Anatomy and physiology

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anatomy and physiology

INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
DEFINE:

ANATOMY> STUDY OF THE STRUCTURES IN THE HUMAN BODY

PHYSIOLOGY> STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSES OF THE HUMAN BODY


SIX CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE ARE:

ORGANIZATION> CELLULAR STRUCTURE- LARGE MOLECULES ARE ORGANIZED INTO CELLS WHICH IN TURN FORM ORGANELLES

METABOLISM> NUTRIENT CONVERSION FOR ENERGY-IS ALL THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS TAKING PLACE IN AN ORGANISM

RESPONSIVENESS> RESPONDING TO THE ENVIRONMENT- ABILITY OF AN ORGANISM TO SENSE CHANGES AND ADJUST TO CHANGES

GROWTH> CELL DIVISION- WHEN CELLS INCREASE IN SIZE AND NUMBER

DEVELOPMENT> CHANGES AN ORGANISM UNDERGOES THROUGH TIME- FROM FERTILIZATION TO DEATH

REPRODUCTION> FORMATION OF NEW CELLS OR NEW ORGANISMS- FUTURE GENERATIONS


HIERARCHY OF ORGANIZATION:

ATOMS> MOLECULES> CELLS> TISSUES> ORGANS> ORGAN SYSTEMS>

ORGANISM


*** THE ATOMS COMBINE TO FORM MOLECULES. THE MOLECULES FORM ORGANELLES(EX: PLASMA MEMBRANE & NUCLEUS) WHICH MAKE UP CELLS. THAN THE SIMILAR CELLS AND SURROUNDING MATERIALS MAKE UP TISSUES. THE DIFFERENT TISSUES COMBINE TO FORM ORGANS(EX: URINARY BLADDER)
ORGANS SUCH AS THE URINARY BLADDER AND KIDNEYS MAKE UP AN ORGAN SYSTEM. FINALLY THE ORGAN SYSTEMS MAKE UP AN ORGANISM.
SYSTEM LEVEL ORGANIZATION
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM> THE OUTER PROTECTION OF THE BODY. IT PROVIDES PROTECTION, REGULATES TEMPERATURE, PREVENTS WATER LOSS, AND PRODUCES VITAMIN D.

     CONSISTS OF SKIN, HAIR, NAILS, AND SWEAT GLANDS.

SKELETAL SYSTEM> PROVIDES PROTECTION AND SUPPORT , ALLOWS BODY MOVEMENTS. IT PRODUCE BLOOD CELLS AND STORES MINERALS AND FAT.

     CONSISTS OF BONES, ASSOCIATED CARTILAGES, LIGAMENTS, JOINTS.

MUSCULAR SYSTEM> PRODUCES BODY MOVEMENTS, MAINTAINS POSTURE, AND PRODUCES BODY HEAT.

     CONSISTS OF MUSCLES ATTACHED TO THE SKELETON BY TENDONS.

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM> COMBATS DISEASE, MAINTAINS TISSUE FLUID BALANCE, REMOVES SUBSTANCES FROM THE BLOOD, AND ABSORBS FATS .

     CONSISTS OF LYMPHATIC VESSELS, LYMPH NODES, OTHER LYMPHATIC ORGANS.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM> EXCHANGES OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND AIR AND REGULATES BLOOD Ph.

     CONSISTS OF LUNGS AND RESPIRATORY PASSAGES.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM> PERFORMS NUTRIENT CONVERSIONS AND ELIMINATES WASTES.

     CONSISTS OF THE MOUTH, ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, INTESTINES, AND ACCESSORY ORGANS.

NERVOUS SYSTEM> GREATLY EFFECTS THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. IT IS A MAJOR REGULATORY SYSTEM THAT DETECTS SENSATION AND CONTROLS MOVEMENTS AND FUNCTIONS.

     CONSISTS OF THE BRAIN, SPINAL CORD, NERVES, SENSORY RECEPTORS.


ENDOCRINE SYSTEM> CONTROLS AND HELPS MEDIATE HORMONE SECRETIONS.

     CONSISTS OF GLANDS(EX: PITUITARY GLAND)

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM> TRANSPORTS HORMONES, NUTRIENTS, GASES, WASTE PRODUCTS THROUGHOUT THE BODY.

