The field of psychology may have grown to be respected as a science.
Objectivity and the scientific method are both part of the psychologist's mode
of operation. However, even the greatest of psychologists can only theorize
about what makes human beings act the way they do. Absolutes are not part
of psychology . Everything is relative and open to speculation. Theorists give
us their views or ideas about life.
In the field of psychology, there have been many different areas of
interest. Human development is one of the most popular areas of interest for
those who study psychology. Freud, Erikson and Piaget are all great theorists
with different ideas concerning human development. Each theorist developed
ideas and stages for human development. Their theories on human
development had human beings passing through different stages. Each theory
differed on what these stages were. These theories also differed with their
respect towards paradigmatic assumptions, learning and development, and
relationship towards educational practice.
Freud is known as the father of psychology. Although some of his
work has been dismissed, most of it still holds weight in the world of
psychology. Freud believed that human development was fueled by inner
forces. He believed the most powerful of all inner forces was our sexual
being. Freud linked everything with sex. This includes any bodily pleasure
whatsoever. Thus, when Freud discusses the sexual needs of children, they
are not the same kind of sexual needs that an adult would experience.
Children experienced sexual gratification in different ways. Sucking their
thumbs or retaining their excrement could be seen as sexual gratification for
small children. Freud also specified certain areas of our body as erogenous
zones. Those areas included the mouth and genitals. This all fit in to Freud's
obsession with sex. An obsession that could be linked to the era that Freud
lived in. It was a very conservative period in history. Sexual feelings were
Freud's theory on human development could be labeled the
psychosexual stages of development. Freud believed human beings passed
through different stages in their life based on which part of their body gave
them sexual gratification. Freud's psychosexual stages of development are
five in total.
The Oral stage takes place from birth to about one year. During this
stage, a child is orally oriented. The mouth is the child's erogenous zone.
Everything a child touches is put in his mouth. Freud believes children do
this because it gives them pleasure. When a child sucks his thumb, it does so
because it gives it gives him gratification. According to Freud, the
gratification is sexual.
The second stage in Freud's psychosexual development theory takes
place between the ages of two and three years of age. The erogenous zone
shifts location, thus moving from one stage to another. The second erogenous
zone in Freud's stages of human development is the anal region. Freud
believes children experience sexual gratification during bowel movements
and when they withhold bowel movements. Some children may even
experience pleasure handling, looking at, or thinking about their own feces.
Once the Anal stage of development has been completed, the next
stage of development for Freud is the Phallic Stage. This usually occurs at
about three years of age. The shift in erogenous zones moves from the anal
region to the genital organs. This stage is also known as the Oedipal Stage of
psychosexual development. This name comes from the legendary king,
Oedipus, who killed his father and married his mother. During this stage
children take interest in their sexual organs. Soon they notice differences and
similarities between themselves and their parents. Each sex wants to be with
the parent of the other sex, for girls this is referred to as the elektra complex.
Once the children realize they can not be with their mother or father, they
identify with the parent of the same sex.
The next stage is called the stage of Latency. This stage is
characterized by a lack of change or absence of erogenous zones. After the
realization that the child can not be with a parent sexually, the child shifts its
attention to same-sexed relationships. Boys will shift their sexual urges and
drives to something acceptable, such as sports. This is a time of relative calm.
The last stage of Freud's psychosexual development is the Genital
Stage. The erogenous zone returns in a very powerful way in the genital
organs. This stage takes place from puberty into adulthood. This stage is
marked by true sexual desire and sexual relationships.
Erikson took Freud's ideas and enhanced them. He added stages for the
adult years. He also shifted his attention to identity rather than sexuality.
Erikson developed the psychosocial stages of development. He is known for
his eight stages of life.
Erikson's first stage is during infancy. It deals with trust versus
mistrust. The child develops an outlook on life and whether the world can be
trusted or not. The child develops trust if the parents give the child something
it can rely on. The child develops a sense of optimism or pessimism during
this stage. according to Erikson.
The next stage in Erikson's psychosocial development is during early
childhood and is known as autonomy versus shame and doubt. The child
becomes autonomous and realizes he can say yes or no. This stage will
determine whether or not a child develops a sense of self-certainty.
