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Courtly love

THE TRADITION OF COURTLY LOVE IS AN ELABORATE ATTITUDE OR CODE OF BEHAVIOR EUROPEAN THOUGHT FROM THE TWELFTH CENTURY

ON . PREVIOSLY ,THE FRENCH TROUBADOURS IN LANGUEDOC HAD SUNG THE PROVENCAL LOVE SONG WHICH LATER BECAME INCORPORATED INTO

THE LOVE POETRY OF THE MIDDLE AGES ,AND EVEN INTO OUR CODE OF LOVE TODAY .MANY OF THE FEATURES OF THIS SENTIMENT HAVE DISAPPEARED,

BUT THEY FORMED A MOMENTOUS BACKGROUND FOR EUROPEAN LITERATURE FOR MORE THAN EIGHT HUNDRED YEARS .THE FRENCH POETS WERE THE FIRST TO

EXPRESS OR INVENT THE ROMANTIC NOTION OF PASSION WHICH CHANGED THE ENTIRE IMAGINATION OR DAILY LIFE OF THOSE AFFECTED . FOR THIS REASON ,

(PLACE YOUR NAME) FINDS IT ABSOLUTELY UNAVOIDABLE TO VOTE THE ENTIRE FIRST CHAPTER OF HIS ALLEGORY OF LOVE TO THE SENTIMENT OF COURTLY LOVE

,EVEN BEFORE HE BEGINS HIS DISCUSSION ON THE ALLEGORICAL LOVE POETRY OF THE MIDDLE AGES .

IN THE ART OF COURTLY LOVE ,ANDREAS CAPELLANUS DEALS WITH THE SUBJECT QUITE ADEQUATELY AND PARADOXICALLY . HIS BOOK IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS :FIRST

, HOW ONE CONTROLS AND DIRECTS HIS EMOTIONS IN THE EYES OF HIS BELOVED ;AND SECOUNDLY ,HOW ONE SHOULD TRY TO REJECT SECULAR LOVE AND CONCENTRATE

ON A NOBLER LOVE DIRECTED TOWARDS GOD . DISREGARDING THE SECOUND PART ,CAPPELLANUS' WORK IS A GUIDE ON HOW TO PREPARE SOMEONE PSYCHOLOGICALLY FOR A

POSSIBLE PHYSIOLOGICAL HAPPENING .IT IS THE EMBODIMENT OF THE NOTION OF COURTLY LOVE AND THE GAME OF

RHETORIC WHICH IS PLAYED BETWEEN THE TWO PERSON INVOLVED .THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM DETERMINES THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF THEIR GAME .IF THE LADY HAPPENS TO BE

A WOMEN OF HIGHER NOBILITY THAN THE MAN WHO IS WOOING HER ,THEN HE MUST SATISFY HIMSELF WITH NOTHING MORE THAN HER PRESENCE . HOWEVER ,IF THE LADY IS OF A

LESSER STATION IN LIFE ,OR ESPECIALLY OF A PLEASANT CLASS ,THEN THE GAME IS DIRECTED TOWARDS "GETTING HER INTO BED AS SKILLFULLY AS POSSIBLE

, FOR SHE CAN UNDERSTAND NO OTHER LANGUAGE. THE REWARD OF COURTLY LOVE IS AN ENNOBLING CHARACTER WHICH IS BOTH INTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY

REVEALING .ALTHOUGH THE LOVER SUFFERS GREATLY IN LOVING PASSIONATELY WHAT HE CANNOT HAVE ,HE ALSO TAKES GREAT

CARE IN LOOKING ,ACTING ,AND SPEAKING AS APPEALING AS HIS LADY WOULD HAVE HIM .THE MAN BECOMES A CHANGED PERSON WHEN HE BECOMES A LOVER ,FOR LOVE CONVERTS MAN'S

MOST AGGRESIVE INSTINCTS TO PASSIVE ONES .ANY OVERWHELMING EMOTIONS IS DEVASTATING ,BUT COURTLY LOVE TEACHES ONE HOW TO CONTROL AND DIRECT THESE EMOTIONS ,WHICH ULTIMATELY BECOME AN ART

IN MODES OF EXPRESSION.