     CONSISTS OF HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, AND BLOOD.

URINARY SYSTEM> REMOVES WASTES FROM THE BLOOD AND REGULATES BLOOD PH AND WATER BALANCE.

     CONSISTS OF KIDNEYS, URINARY BLADDER, AND DUCTS THAT CARRY URINE.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM> RESPONSIBLE FOR REPRODUCTION

     MALES CONSIST OF TESTES, DUCTS, PENIS.

     FEMALES CONSIST OF OVARIES, VAGINA, UTERUS, MAMMARY GLANDS.


ORGANISM LEVEL ORGANIZATION

HOMEOSTASIAS> THE EXISTENCE AND MAINTENANCE OF A RELATIVELY CONSTANT ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE BODY.

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM> MAINTAINS HOMEOSTASIAS IN THE HUMAN BODY. THIS IS WHEN ANY DEVIATION FROM THE SET POINT IS MADE SMALLER OR IS RESISTED. THERE ARE 3 COMPONENTS INVOLVED:

1.     RECEPTOR-WHICH MONITORS THE VARIABLES
2.     CONTROL CENTER- ESTABLISHES A SET POINT AROUND WHICH THE VARIABLE IS MAINTAINED.
3.     EFFECTOR- CAN CHANGE THE VALUE OF THE VARIABLE.
4.     STIMULUS- DEVIATION FROM THE SET POINT

***THE RECEPTOR DETECTS THE STIMULUS AND INFORMS THE CONTROL CENTER , WHICH ANALYZES THE INPUT FROM THE RECEPTOR. THE CONTROL CENTER SENDS OUTPUT TO THE EFFECTOR, AND THE EFFECTOR PRODUCES A RESPONSE, WHICH TENDS TO RETURN THE VARIABLE BACK TOWARD THE SET POINT.

HOMEOSTASIAS TEMPERATURE DECREASE


TEMPERATURE INCREASE DETECTED BY
EFFECTOR SENSOR

CORRECTION SIGNAL FEEDS INFORMATION
VIA ELECTRICAL WIRES VIA WIRES BACK TO


INTEGRATOR


BASIC CHEMISTRY/REVIEW OF PERIODIC TABLE


ELEMENTS COMMON TO THE HUMAN BODY:

•     CARBON
•     HYDROGEN
•     OXYGEN
•     NITROGEN

ANATOMICAL ELEMENTS OF THE HUMAN BODY:

•     SULFUR
•     POTASSIUM


PROTONS> POSITIVELY CHARGED IONS(CATIONS)
NEUTRONS> NO ELECTRIC CHARGE
ELECTRONS> NEGATIVELY CHARGED IONS(ANIONS)


6> ATOMIC NUMBER(# OF PROTONS)
C>ELEMENT
12.01>MASS NUMBER(# OF PROTONS & NEUTRONS)

***THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS ARE EQUAL TO THE NUMBER OF PROTONS

WHAT IS THE OCTET RULE?

     HAVING 8 ELECTRONS IN THE OUTER MOST SHELL MAKING THE ELEMENT HAPPY!!

IONIC BOND> WEAKER BOND

COVALENT BOND> STRONGER BOND

IONIC BONDING> WHEN CATIONS AND ANIONS ARE ATTRACTED TO EACHOTHER OR REMAIN CLOSE TOGETHER

COVALENT BONDING> WHEN ATOMS SHARE ONE OR MORE ELECTRON

HYDROGEN BOND> WHEN A POSITIVE ION IS ATTRACTED TO A NEGATIVE ION OF OXYGEN, NITROGEN, FLUORINE.

MOLECULE> COMBINATION OF 2 OR MORE ATOMS

COMPOUND> 2 OR MORE DIFFERENT ATOMS CHEMICALLY COMBINED

SINGLE COVALENT BOND> ELECTRON PAIR IS SHARED BETWEEN 2 ATOMS

DOUBLE COVALENT BOND> 2 ATOMS SHARE 4 ELECTRONS, 2 FROM EACH ATOM


ACIDS, BASES AND PH SCALE

ACIDS> RELEASE H+ IONS
BASES> RELEASE OH- IONS

ACIDS> MOLECULE WHICH IS A PROTON DONOR, ANY SUBSTANCE THAT RELEASES HYDROGEN ATOMS(OH+)

BASES> MOLECULE WHICH IS A PROTON ACCEPTOR, ANY SUBSTANCE THAT BINDS TO HYDROGEN IONS (OH-)

BUFFER> A SOLUTION OF CONJUGATE ACID-BASE PAIR IN WHICH THE ACID COMPONENT AND THE BASE COMPONENT OCCUR IN A SIMILAR CONCENTRATION.

DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS> A LARGER REACTANT IS CHEMICALLY BROKEN DOWN INTO 2 OR MORE SMALLER PRODUCTS

EX> H2O2>>>2H + O2(GAS)

SYNTHESIS REACTIONS> WHEN 2 OR MORE REACTANTS CHEMICALLY COMBINE TO FORM A NEW AND LARGER PRODUCT

EX> FE + O2>>>FEO(WHEN A CAR RUSTS)

EXCHANGE(DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT)> WHEN THE CHEMICAL REACTION CAN CHANGE FROM REACTANTS TO PRODUCTS OR FROM PRODUCTS TO REACTANTS

SALTS> IS A COMPOUND CONSISTING OF A CATION OTHER THAN HYDROGEN AND AN ANION OTHER THAN HYDROXIDE

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

POLYMERS> A BULIDING BLOCK OF LARGE ORGANIC STRUCTURES WHICH BUILD A FUNCTION OF THE BODY. Also known as macromolecules.

HYDROLYSIS> THE BREAKING DOWN OF POLYMERS

DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS> MAKING OF POLYMERS

ORGANIC MOLECULES ESSENTIAL TO LIFE:

•     CARBOHYDRATES
•     LIPIDS
•     PROTIENS
•     NUCLEIC ACID


CARBOHYDRATES

MONOSACHARIDES>SIMPLE SUGARS EX: GLUCOSE

DISACCHARIDES>DOUBLE SUGARS EX: SUCROSE

POLYSACCHARIDES>COMPLEX SUGARS EX: CELLULOSE, STARCH
     >THESE CARBS TAKE LONGER TO DIGEST, STABLIZING YOUR BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL. ALSO YOUR BEST CHOICE OF CARBS.

LIPIDS

FATS> MAJOR TYPE OF LIPID. INGESTED AND BROKEN DOWN BY HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS IN THE CELLS. RELEASES ENERGY TO THE BODY.

TRIGLYCERIDES> 95% OF THE FAT IN THE HUMAN BODY. CONSISTS OF ONE GLYCEROL AND 3 FATTY ACIDS.

PHOSPHOLIPIDS> SIMILAR TO TRIGLYCERIDES ACCEPT ONE OF THE FATTY ACIDS BOUND TO GLYCEROL IS REPLACED BY A MOLECULE

STERIOD> 4 RING COMBINATION OF TRIGLYCERIDES FOUND IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE WHICH PRODUCE SEX HORMONES.

PROTIENS

>CONTAINS HYDROGEN, NITROGEN, OXYGEN, AND CARBON BOUND TOGETHER BY COVALENT BONDS.

AMINO ACIDS> BASIC BUILDIN BLOCKS OF PROTIENS

     EX: INSULIN AND ENZYMES ARE PROTIENS IN THE BODY

PROTIEN STRUCTURE

PRIMARY> AMINO ACID SEQUENCE

SECONDARY> FOLDING OR BENDIN OF THE POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN CAUSED BY HYDROGEN BONDS BETWEEN AMINO ACIDS.

TERTIARY> SECONDARY FOLDING CAUSED BY THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN THE POLYPEPTIDES AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

QUATERNARY> MANY PROTIENS BOUND TOGETHER

NUCLEIC ACIDS

DNA> GENETIC CONTROL OF THE CELLS
RNA> INVOLVED IN PROTIEN SYNTHESIS(WILL COMBINE WITH RIBOSOMES TO MAKE PROTIEN)

NUCLEOTIDES> BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS

ATP(ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE)>IMPORTANT ENERGY MOLECULE WHICH COMES FROM A NUCLEOTIDE

NUCLEUS> CONTAINS MOST OF THE GENETIC INFO. OF THE CELL. IT IS THE CONTROL CENTER. IT CONTAINS THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE, CHROMATIN, NUCLEAR PORES,RIBOSOMES, ETC.