Erikson's next stage takes place during the ages of three to six years.
This stage is marked by initiative versus guilt. This stage is important in
developing the child's sense of enterprise. The child develops initiative when
trying out new things and is not scared of failing.
The fourth stage of Erikson's developmental theory takes place at about
six years of age and lasts till puberty. This stage deals with industry versus
inferiority. The child learns skills of the culture and must deal with feelings
Adolescence brings about the next stage for Erikson. This stage is
known for identity versus identity confusion. During this stage, Erikson
believes adolescents must develop a sense of self and who they are. They
develop a sense of identity.
The sixth stage for Erikson is known for intimacy versus isolation.
This stage takes place during young adulthood. The person seeks
commitments from others. If he is unsuccessful, he may take on isolation.
Erikson believes this stage is important in learning love.
The seventh stage for Erikson takes place during adulthood. It is
marked by generativity versus stagnation. During this stage, the adult is
concerned with guiding the next generation. This stage according to Erikson
gives the adult a sense of caring.
Erikson's last and eighth stage takes place at a mature age. Old age is
marked by integrity versus despair. During this time, the person may achieve
a sense of acceptance of their own life, which in turn allows for the
acceptance of death. When one passes through this last stage, Erikson
believes that a person has achieved wisdom.
Piaget also believed in developmental theory. Her stages were
cognitive stages. These stages were based on what the child can do.
According to Piaget a child passes through four stages in its life. Piaget was
interested in the child's abilities and senses, not sexual desires like Freud was.
Piaget believes the first stage of development should be a cognitive
one. Her first stage is known as the sensorimotor stage. It takes place from
birth to about two years of age. During this time a child learns motor
meaning, object permanence, and Th. beginning of symbolic representation,
also known as language. The child will change from someone who responds
only through reflexes to one who can organize his activities in relation to his
environment. It does this through sensory and motor activity.
The next stage in Piaget's cognitive development theory is the
preoperational stage. This takes place from about two to seven years of age.
During this stage the child's language develops. He develops a
representational system and uses symbols such as words to represent people,
places, and events.
From about the ages of seven to thirteen, Piaget believes children enter
the concrete operational stage. They can solve problems logically. They can
understand rules and form concepts. Some children become moralistic.
The last stage Piaget believes is the formal operational stage. This
stage takes place from about twelve years of age through adulthood. Once
someone has reached this stage, one should be able to think abstractly,
manipulate abstract concepts, use hypothetical reasoning, and use creative
language. Someone should be able to think about the possibilities.
These three theories on human development each have their own good
points and bad points. One problem all theories must deal with are
paradigmatic assumptions. These are ideas that the theorist has taken for
granted as facts. An example is Freud's notion that women suffer from a lack
of self esteem or self worth all their lives because of penis envy. Freud's
assumption could have been a product of the times he lived in. It was a time
when women were treated as second class citizens. Today, the idea of penis
envy has lost its worth. Freud's assumption that sex is the driving force
behind everything could also be a product of his times. Sexual feelings were
often repressed. The problem with paradigmatic assumptions is that each
person grows up in a different culture and some theories don't apply to
everyone. The problem with psychology remains that it is not an exact
science. It is difficult to develop good paradigmatic asumptions because of
that. Erikson assumes a child must learn these virtues or skills in this order.
But, what if a child does not? Someone may never has a meaningful
relationship, but they may develop wisdom. This would undercut Erikson's
assumptions that everyone must pass through these stages in this order.
Piaget also has some assumptions in her theory. A man who never learns to
add, may be able to think hypothetically. These mistakes only show that
psychology still has its flaws.
Each of these theories has some value because they are not totally
wrong. These theories have withstood criticism and are some of the best.
Each theory is similar in its time table and sequence of life events. Where
they differ is in their focus. Freud focuses on sex, Erikson focuses on the self
and social orientation, and Piaget focuses on the child's ability and senses.
Each theory is also useful when applied to its relationship to
educational practice. Each theory guides a teacher in trying to understan