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Immigration and cultural unity

Immigration And Cultural Unity

The first move stopping immigration decided by Congress was a

law in 1862 restricting American vessels to transport Chinese

immigrants to the U.S. The Alien Contract Labor Laws of 1885, 1887,

1888, and 1891 restricted the immigration to the U.S. of people

entering the country to work under contracts made before their

arrival. Alien skilled laborers, under these laws, were allowed to

enter the U.S. to work in new industries. By this time anti-immigrant

felling rose with the flood of immigrants and in this period the

anti-Catholic, anti-foreign political party the Know-Nothings, was

already born.

After World War I a marked increase in racism and the growth

of isolationist sentiment in the U.S. led to demands for further tight

legislation. In 1921 a congressional act provided for a quota system

for immigrants, which the number of aliens of any nationality admitted

to the U.S. in a year could not exceed 3 percent of the number of

foreign-born residents of that nationality living in the U.S. in 1910.

This law applied to nations of Europe, the Middle East, Africa,

Australia, New Zealand, Asian Russia, and certain islands in the

Atlantic and Pacific. In the 1980s concern about the surge of illegal

aliens into the U.S. has led Congress to pass legislation aimed at

cutting illegal immigration. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of

1986 allows most illegal aliens who have resided in the U.S. regularly

since January 1, 1982, to apply for legal status. Also, the law

prohibits employers from hiring illegal aliens and mandates penalties

for violations.

Debate over immigration and immigration policy is not new to

The nation's history. From time to time, Congress jarred legislation

To control the flow of immigration. As immigration rises and hatred

Grows more laws will be implemented trying to release some of the

Pressure. Illegal immigration has some pros and cons. I will discuss

The pros first and explain them briefly in order for you to get a

Better understanding of the position. It offers cheaper labor to

Businesses. By not paying minimum wages to the workers who are willing

To work for a lower price, this gives the business an edge over other

Competitors. Provides culture diversity in the united states. Bringing

In immigrants gives more and different cultures to the U.S.. which can

Expand businesses to other fields of the world. Also giving people a

More understanding of other cultures.

Lowers the cost of products produced in the U.S. that we buy.

If the businesses can produce products and services at a low price

keeping there overhead low, then we as a consumer will also pay a

lower price. Most illegals are skilled workers and helps run the

economy. Other countries economy is also being helped. The workers

bring money to their families out side of the U.S. which in most

cases the U.S. dollar has a higher value than their own.

Experts disagree saying the cons of this issue out way the

pros. Next I will discuss some cons and explain them briefly. Illegal

immigrants pay no tax. If they pay no taxes then how can we as a

country pay for public services we as well as they do. Sending money

out of our economy and sending it to their families abroad. If money

is taken out of our economy it causes a monetary problem. this can

cause an inaccurate account of money in circulation which might cause

inflation. Lower wages. If an illegal is willing to work for under the

minimum wage then the employer will not pay more for the job to any

other employ. In fact might higher only illegals and take away jobs

form legal residents who are willing to work.

When illegals come to this country they do not get tested for

diseases that might infect the population. Which can cause a health

problem. Such as polio, tuberculosis and other forms of diseases.

Illegals cost the states money, paying for education, health care, and

other social services. In an already under funded programs they give

these services a more heavy burden to deal with. Republicans have

reached agreement among themselves on legislation designed to combat

illegal immigration. But with their package facing delaying tactics

from Senate Democrats and a veto from the president, they finished the

week of Sept. 2 uncertain of their next move1 "Republicans need to

show we can govern,"2 said bill sponsor Lamar Smith, R-Texas. "We need

to show we can pass good legislation."3

Dianne Feinstein (d-Calif.) called for tough and controversial

enforcement measures, including imposing a toll on anyone entering the

united states to raise revenues to beef up the Border patrol.4 Sen.

Alan Simpson (R-Wyo.) one of senate's leading authorities on

immigration issues, also proposed a similar border tax ten years ago,

but was defeat in senators fearing it would detour tourists.5

Referring to the Democrats "If they want to go home and do

nothing about illegal immigration, that's a gross violation of what we

should be doing,"6 said Sen. Alan K. Simpson, R-Wyo., sponsor of the

Senate bill. Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., and other Democrats on

the Immigration Subcommittee said Republicans would have to choose

between passing an immigration bill, or proving their ideological

purity on the public school issue.7

Both democrats and republicans agree that illegal immigration

should be dealt with. The problem is they cant agree on anyone

purposes given to them. The Democrats say it is the Republicans fault,

the Republicans say it is the Democrats fault. With this type of

finger pointing neither of them will gain a fast decisive action to

resolve the problem. When it comes to illegal immigrants there are a

lot of interest groups that have been involved in this issue. From

businesses to governments agencies.

