted into useful information to be interpreted. Findings and analyses are run to addressed the research objectives and answer the research questions. The intention of this chapter is to present the results of the questionnaire, as well as to offer interpretation of the findings and analysis related to the research questions. The findings is divided into three sections. Section A will be an overview of respondents' profile. Section B reports the findings and analysis of the University students' perception towards the effetcs of media violence on youths while the Section C report about the media violence affects on daily life among the respondents. Section D will be the impact of media violence on youths. The last part of this chapter is about analysis of the findings and comparison of the literature review with the data collected.

4.2 Section A: Overview of Repondents' Profile

In total 100 copies of questionnaire has been distributed, total number of collection is 99 copies. This makes the response rate up to 99% of the solid respond from the respondents.

No. of Distribution

No. Of Collection

Response Rate (%)

100

99

99/100 X100 = 99%

Table 4.2: Response Rate for Questionnaires

Respondent's Demographics Summary

No.

Demographics

Categories

Frequency

Percentage

1

Gender

Male

Female

53

46

53.53%

46.46%

2

Age

18-20

21-23

24-26

27 and above

7

73

12

7

7.07%

73.73%

12.12%

7.07%

3

Marital Status

Single

Married

98

1

98.98%

1.01%

4

Education Level

SPM

STPM/ A Level

Certificate/ Diploma

Advance Diploma

Degree and above

0

10

7

11

71

0.00%

10.10%

7.07%

11.11%

71.71%

5

Occupation

Employed

Self employed

Student

15

0

84

15.15%

0.00%

84.84%

6

Monthly Allowance

Below RM1000

RM1001- RM1500

RM1501- RM2000

RM2001- RM2500

RM2501- RM3000

RM3001- RM3500

RM3501 and above

79

7

5

0

2

3

3

79.79%

7.07%

5.05%

0.00%

2.02%

3.03%

3.03%

Table 4.2.1: Summary of Demographic Information

There were total 99 were return, 53.5% of the respondents were male and 46.5% were female. With the total of 78 returned, 53.85% of the respondents were male and 46.15% were female. The result of the age population finding consist of 18-20 cover 7.1%, 21-23 group were 73.7% while 24-26 were 12.1% and the remaining group 27 and above consists of 7.1%. The age group of 21-23 has the highest percentage. The marital status of single consists the highest percentage with 98.98% compared to married only 1.01. The result for the respondents' education level is degree holder and above with 70.29%, follow by advance diploma, 10.89%, STPM or A Level with 9.90%, certificate or diploma, 6.93% and the lowest is SPM with 0%. Respondents' occupation as a students are the highest with 83.16% while 14.85% are employed. The monthly allowance below RM1000 had the highest percentage of 78.21% while 6.93% of respondents' monthly allowance in the range of RM1000-RM1500 follows by 4.95% with allowance of RM1501-RM2000. 2.97% respondents had allowance from RM3001-RM3500 and RM3501 and above. Only 1.98% is allocated for respondent who had the allowance of RM2501-RM3000


4.3 Section B: University students' perception towards the effetcs of media violence on youths

Figure 4.3: Opinions of Media Violence on Youths

                      According to the chart above, the media violence still under control has the highest percentage with 46.46% follow by getting worse each day with 38.38% and the least is out of control,15.15% .

Figure 4.3.1 Form of Media Affecting Youths

                      By looking at the analysis above, the number of respondents voted videos games and internet games as the highest in affecting youths the most with 68 out of 99 respondents follow by the second highest is television with 37 votes and the affecting youths the least is music videos and lyrics.

Figure 4.3.2 Youths Imitation of Actions and Behaviors

                      Most of the respondents agreed with 84.8% that what have shown in the television, videos games, songs and internet will lead the youths to observe and imitate the action and behavior into the real world while only 15.2% diagreed.

Figure 4.3.3: Opinion on Affect of Media Violence During Childhood

                      As the analysis shows, there are only 35.4% of respondents says that they were affected by the media violence during their childhood while 64.6% were not affected.

Figure 4.3.4: Opinion on Media Violence Increase the Likelihood Crime Rates on Youths

                      It is clearly stated on the chart above that there are 79.8% respondents agree that media violence increase the likeelihood of the crime rates among youths while only 20.2% disagree.

