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Digestive system


Heartburn is the inflammation of the esophagus. It is also known as pyrosis. The major cause of heartburn is reflux. This is when the esophagus bottom edges are not tightly shut, and acid moves form the stomach up into the esophagus. Hiatus Hernia's also cause heartburn. This also occurs when the ends of the esophagus are not shut, and the stomach lining moves up the esophagus. There are many other causes of heartburn, some of which being: obesity, drinking hot or cold beverages, extensive alcohol usage, smoking, foods (acidic), certain types of medication, and types of syndromes (Zollinger, and Ellison). Posture also causes heartburn, for example, if after eating a large fairly acidic food, and lying straight back, the acid moves back from the stomach. Also, if you lean over while working, pressure builds in the organs, pushing the acids upwards.

Heartburn is often very uncomfortable for the individual who has it. There are not many symptoms, but the ones most commonly found are, a burning sensation in the chest and upper abdomen, sore throat, and when the mouth sometimes fills with a liquid called water brash.

Heartburn has many affects on the body, but I will focus now on the effect on the digestive system. Heartburn causes ulcers, which eat through the mucous layer of the organs in the digestive tract by means of enzymes and acids. It also causes an irritable bowel through syndromes. Stinosis is also caused by heartburn. This is when the esophagus passage narrows.

Heartburn is treated by taking He blackens, for example Axid and Pepsid. Proton Pump Inhibitors (Lozac), is the most powerful treatment of heartburn. Sulcrates are used to coat the lining of the stomach against ulcers. Antacids, like Rolaids, are used, as are Calcium Channel Blackens. To cure the problems of heartburn, you must cut down on the causes.


A gallstone is a stone about the size of a pea, or marble which is made in the gallbladder. It usually consists of bile, cholesterol, uric acid, and calcium phosphorus. The major cause of gallstones is the precipitation of chemicals in the gallbladder by stasis, which means that the substance is still. The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder until fatty foods come along, this is when the bile is released to digest the fat. The same happens with cholesterol secreted by the liver. When the bile or cholesterol is in the gallbladder for a period of time, the substance concentrates, forming stones. Also, an excess of certain bio-chemicals in the bloodstream (cholesterol) cause them. Blockage of the gallbladder neck, and infections are other causes of gallstones.

Symptoms of gallstones are, mostly pain in the right-upper quadrant, but it could be anywhere in the abdomen, chest, or back. Bloating of the body (gas), and an accumulation of bile in the bloodstream (jaundice), are other symptoms of gallstones in the body.

Gallstones affect the digestive system is a few ways. These are that it causes diarrhea, fat mal-absorption occurs, the gallbladder might rupture, and an obstruction of the bowel might be present.

To treat gallstone problems, you can have surgery done to have them taken out (laparoscopic), the stones may be dissolved by chemicals and/or drugs, and the stones might be fragmented by an ultrasound.

The cure for gallstones is the treatment done, and the reduction of the causes.

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