Creation, Evolution and Intervention:
Which Theory is Correct?
For: Mrs. Talbot bb
Date Due: Oct. 9/96
By: Neel Ghelani89
Creation, Evolution and Intervention:
Which Theory is Correct
For many years, it has been widely debated how modern man came about. In this essay, I will explain the ideas of the three main theories: Evolution, Creation, and Intervention. I will also discuss which theory I believe and why it is that I believe it.
Evolution, in biology, is the complex process by which organisms which originated on earth change because of changes in their environment and their function on earth. The earliest fossils ever discovered are from single celled organisms which resemble today's bacteria. People who believe in evolution believe that for approximately 3.4 billion years these single celled organisms have changed and evolved into many different species including humans. This theory also states that humans and other species continue to evolve today and as a result of all these changes they will eventually become a totally different species then what they are now. Evolutionists believe that evolution has created many organisms spread across the globe, some of which have become extinct and some of which are the plants and animals which live today.
The theory that groups of organisms can be transformed into different organisms has been suggested many times since the early 1800s, when scientists began looking for evidence that the evolution process took place. "The most outstanding evolutionists in the nineteenth century was Jean Baptist de Lamarck, who argued that the patterns of resemblance arose through modifications of a common lineage-for example , that lions tigers and others all descendant from a cat like ancestor." (Dickey p.42) It had already been a widely accepted theory that different animals adapt to different modes of life and environmental conditions. Lamarck argued that physical and mental changes occurred from animal adaptations to different environments. Once the animal changed, Lamarck believed that the changes would be passed on to the offspring through genes. Unfortunately this theory was never really scientifically tested.
Charles Darwin successfully explained the evolutionary process , with his famous book On The Origins of a Species by Means of Natural Selection. In this book, Darwin stated that, in the environment organisms who have better qualities such as being faster or trail scenting are more fit to survive. Consequently they are able to take the vital ingredients required by unfit organisms such as living space and food. Eventually, they kill off the unfit and unadapted. This theory is best known as, survival of the fittest, and can be summarized in the following statement. When environmental conditions change populations must change in order to be fit and thus survive.
Understanding the evolutionary process depends a great deal upon the interpretations of the fossil record, which many consider to be incomplete because many fossils can not be found. For this reason, there are many different views about what the fossil record states. One fact that puts doubt in the evolution theory is that when a fossil appears in the fossil record it does so very abruptly, and then stays their for several years. The fossil usually does not show the gradual changes that take place in the evolution of species. For this reason, Jay Gould of Harvard university developed a "punctured equilibrium" theory stating that the changes do occur rather quicker than some believe.
"The notion of creation is defined as the production of an existing thing out of no preexisting material".(Dickey 237) In the bible and in other comparable ancient literature, creation is a theme used to explain how human beings came to earth. In the bible and most other creation stories from ancient religions, the universe is said to be a great mess in which order was introduced by a God. In the bible, it states that the creator cleaned up the world and organized everything such as the stars and the day from night. In many ancient cultures the stories tend to be similar and differ only in terms of places and figures.
Other ideas of creation include myths of emergence. According to the bible, earth, all of its species and the universe were created less then 10 000 years ago. The bible also stated this process took place in six days. It states that man was created when god put two humans onto the earth, Adam and Eve. The bible said that from these two people came the entire worlds population today. People who believe the bible creation story word for word are called fundamentalists.
In the 1700s, James Usher disturbed many traditionalists with his theory that the earth was probably more then ten thousand years old. What disturbed the creation theory even more was Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. This theory states that living things are a product of less sophisticated species. Many fundamentalists refuse to except this because it would mean that the bible was wrong, or because they didn't want to accept the idea that we came from a lower order species. They want to believe they want to believe that god created them and they did not come about as a freak of nature. Today, evolutionists believe that the creation story is greatly flawed, and the fundamentalists believe that the theory of evolution is greatly flawed.
In the middle of evolution and creation is Intervention. Interventionists believe that evolution did take place and that human beings have always been evolving as the theory of evolution states. Interventionists believe that, in some point in human development, something from somewhere in the universe, possibly a superior intelligence, another species or even space aliens, bred with humans thus changing the ape like creatures into modern humans. One of the most famous interventionists was Alfred Russell Wallace who presented this theory in the mid to late 1800s.
Interventionists believe that intervention most probably took place when the most intelligent life was only the Homo Erectuses, A less sophisticated mammal who could walk upright. There are three major pieces of evidence for intervention: the first is the quote from the bible discussing intervention: "When the sons of god came down to earth and bore children to the daughters of humans."(Moses p.17) This quote is straight out of a creation story many believe to state exactly how humans were created, this is why it is so compelling and makes some people believe intervention must have taken place. Secondly the fact that the speed of gradual change caused by evolution greatly increased after the Homo Erectus. Interventionists believe that "the process of evolution is too slow and gradual to account for such a rapid change."(Dickey pg.92) They believe that the changes increased because the Homo Erectus bred with a different organism giving its offspring half of its features through its genes.
What I believe
I believe that evolution did take place, because this is the only logical explanation to explain how fossils have been found in Asia and Africa of creatures that do not exist today. Many people contend that these fossils were put in these places so God could test our faith, but it is my opinion that these people want to believe something so badly that they have fooled themselves into believing this. These people only say this because there is no other explanation for fossils being where they are other then evolution did take place. These people want to believe that we are the supreme beings in the galaxy and not that we came from a unsophisticated monkey so they will do anything to prove evolution wrong. If god did exist with all the technology we have today we would be able to scientifically prove it but he doesn't so we can't. We can though prove scientifically how man was in fact created, through evolution and we know this from fossils.
I believe intervention took place at some point in the middle of the evolution process, but not with creatures from other planets or even with god but with a different species from our own planet, who came about from evolution, possibly a Neanderthal and another smaller less sophisticated creature. I believe this because Charles Darwin's' very believable theory stated that only the fit survive. Neantherthals were extremely fit. They were twice as strong as the average human and had much bigger brains. Some people believe they became extinct during the finale ice age, but they were smart so I believe they moved south to Africa and adapted to the climate. This could be done by humans and Neanderthals are considered twice as smart as us so they must have been able to do it. Once they were in Africa they bred with smaller less sophisticated animals possibly monkeys and this created the modern human. This explains why the speed of changes in the fossil record increased so dramatically around the Homo erectus stage in evolution. What has made me even more sure of intervention is the quote from the bible saying "the sons of god bore children to the daughter of humans" This quote is straight from a major creation story many fundamentalists take very seriously. I don't know how they can believe that god put man on earth when there only source for information about creation they have tells them intervention did take place.
Evolution, creation and intervention all are valid theories of how humans came into existence. The question of which theory is correct is up to each individual to decide . I believe that evolution does occur and this created many species but I do not believe this created modern man. I believe intervention occurred and that two products of intervention bred together in order to make the modern human.
1)Dickey, Norma H. Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. R. Donnelley and sons; Washington,1985
2)Moses. "Genesis" The Holy Bible. Thomas Benson; Nashville,1990
3)Skeoch, Alan. Focus on Society. Merrill Publishing Company; Toronto,1988