Figure 4.3.5: Opinion on Spending Less Time on Media

                     Data collected shows that 55.6% repondents agreed that media violence can be avoided by involving less on the media such as television, videos games, songs and internet while 44.4% disagreed.

4.4 Section C: Media Violence Affects on Daily Life among the Respondents

Figure 4.4: Opinion on Feeling Insecure with Society Today Due to Media Violence

Suprisingly, there are 69.7% of the respondents feel insecure with the society today due to the media violence where as only 30.3% doesn't feel insecure. this is mainly due to the fact that increasing of crime rates in the society over the years.

Figure 4.4.1: Opinion on Society Affected by Media Violence

Out of 99 respondents, there are 66 of the respondents with the highest vote that media violence has causes the culture change in the society follow by moral values are no longer practiced or applied in society ith 62 respondents, 44 of the respondents with the opinion of people in the society had become more violent and only 39 of the rerspondents with the violence has become a common word today.

Figure 4.4.2: Opinion on Affect of Media Violence in Respondents' Teenage Life

There 64.6% of the respondents answered that they were no affected by media violence during their teenage life while only 35.4% of the respondents is affected.

Figure 4.4.3: Opinion on How respondents' Teenage Life Being Affected

The above chart is clearly states that out of 35 respondents, there are 23 were affected because they will imitate the actions, follow by 8 of the respondents behave rudely in their life and the least is the factor of being more exposure to the media violence in their life with only 4 respondents.

Figure 4.4.4: Opinion on Why Teenage Life of Respondents' Not Being Affected

The highest factors why respondents does not have their teenage life affected with 31 out of 64% of the respondents is self discipline. Less exposure is the second highest factors with 25 respondents, follow by 4 respondents of strong family values, 2 with right exposure. Healthy lifestyles and censorship on media have the same number with only 1 respondents.

4.5 Section D: Impact of Media Violence on Youths

Figure 4.5: Opinion on Impact of Media Violence on Youths

The chart above indicates that youths are engaged in more violent activities has the highest votes with 40 out of 99 respondents. Second highest is youths nowadays prefer challenging and violent games, movies and etc with 24 respondents follow by youths behave more westernize with 22 respondents and the least is youths will grow up traumatized with only 13 repondents.

Figure 4.5.1: Opinion on If Youths Today are as Innocent as Last Time

It is clearly stated on the chart above that 93.9% of the respondents think that the youths today is not as innocent as compare to last time while only 6.1% didn't think that way.

Figure 4.5.2: Opinion on Why Youths Today is Innocent as Last Time

Out of 99 respondents, only 6 respondents are as innocent as last time. The only reason respondents give is youths cannot differentiate between right and wrong which makes them is still as innocent as last time.


4.5 Analysis

In this research, table 4.2 have shown the demographics of the respondent can be controlled because the questionnaire is targetted to the university students' around the Selangor state. Besides, anonymous respondents from various unversity around Selangor state participating to the questionnaire is vital to minimise biasness. The questionnaires survey were distributed to selected target respondents on random universities in the Selangor state through convenient sampling. A near to equal balance of both gender respondents were tested in the survey. The age group of 21-23 has the highest percentage because most of the university students were among that age. Most of the respondents are university students who are not married yet.

The degree holder and above had the highest percentage because this indicates that the target repondents are university students. Respondents' occupation as a students are the highest because they are full time students while those who tick employed due to the fact they are working and studying part time at the same time. This demographic value is said to be interrelated with economic status which involves respondents' monthly income and occupation Thus, the monthly allowance below RM1000 had the highest percentage also indicates the respondents are students with no income yet. The money probably is from the loan or parents.

In Section B, the result shows in figure 4.3 that the respondents believe that the media violence in Malaysia is still under control and has not reach to the level out of control. Looking at the findings in figure 4.3.1, the impression of videos games and internet games had the most effect on youth is due to the fact that the games nowaday is indeed very violent compared to the last time. The violent games requires the players to kill in order to proceed. Practise of these games make the players enjoy the experience and behave violently. The results of the survey had the same results with literature review where Anderson and Dill, 2000 stated that the exposures of the video games are potentially more dangerous than the exposure to television violence to have significant effects on aggression and violence. Television at second place because most of the respondents believe most of the violent in the television programmes are censored in Malaysia while music videos and lyrics doesn't have the impact as big as videos games and internet games and television to influence Malaysian.

