A Continuous Decline in India, Without Modernization
Hypothesis: Modernization is the Key to economic growth for India. If modernization occurs, then the economic status of India will increase tremendously, even if the price India has to pay is a change in culture, and tradition.
India has remained financially stagnant since its beginnings. One may argue that non-modernization has plagued this sub-continent in economic growth and development since early times. One may continue to argue that if modernization occurs, India will achieve in many different ways, including economically, socially, and nationally. In order for modernization to occur, India must move from small scale industrialization to large scale industrialization. If this occurs India will become much more financially sound and achieve a higher status in the world.
Modernization will bring many positive change to India, but people may argue that "modernization" will bring destruction to the Indian civilization. By bringing modernization, many jobs will be taken over by machines. Unfortunately, this process will result in the elimination of jobs done by local peasants. There are many additional prices India will have to pay to be able to modernize, including: (1) a loss of culture and tradition; (2) probable religious conflicts; (3) loss of caste; (4) social divisions; and, of course (5) TAXES. With modernization, taxes will definitely increase for India to pay for the new advances in industry and technology. Taxes are the primary means for any government to raise money and support its programs. However, the overall price that India will have to pay will be relatively small compared to the positive changes modernization will bring.
When India became independent its leaders recognized the urgency of strengthening the Indian economy. The leaders of new India were determined to raise the standard of living, which was among the lowest of the major nations in the world. Indian leaders agreed to establish a "mixed economy," which combines the use of private capital and public in he development of industry, mining and farming. If modernization occurs there will be change from traditional order. The model of change assumes: (1) a sharp dichotomy between the traditional and modern order, including the order of mutual exclusiveness, and (2) the change from one to another is predicted in terms of a historically deterministic pattern, that is, it must take place in a certain predetermined sequence. If this happens, India will have a better economy and a higher standard of living. Through greater economic prosperity, India will also obtain better health care. Also industry will promote a better education system by encouraging students to study for more technical and professional jobs. Finally modernization will foster a better sense of nationalism, as future generations become healthier, stronger, and more prosperous.
Today, there are many Indians without jobs or work. Currently the vast majority of jobs are done by villagers, limiting the number and types of jobs that can be performed. Specifically, without a coordinated system the only jobs that can be performed are simple ones that can be completed by a relatively few individuals. No technologically advanced jobs can be performed or created in this type of system. Modernization will bring factories that will produce many jobs - more than any village can produce. In addition, factories will allow for the manufacture of new products not possible for village workers to produce by themselves.
As mentioned previously, one of the by-products of modernization is advances in health care. Presently, the life expectancy in India is placed at a low 58, for females, and 57 for males. This is compared to the United States where the life expectancy is 79 for females, and 72 for males. If modernization occurred life expectancy should raise considerably.
Similarly, the literacy rate of India can be expected to dramatically improve with the advent of modernization. Presently, the literacy rate in India is 41 percent, relative to a 96 percent rate for the United States. Again, it is expected that India's literacy rate will significantly rise with the introduction of modernization and greater emphasis on educational preparation.
To help foster modernization foreign companies have established small businesses and technical schools in India to help villagers understand how modernization can help improve their lives. Certainly economic success, expressed as better pay and better living conditions, is an appealing feature of modernization. Despite the allure of high wages and good pension plans, the modernization of the village as a whole can not take place without strong modification of its social structure. Traditional small communities seem to rely upon "total cooperation and consensus in getting things done, whereas urban-influenced communities rely on public spiritedness, partial cooperationness, and a absence of strong disagreement." The success of this transformation will require the involvement of the villagers and their active participation in the modernization process.
India faces the decision of remaining a small scale industrial society or stepping toward the furture by modernizing and developing advanced technological opportunities for its population. Without modernization India will never be able to excel as a nation and its citizens will continue to dwell in poverty. Critics of modernization may argue that this process will destroy Indian society and culture. On the contrary, modernization will save the Indian soceity and allow this proud country to prosper.
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