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Allergies

Allergies

An allergy is an abnormal reaction to ordinarily harmless substance or
substances. These sensitizing substances, called allergens, may be inhaled,
swallowed or come into contact with the skin. When an allergen is absorbed into
the body it triggers white blood cells to produce IgE antibodies. These
antibodies attach themselves to mast cells causing release of potent chemical
mediators such as histamine, causing typical allergic symptoms. A person who has
allergies doesn’t have a poor immune system, rather an over protective one.

Their immune system fights the allergen when it comes in contact with it even
though the allergen isn’t harmful. To diagnose allergies a physician will
clean the person’s back with alcohol, then mark it with an ink pen according
to each substance going to tested. They are extracts of potential allergens in
small vials. A drop of these is put on the corresponding mark on your skin, and
then a needle is used to prick the skin. It breaks the surface of the skin so
that the extract can enter. If an extract provokes an allergic reaction, the
patient will develop an irritation that may look like a mosquito bite. The ones
which promote reactions are the ones in which the person is allergic to and
needs to get medication for. Allergies are quite common. An estimated 50 to 60
million Americans, about one of every five adults and children, suffer from
allergies, including allergic asthma. Allergies are the sixth leading cause of
chronic disease in the United States. More than 35 million Americans suffer from
seasonal allergic rhinitis, for instance, and this is only one form of allergy.

Millions more suffer from food allergies, allergies to medications, and even
contact dermatitis (a type of allergic reaction that occurs when your skin comes
into contact with an irritating substance). Allergies have a genetic component.

If only one parent has allergies, chances are one in three that each child will
have an allergy. If both parents have allergies, it is much more likely (7 in

10) that their children will have allergies. Although any environmental material
can cause allergies, certain ones are encountered more frequently than are
others. Inhalants such as pollens, mold spores, animal products (dander, saliva,
urine), house dust, and house dust mites are very common allergies. There are

Foods such as cow's milk, eggs, chicken, shellfish, whitefish, peanuts,
soybeans, wheat products, chocolate, celery, and all products containing one or
more of these ingredients. Some individuals are allergic to food additives, such
as sulfites (used as a preservative), nitrates, and others. There are people who
are allergic to drugs such as penicillin. Substances which touch the skin can
also cause allergic reactions, which include plant oils, cosmetics and perfumes,
nickel in jewelry or on buckles and under garment fasteners, hair dyes, topical
medications including their additives. One unusual reaction is the severe
allergic reactions caused by direct contact with latex found in gloves,
catheters, condoms, dental dams, and other medical devices. These disorders are
reportedly caused by allergy to a protein in the latex. The best pets, for a
person with allergies, are turtles, hermit crabs, fish, snakes or any animal
that does not have hair and dander. The Allergies in nature throughout the

United States vary when they occur in the different parts of the country. In the

Northeast (where we live) they go as follows: trees are from March to June,
grasses are from May to August, and ragweed is from August to October (except
northern tips of Maine and Michigan). There are 3 main steps in the treatment of
allergies: avoid the specific allergen, medication (drugs can be taken for the
target organ affected), and Immunotherapy is appropriate in some, but not all,
allergy conditions. The types of medication used in helping the allergies in
people are Steroids (reduce the inflammation or swelling of the nasal tissue),

Antihistamines (counteract the histamine released in the body which causes the
many symptoms), Bronchodilators (relieve difficulty in breathing), and

Decongestants (reduce the congestion). These don’t actually cure allergies but
they can reduce the effects of them. Antihistamines are used to relieve or
prevent the symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and other allergies. They
work by preventing the effects of histamine, a substance produced by the body
during an allergic reaction. Antihistamines come in tablet, capsule, liquid, or
injection form and are available both over-the-counter and by prescription. Many
antihistamines cause drowsiness, but newer antihistamines (terfenadine,
astemazole, loratadine, and others not yet released) rarely cause this side
effect. Other common side effects include dry mouth, difficult urination,
constipation and confusion. Some may experience nightmares, unusual excitement
or nervousness, restlessness or irritability. A famous Antihistamine used today
is Claritin (loratadine) and is one of the most widely used drugs to treat
allergies today. Decongestants are used to treat nasal congestion and other
symptoms associated with colds and allergies. They work by narrowing blood
vessels, leading to the clearing of nasal congestion. Decongestants are
available both over-the-counter and by prescription. The commonly used forms are
liquid and tablet. Nose sprays or drops may be used for acute situations but for
no more than two to three days in a row. Over-the-counter nasal sprays, if used
for a prolonged period of time, can cause "rebound rhinitis" or nasal
congestion symptoms. Decongestants can cause nervousness, sleeplessness, or
elevation in blood pressure. If the nasal spray form is used too long, it may
cause even more nasal congestion. Bronchodilators are used to relieve coughing,
wheezing, shortness of breath, and difficulty in breathing. They work by opening
up the bronchial tubes (the air passages in the lungs) so that more air can flow
through. Bronchodilators include beta-agonists, theophylline, and
anticholinergics. They come in inhaled, tablet, capsule, liquid, or injectible
forms. Bronchodilators may cause nausea, vomiting, headache, nervousness,
restlessness, and insomnia, especially in elderly patients and children, who are
more sensitive to the effects of medications. Cromolyn, nedocromil, and
corticosteroids reduce the inflammation in the airways. Inflammation causes the
bronchi to become "twitchy." A "twitchy" airway is more
sensitive to various asthma triggers such as exercise, cold air, smoke, cold
viruses and allergens. Anti-Inflammatory medications usually are prescribed in
the inhaled form. Corticosteroids, in some cases, are prescribed in oral form.