According to figure 4.3.2, everything that have shown in the media is obviously will make youths curious and wanted to imintate the actions and behavior without knowing the consequences of their actions and behaviour. There is these phrase can apply in this analysis is "Curiosity Kills the Cat". Furthermore, this findings can relate it to the Social Learning Theory where people learn to observe the behavior, imitate and identification. As the analysis shows in figure 4.3.3, it can be conclude that most the Malaysian is not affected by media violence during their childhood because during childhood they are still very innocent. Besides, according to Devrani, 2008 in literature review, the duty of media is to inform, entertain and also educate the people in the society.

It is clearly stated on the figure 4.3.4 that media really does contribute to the increasing of crime rates among youths because the violence shows in the media will imitates their actions and behaviors and apply it into the real world. Compare with literature review, Tan, 2009 says that media is so powerful to manipulate one person's mind. Data collected in fugure 4.3.5 shows that limits the time on media could avoid uneccesary violent because the amount of time spend is limited compare to those without limitation will definitely shows significant result. Comparison with literature review, it shows the same results where watching or viewing more than an average amount of time on media will tend to behave aggressively in their life.

In Section C, figure 4.4 shows that many killing, raping, robbery and violent happen everyday in the community. This finding also compatible with the literature review because according to Loh, 2004, police statistics indicates that theses crimes are on the rise in Malaysia. The findings in figure 4.4.1 shows a significant of differences between culture change and violence has become a common word a common word today because changing of culture in our society really plays an important impact in our life. For example, cinemas in Malaysia is screening more violent movies compare to last time. The Influence of media in the daily life is significant because according to Devranr, 2008, media shape lives and the society's lives will not be completed witout media. This shows that media indeed has the abilities to form a new culture among the society.

Findings in figure 4.4.2 respondents were not affected by media violence during their teenage life is due to lack of exposure towards media violence among the respondents. The charts below show how the respondents teenage life is affected and why the respondents teenage life is not affected by the mdia violence. The figure 4.4.3 clearly states that although the percentages of respondents being affected by media violence during their teenage life is lesser than not affected but it still can apply the Social Learning theory. Human tend to learn through observation, imitation and finally identification from the media.

In figure 4.4.4, Malaysian society indeed still uphold the practice of self discipline where it is the highest factors the respondents is not affected by media violence, where the less exposure is because hectic study environment in the secondary school life in Malaysia does not allow much exposure of media violence among the respondents. By this, it also relates the factor of having the right exposure makes the respondents is less expose to the unwanted media violence. Strong family values, healthy lifestyles and censorship on media also contribute to the factors because of the these three are still common in Malaysia. In literature review, a person cannot rely completely with the media because a person has to filter and critically analyze the situation before judging on something which is compatible with the data collected.

In Section D, figure 4.5 indicates that youths are engaged in more violent activities has the highest votes because the crime rates is increasing each year while youths will grow up traumatized has the least votes because youths in Malaysia grow up normally and did not have any specific phobia in them. It is also fit with wat had stated in literature review that any children from any family regardless of social or parenting can be affected by media violence. It is clearly stated in the figure 4.5.1 that there is a big significant difference in the result because it is very obvious that the newer generation of today is expose more to the media more than the older generation. The older generation doesn't have the opportunity to enjoy the technology in today's society. Moreover, shows that the finding is parallel with the literature review because according to Anderson et al, 2003, stated that the entertainment media plays a powerful role in the formation of values and morals in children. The media can be explain to have the ability to influence the thinkings and minds which indirectly contribute making the youths is not as innocent as last time. Finally, in figure 4.5.2, it shows that there are respondents who perceive the youths today are still naive about what is black and white.


5.0 Discussion and Conclusion

5.1 Discussion

            In this report, there are all together divided into five chapters were each chapters give another step of progress of this study on "Perception of University Students' Towards Media Violence and its Effect on Youths in Malaysia". It is an interesting topic to study on because each and every one will go or gone through the stage in their life. The university students' in Malaysia are the future leaders for the country and their perception towards the media violence on youths are indeed crucial for the development of the country.