NUCLEOLUS> CONTAINS PROTIENS AND RIBOSOMAL RNA. IS A ROUND, DENSE, WELL DEFINED NUCLEAR BODY THAT HAS NO SURROUNDING MEMBRANE.

CHROMATIN> COLOURED, GENETIC MATERIAL FOUND WITHIN THE NUCLEUS.

ROUGH ER> IS ER WITH ATTACHED RIBOSOMES. IT IS WHERE PROTIEN IS PRODUCED AND MODIFIED FOR SECRETION.

SMOOTH ER> IS ER WITHOUT ATTACHED RIBOSOMES. IT MANUFACTURES LIPIDS EX: FATS

GOLGI APPARATUS> FLATTENED MEMBRANE SACS CONTAING CISTERNAE. IS A PACKAGING OR DISTRIBUTION CENTER. IT MODIFIES, PACKAGES, AND DISTRIBUTES PROTIENS, LIPIDS.

MITOCHONDRIA> SMALL ROD-SHAPED/KIDNEY BEAN SHAPED STRUCTURES.PROVIDES ENERGY FOR THE CELL. IT IS THE CELL POWER PLANT AND IS THE MAJOR SITE OF ATP PRODUCTION.

LYSOSOMES> MEMBRANE BOUND VESICLE CONTAINING DIGESTIVE ENZYMES OF THE CELL.THEY ARE PRODUCED BY THE GOLGI APPARATUS. THEY ARE DIFFERENT FROM VESICLES BECAUSE THEY CONTAIN STRONG ENZYMES.

VESICLES> RESPONSIOBLE FOR TRANSPORTING CELL PRODUCTS

PLASMA MEMBRANE> IS A PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER CONTAINING PROTIEN

     ***IT IS SELECTIVELY FIRMUABLE AND CHOOSES WHAT CROSSES THE CELL AND HELPS MAINTAIN STABILITY.

NUCLEAR ENVELOPE> IT IS PITTED WITH POER FOR INFORMATION EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE NUCLEUS AND CYTOPLASM

RIBOSOMES> BUILD A CHAIN OF AMINO ACIDS AND PROTIEN. THEY ESEMBLE IN THE CYTOPLASM. THEY EXIT THE NUCLEUS THROUGH THE NUCLEAR PORES.

CENTROSOME> WHERE MICROTUBULES ARE MANUFACTURED

CENTRIOLES> ONLY CONTAINED IN ANIMAL CELLS NOT PLANT CELLS


WHAT ARE THE 2 MAIN PARTS OF A PROTIEN?

1.     PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
2.     PROTIEN

THE FLUID MOSAIC MODEL

WHAT IS THE FLUID IN THE MODEL?

•     CONSISTS OF A BILAYER LIKE OLIVE OIL
•     HELPS MAINTAIN A NORMAL PHYSICAL BARRIER
•     CONTAINS CHOLESTEROL IN BILAYER

WHAT IS THE MOSAIC IN THE MODEL?

•     SPEAKS TO THE PROTIENS
•     GLYCOPROTIENS-AVOID BACTERIA WITH IMMUNE CELLS
•     RECEPTOR PROTIENS-ANTENNA OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
>RECIEVES SIGNALS AND CHEMICAL CHANGES
•     CHANNEL PROTIENS> FAIRLY LARGE IN SIZE


THE ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM CONSISTS OF:

•     ROUGH/SMOOTH ER
•     GOLGI APPARATUS
•     LYSOSOMES
•     VESICLES

PEROXISOMES> TINY MEMBRANE BOUND STRUCTURES. RESPONSIBLE FOR METABOLIZING CELL PRODUCTS TO HYDROGEN PYROXIDE(H2O2)

EX: H2O2>>>2H + O2
/
CATALASE-breaks down hydrogen pyroxide

CELL MOVEMENT

FLAGELLA> A TAIL LIKE STRUCTURE WHICH HELPS IN THE MOVEMENT

CILIA> A HAIR LIKE STRUCTURE WHICH WAVE BACK AND FORTH FOR MOVEMENT
THE CYTO-SKELETON

•     SUPPORT CELLS, ANCHORS ORGANELLES
•     ACTIN FILAMENTS- PROTIEN SUB-UNITS
•     INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS- SLIGHTLY LARGER PROTIENS
•     MICROTUBULES- ORGANIZED