Long-term use of corticosteroids, particularly oral steroids, is not
recommended, except in cases of uncontrolled asthma. Long-term oral
corticosteroid use may cause side effects such as ulcers, weight gain,
cataracts, weakening bones, high blood pressure, elevated blood sugar, and easy
bruising. Possible side effects from inhaled anti-inflammatory medications
include coughing and hoarseness. Signs of allergic reactions range from the very
mild (almost unnoticeable) symptoms to potentially life-threatening conditions
that land countless Americans in hospital emergency rooms each year. Anaphylaxis
is an acute allergic reaction which affects the whole body and requires
immediate medical attention. Many people who are severely allergic to something
may have this reaction. Symptoms include anxiety, itching of the skin, headache,
nausea and vomiting, sneezing and coughing, abdominal cramps, hives and swelling
of tissues such as lips and joints, diarrhea, shortness of breath and wheezing,
low blood pressure, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. A quick, decisive
epinephrine injection can literally be a lifesaver in the case of exposure to an
allergen that has previously caused an reaction. Allergy injections are a method
of treating patients with hayfever and asthma. Small amounts of an allergy
extract (pollens, molds, animal danders, or dust) are injected at regular
intervals into the patient to build up protective antibodies and decrease the
patient’s sensitivity. Injections are administered into the side of the arm
with a very short small gauge needle. These injections are given just under the
skin in the subcutaneous layer. After a buildup period, a high percentage of
patients respond with favorable results and are able to tolerate exposure to
offending allergens without a significant allergic reaction. Since a small
percentage of patients can have a reaction to the injection, patients usually
wait 10-20 minutes in the doctor’s office after the injection. There are a lot
of myths on how to get rid of allergies. Moving to a new place such as Arizona
(like some people think) will make them get rid of their allergies. Changing the
set of allergens can't change that. The partial truth here is that the best
treatment for any allergy is to remove the source of allergens, something
usually easier than moving. Some people think that if you don’t have a cold
and you have a runny nose and you are sneezing, then you have allergies.

Research in Arizona found that many people who believe they have allergies
actually do not have the antibodies in their blood necessary to provoke an
allergic reaction. Self-diagnosis isn't easy like most humans believe. Some
other people believe that Allergies and asthma are different parts of the same
health problem. While they are related, there are differences: Asthma can kill
you, while allergies (except for reactions to insect stings, certain foods and
drugs) are more of a nuisance than a threat. Just because you don’t have
allergies when you are a child, doesn’t mean you can’t ever get them.

Allergies can start at any age. However, allergies do tend to change over time.

Children are more allergic to foods. Young adults can become allergic to
pharmaceutical drugs, pollen and insect stings. New advancements in drugs and
other ways to help out allergies are being made as we speak. The ways in which
we take care of them is being updated all of the time and the future holds great
ideas on how to get rid of allergies. In the next few years, the drugs that will
be put out will lesson the symptoms and decrease in side effects. Because
allergies effect a vast amount of people in the world, medicines are being
highly tested in order to find the best ways to control the allergens.

Bibliography

"Allergic Diseases" Pedianet.com 11 October 1999 Online. Available
http://www.pedianet.com/news/allergies/diseases/index.html 11 October 1999

"Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Online" 11 October 1999. Online. Available
http://allergy.mcg.edu 11 October 1999 "Health Notes" Providence Journal 30

September 1999 Online. Available http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?Did=000000045452041&Fmt=3&Deli=1&Mtd=1&Idx=90&Sid=1&RQT=309

11 October 1999 "Learn About Allergies" Claritin.com 8 October 1999 Online.

Available http://www.allergy-relief.com/learn/index.php3 8 October 1999

"National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases" 9 October 1999

Online. Available http://web.fie.com/htdoc/fed/nih/ali/any/menu/any/aliindex.htm

11 October 1999 "The Allergy Center: Your Online Allergy Information

Resource" 11 October 1999 Online. Available http://www.onlineallergycenter.com



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