            First chapter is mainly about the introduction of the background study which is media violence follow by problem statement of the study then definition of term is about explaining the specific term in the research title. The purpose of the study came after that with the reason of why this research is conducted. When the purpose of the study is clear, the research questions are nevertheless because the finding of the study must be able to answer the research questions set earlier. In theoretical framework, Social Learning Theory has been chosen for this research because this theory is perfectly fit between this study and the society.

            Second chapter is all the information for literature review that is related to the research. The literature review is starts with the importance of media and then focus on media violence which has divided into three specific areas consist of television, videos games & internet games, music videos & lyrics. Slowly it goes into the effect of media violence on youths follow by university students' perception and its effect on youths and lastly about youths media violence in Malaysia where some evidences are shown.

            Methodology is in chapter three where the method use in the research is clearly stated and explains. The quantitative research has been conducted because it is able to get the perception of the university students with questionnaire survey. Structure of the questionnaire and sampling size is plainly gives the idea of how the survey is conducted. After that, the methodology limitations are visibly explained to avoid any bias of data collecting. Besides, there is recommendation and suggestions were given in hope of future to have a more credible and solid research done on this topic.

            Findings and analysis is fall under chapter four that consist of the result of data collected from the questionnaire survey. The findings are clearly shown in the illustrated charts follow by explanations of the data. Under the chart and findings, there are analyses that explain the differences and similarities of the data collected and of course, compare it with literature review whether the data relates or not.

5.2 Recommendation and Suggestions

            In Malaysia, the study of media violence can still be improved by the future researchers and students to add further insights into this area. The deeper the knowledge about this topic can help the country understand more about the issue by taking efficient steps in handling the issues. This is because the western study about this topic sometimes it might not be relevant to the Asian context.

            The media and violence is closely link together. Any form of violence indirectly it can be link to the media. Therefore it is suggested to develop a more precise study on media violence in the context of Asian people to address the issue of different cultures and values. The future researchers are encouraged to concentrate more on finding the solutions in the media violence on youth.

5.3 Conclusion

           In conclusion, the significant findings of this whole research are the university students' perception towards media violence effect on youth is still under control in Malaysia. Most of the university students' childhood and teenage life are not affected by the media violence. The impact of media violence on youth is obvious when most of them perceive youths today are not as innocent as last time. In their opinion, youths today prefer challenging and violence games, movies and songs. Even though, most of the people can see the only weaknesses of this matter but come to think of it, the media is making the youths these days to develop their critical thinking skills. Youths are getting smarter and smarter each day with their learning ability is absorb faster to the older generation.

           Changes in life are a must in order to stay alive in the never stop world. It only matter when the changes are actually bringing more harm or benefits to the society. University students are the future leader of the country. Thus, it is undeniably that their perception towards an issue can affect the future path of the country. Overall of this whole research draw a conclusion of the exposure of media in the society today is something that cannot be avoided. It is the matter of how serious it affects the surrounding. Therefore, how the exposure influence is filter and analyze is up to the person, society and community as a whole.


6.0 References

Online Journal Articles

Amy, L. E., & Milner, L. A. (2001). Teaching for Peace in a Digital Age: Asking 'What'

       and 'Why' of Technology. Women's Studies Quarterly, 29(3/4), 218-230. Retrieved

        from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40003754

Anderson, C. A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L. R., Johnson, J. D., Linz,

       D., Malamuth, N. M., & Wartella, E. (2003) The Influence of Media Violence on

        Youth. Psychological Science In The Public Interest, 4(3), 81-110.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. American Psychological Society, 12(5), 353-359.

Anderson, C. A., & Carnagey, N. L. (2003). Exposure to Violent Media: The Effects of Songs With Violent Lyrics on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5).