THE COURTLY LOVE TRADITION IS A LATIN TRADITION .THE GERMANIC PEOPLE ,SUCH AS THE NORSEMEN OR DANES ,WHO ARE REMOVED FROM THIS SPIRIT SPEAK MOSTLY OF HEROIC DEEDS .THE DEEPEST EMOTIONS EXPRESSED AMOUNG THEM ARE THOSE OF

MAN FOR MAN,MAN FOR HIS FEUDAL LORD ,OR MAN FOR HIS COUNTRY .SUCH ARE THE TIES WHICH BIND ROLAND TO HIS LORD ,CHARLEMAGNE ,RATHER THAN TO HIS LADY .

MARRIAGES HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH COURTLY LOVE ,FOR THEY WERE OFTEN ARRANGED FOR INTEREST .THE LOVER ALWAYS LOOKED WITH REVERANCE UPON NOBLER WOMAN THAN HIMSELF .ONE 'S WIFE

AWS HIS OWN SUBJUGATED WOMAN WHOM HE COULD HAVE AT ANY TIME .HOWEVER ,THIS SAME WIFE WAS POBABLY THE BELOVED OF ANOTHER ,FOR LOVE WAS USUALLY DIRECTED TOWARDS A MARRIED WOMAN .THUS ,THE PHYSICAL CONQUEST OF A NOBLE LADY WAS NOT THE AIM

OF THE LOVER . THE ONLY VIRTUES HE COULD EVER DARE TO CLAIM WERE OBEDIENCE TO HER SLIGHTEST WISHES AND

SILENT ACQUIESCENCS TO HER REBUKES .THE TYPICAL LOVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A MARRIED LADY OF NOBILITY AND LESSER KNIGHT WHO COURTED HER FAITHFULLY IS FOUND IN CHRETIEN DE TROYES'

LAUNELOT .CHRETIEN BORROWS THE CONCEPTION OF THE ARTHURIAN COURT ,AND USES IT AS THE BACKGROUND OR HOME OF TRUE AND NOBLE LOVE .

LAUNCELOT AND GUINEVERE ,KING ARTHUR 'S QUEEN ,ARE SECRETLY IN LOVE .LEWIS AND ILLUSTRATES LAUNCELOTS UNFAILING DEVOTION TO HER BY MENTIONING SOME DANGERS LAUNCELOT MEETS WHEN RESCUING HIS BELOVED FROM THE LAND OF GORRE .HE LOSSES HIS HORSE QUITE EARLY IN HIS MISSION ,AND MUST THEREFORE OVERCOME OTHER DIFFICULTIES ON FOOT.ON THE WAY ,HE MEETS A DWARF DRIVING "A CART OF SHAME," AND HESITATES

FOR A SHORT TIME AS TO WHETHER TO MOUNT .LAUNCELOT THINKS OF HIS LADY AND DOES .THE DISGRACE OF HIS RIDE ,AS PEOPLE SHOUT AND DEMAND HIS CRIME

,AND THE CROSSING OF THE BRIGDE INTO GORRE FURTHER PROVE HIS LOVE .THE BRIGDE CONSISTED OF SINGLE BLADE

OF STEEL ,AND EVN AFTER THE WOUNDED LAUNCELOT ARRIVES IN THE RPESENCE OF THE QUEEN , HE IS IGNORED ,FOR SHE HAS HEARD OF

HIS MOMENTARY HESITATION IN ENTERING THE CART .LAUNCELOT 'S PREVIOUS MERITS AND LABORS IN THE SERVICE OF HER LOVE DID NOT COUNT .

AND WHEN HE IS FINALLY FORGIVEN ,GUINEVERS STILL TESTS HIM BY COMMANDING HIM TO DO HIS POOREST IN A TOURNAMENT .LAUNECELOT IS FINALLY

CARNALLY REWARDED ,BUT HE DOES BESTOW DIVINE HONORS ON GUINEVERE.HE KNEELS NEAR HER BED AND GENUFLECTS AS HE LEAVES HER

ROOM .THIS LOVE RELIGION HE DEMONSTRATES IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESONIFIED FIGURE OF LOVE HIMSELF .



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