CELL CONNECTIONS

     EPITHELIAL TISSUE CONTAINS DESMONES WHICH ARE DISK LIKE STRUCTURES WITH ADHESIVE GLYCOPROTIENS THAT BIND CELLS TO ONE ANOTHER AND INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS THAT EXTEND INTO THE CYTOPLASM OF THE CELLS.
ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM> REQUIRES ATP
PASSIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM> DOES NOT REQUIRE ATP
EX: DIFFUSION, OSMOSIS

ACTIVE TRANPORT

MEMBRANE PUMPS> EX: MITOCHONDRIAN PUSHES HYDROGEN ACROSS THE MEMBRANE WHERE THE ATP IS PRODUCED, CREATING A MEMBRANE "PUMP".

ENDOCYTOSIS> ENERGY REQUIRING PROCESS OF THE CELL.(MOVING THINGS INTO THE CELL)

PHAGOCYTOSIS> LITERALLY MEANS "CELL EATING".

PINOCYTOSIS> LITERALLY MEANS "CELL DRINKING"

EXOCYTOSIS> MOVING SOLIDS INTO THE CELL. IT IS ALSO A FANCY WORD FOR SECRETIONS.


DIFFUSION> MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES FROM A HIGH CONCENTRATION TO A LOW CONCENTRATION.

     EX: HIGH CONCENTRATION IN THE LUNG(MORE O2) TO A LOW CONCENTRATION IN THE BLOOD(MORE CO2)

          MORE O2 >>> ( >>>>> LESS CO2
LESS CO2>>> ) >>>>>MORE O2


****CARBON DIOXIDE AND OXYGEN MOVE BY DIFFUSION IN THE BODY, THERE ARE REALLY NO OTHER MATERIALS IN THE BODY THAT MOVE BY DIFFUSION!!!!


OSMOSIS> THE MOVEMENT OF THE WATER BY DIFFUSION FROM A HIGH CONCENTRATION TO A LOW CONCENTRATION.


TYPES OF TISSUES:

EPITHELIUM

EPITHILIAL TISSUE> FORMS LININGS AND GLANDS. IS CONNECTED TO THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, BY A BASEMENT MEMBRANE- AN ANCHOR FOR THE TISSUE.

CELL SHAPES OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE:

SQAMOUS> SCALE LIKE, FLAT OR WIDER
CUBOIDAL> CUBE LIKE, TALLER OR HIGHER
COLUMNAR> COLUMN LIKE EVEN TALLER THAN CUBOIDAL

LAYERS OF TISSUES:

SIMPLE> ONE LAYER OF CELLS
STRATIFIED> MORE THAN ONE LAYER OF CELLS

SIMPLE SQAMOUS EPITHELIUM

•     ONE LAYER OF SCALE LIKE CELLS

     EX: LUNG TISSUE SIGHT OF GAS EXCHANGE

EX: CYSTIC FIBROSIS DOES NOT ALLOW THE OXYGEN TO PASS THROUGH THE CELLS.

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL

•     ONE LAYER OF CUBE LIKE CELLS
                    

     EX: LINING OF SOME GLANDS(KIDNEY)
SIMPLE COLUMNAR

•     ONE LAYER OF COLUMN LIKE CELLS

     EX: LINING OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR

•     ONE TRUE LAYER OF ODD SHAPED COLUMNAR CELLS
•     FORMS CILIA HAS GOBLET CELLS

     EX: NASAL CAVITY AND TRACHEA

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

•      MORE THAN ONE LAYER OF CELLS ANS SCALE LIKE

     EX: EPIDERMIS OF THE SKIN, LINING OF THE ORAL CAVITY

TRANSITIONAL

•     MORE THAN ONE LAYER OF CELLS CUBOIDAL>>>STRETCHED>>>SQAUMOUS SHAPED
•     DEPENDING ON THE EPITHELIAL CELL SHAPE IT CAN LOOK CUBOIDAL OR SQAMOUS DEPENDING ON HOW FAR THE CELL IS STRETCHED!

EPITHELIAL (GLANDULAR) TISSUE

•     FUNCTION IS SECRETION



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    Essay UK, Anatomy And Physiology. Available from: <https://www.essay.uk.com/coursework/anatomy-and-physiology.php> [27-05-20].


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