Anderson, C. A., & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 772-790. doi: 10.1037//O022-3514.78.4.772

Bignell, J. (2002). Writing the Child in Media Theory. Yearbook of English Studies, 32,

       127-139. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3509052

Bonnie, S. (1995). Crime and Fear on Campus. Annals of the American Academy of

Political and Social Science, 539, 85-101. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/s

table/1048398

Crang, M. (1996). Spaces of Identity: Global Media, Electronic Landscapes and Cultural Boundaries. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 21(4), 713-715. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/622399

Felson, R. B. (1996). Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior. Annual Review of

        Sociology, 22, 103-128. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2083426

Gentile, D. A., Lynch, P. J., Linder, J. R., & Walsh, D. A. (2004). The effects of violent

video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 5-22. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2003. 10.002

Huesmann, L. R. , Moise-Titus J, Podolski C. L., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 201-221.

Jenness, V. (1995). Social Movement Growth, Domain Expansion, and Framing

Processes: The Gay/Lesbian Movement and Violence against Gays and Lesbians

as a Social Problem. Social Problems, 42(1), 145-170. Retrieved from http://ww w.jstor.org/stable/3097009

Jewkes, R., Watts, C., Abrahams, N., Penn-Kekana, L., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2000).

        Ethical and Methodological Issues in Conducting Research on Gender-Based

Violence in Southern Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 8(15), 93-103. Retrie

ved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3775193

Kirsh, S. J. (2005). Cartoon Violence and Aggression in Youth. Aggression and Violent

        Behavior, 11, 547-557. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.10.002

Osler, A., & Starkey, H. (2005). Violence in Schools and Representations of Young

People: A Critique of Government Policies in France and England. Oxford

Review of Education, 31(2), 195-215. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable /4618614

Maisel, R. (1973). The Decline of Mass Media. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 37(2),

        159-170. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2747488

Mccall, R. B. (1983). Family Services and the Mass Media. Family Relations, 32(3),

315-322. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/584608

Naylor, B. (1994). Fair Trial or Free Press: Legal Responses to Media Reports of

        Criminal Trials. The Cambridge Law Journal, 53(3), 492-501. Retrieved from

        http://www.jstor.org/stable/4507991

Myers, D. J. (2000). The Diffusion of Collective Violence: Infectiousness, Susceptibility,

        and Mass Media Networks. The American Journal of Sociology, 106(1), 173-208.

        Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3081283

Roberts, D. F., & Foehr, U. G. (2008). Trends in Media Use. The Future of Children,

18(1), 11-37. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20053118

Sherrod, R. (2003). Promoting the Development of Citizenship in Diverse Youth.

        Political Science and Politics, 36(2), 287-292. Retrieved from http;//www.jstor.or

        g/stable/3649324 Smouts, M. C. (1995). The Meanings of Violence and Its Role in Legitimation. Mershon

        International Studies Review, 39(1), 111-115. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.or

g/stable/222694

Stack, M., & Kelly, D. M. (2006). Popular Media, Education, and Resistance. Canadian

        Journal of Education, 29(1), 5-26. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/200 54144

Steinberg, L. (2000). Youth Violence: Do Parents and Families Make a Difference. National Institute of Justice, 31-38. Retrieved from http://www.house.gov/dunn/

        working group/wkg.htm.

Stroman, C. A. (1991). Television's Role in the Socialization of African American

        Children and Adolescents. The Journal of Negro Education, 60(3), 314-327.

        Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2295485

Virginia, H, (1997). The Media and Political Violence. The Journal of Ethics, 1(2), 187-

        202. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25115544

Vitagliano, E. (2004). Negatives Effect of Violent Games Become Clearer. American Family Asscociation Journal. Retrieved fromhttp://afajournal.org/2004/july/704vi deo.asp

Wood, J. W. (2002). Violence in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1800. Journal of Social

History, 36(2), 479-481. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3790125

Research paper

Gunderson, J. R. (2006). Impact of Real Life and Media Violence: Relationships between Violence Exposure, Aggression, Hostility, and Empathy Among High School Students and Detained Adolescents. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Toledo, Ohio.

Konter, D. R. (2002). A Literature Review and critical Analysis of School Violence and Teacher's Perception of the Zero Tolerance Policy. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Wisconsin-Stout, United States.

Konter, D. R. (2002). School Violence and Teacher's Perception of the Zero Tolerance Policy. Unpublished master's thesis. University of Wisconsin-Stout, United States.

 

comments powered by Disqus