First the businesses, especially in agriculture. Agriculture

employs more undocumented workers than any other industry in the

country. Half of California's 700,000 farm workers are estimated to be

undocumented. "Three decades ago, the percentage of foreign-born farm

workers in California was 50 percent,"8 the Chronicle stated. "Now it

is 92 percent."9

Agriculture, however, is not the only industry with an

insatiable need for the cheap labor provided by immigrants. Published

by the Chronicle, a list of businesses fined by the INS in San

Francisco includes a car rental company, construction firms,

restaurants, clubs, a trucker, a travel agency and even a Protestant

church.10 Everywhere one looks today, one sees immigrant workers

cleaning rooms in hotels, mowing lawns in the suburbs, pumping gas in

service stations, doing janitorial chores in countless workplaces,

toiling in the garment industry and doing all sorts of temporary jobs.

These business groups have a lot of interest in illegal

immigration. They provide cheaper labor which cuts costs and causes

better competition. Richard Rogers, district director of the INS in

Los Angeles, was quoted as saying: "If we were to increase fines 75 to

80 percent, we would probably have a lot of people out of business."11

Government agencies are also involved. The new immigration

legislation nearly doubles the size of the Border Patrol. In addition,

National Guard and active-duty armed forces personnel are used more

and more along the border. Local police forces are also being

authorized to enforce immigration law, says Roberto Martinez of the

American Friends Service Committee's U.S./Mexico border program.12

Possible solutions to the problem. Faster citizens processing,

helping illegals country's economy such as NAFTA which is already in

affect. Some suggest tamper proof residency cards, computerize the

I.N.S., increases the number of boarder patrol agents, and build a

wall around the U.S. and problem countries. There has been many

suggestions made in dealing with this problem. The Gallegly bill is

one of them. If ever completed by House-Senate conferees, is likely to

include several conditions already adopted in similar form by both

chambers. As passed by the House and Senate, the bill would:

Increase the number of border patrol agents by 1,000 each year

between 1996 and 2000, roughly doubling the force to reach 10,000.

Make it difficult for people caught trying to enter the United States

illegally, or overstaying a visa, from being granted visas in the

future. Establish pilot programs in which employers could

electronically check the immigration status of their employees.

Restrict public benefits for legal immigrants by increasing the time

for which their sponsors are responsible for them. This section is

partially obtained by the welfare law, which denies benefits to many

legal immigrants. Allows the deportation of legal immigrants

who illegally accepted public benefits for 12 months or more. Besides

the Gallegly provision, which is in the House bill only, conferees

face two other issues with major disagreements between the two


The House would require that any family wishing to sponsor a

legal immigrant earn at least twice the poverty rate. The Senate

bill would require the family to earn an income one-fourth higher

than the poverty rate. The House bill would also make it much more

difficult to apply for political asylum, both for those who apply

upon entry into the United States or for those already on U.S. soil.

Immigration experts generally agree that the Clinton

Administration has devoted more attention to immigration than either

of its two Republican predecessors and he always has at least two

reactions: his initial public statement (determined largely by

public-opinion polls, which show support for restrictions), and then

the actual policy (as determined by his advisors and the various

special interests they represent).

Clinton proposed legislation that included expedited exclusion

for frivolous asylum claimants, an increase in INS asylum personnel,

and various anti-smuggling provisions. President Clinton's record on

legal immigration. In June 1995, the U.S. Commission on Immigration

Reform, chaired by the late Barbara Jordan, recommended a modest cut

in legal immigration and the elimination of some extended-family

immigration categories.

President Clinton immediately endorsed the recommendations as

"consistent with my own views" and added that they "are pro-family,

pro-work, pro-naturalization."13 Clinton's record on illegal

immigration, since that is a major focus of his re-election campaign,

particularly in California, a must-win state. Less than three months

after taking office Clinton sent to Congress his Fiscal Year 1994

budget proposal for the Immigration and Naturalization Service, which

included cutting 93 Border Patrol positions. President Clinton gave a

speech in which he proclaimed that "our borders leak like a sieve" and

urged that $45.1 million be spent to beef up the Border Patrol,

including six hundred new agents.14 He failed to mention that the

House had already approved an additional $60 million for the Border

Patrol, or that the Senate Appropriations Committee had approved an

additional $45 million.

One of the California's response to the problem was

proposition 187. This proposition seeks to deny social services to

illegals and their children. Pete Wilson, governor of California,

announces his intention to file a suit against the federal government

for "its failure to control our nation's borders."15 He claims that

there are a million illegal residents in the city of Los Angles alone,

and that since 1988 the taxpayers of California have spent more than

$10 million in education, medical, and prison costs for illegal


My personal opinion is not good for illegal immigrants. I

believe that illegals should deal with their problems in their

countries, instead of coming here and creating more problems. If there

country has a poor economy then they should fix it. In the long run

it would be good for their country, but I know this is easier said

than done. The illegals that are already here should be deported. The

term "illegal" speaks for itself , that is what they are called

illegals. Also they should not live and take up social services that

legal residents use. Some people say "They have the right to use these

services they, pay sales tax and don't file income tax which in most

cases the government owes them." Well I do not see it that way. I

found that a majority of illegals that work here take the money out of

the country and into there families in other countries. Most of their

net income goes outside of the U.S. economy.

Out of the solutions given in section three the one I believe

to be the best is the Gallegly bill. I believe that a tighter

restriction with added border patrol would be the best and reasonable

option. Building a wall with machine gun towers would be a great

deterrent as in the old Germany, but I don't think that's America's


Source: Essay UK -

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