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Course: Organization Behavior



I- Scott OKI

A- Summary of article

B- Brief Description of his leadership traits.

II- Michael Marics

1.     Summary of Article

2.     Brief Description of his leadership traits

III- Marcus Wallenberg

A- Summary of article

B- Brief Description of his leadership traits

IV- Discussion of leadership similarities


A- Summary of Article

Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, may have made himself the world’s richest man before the age of 40 but an outstanding contribution to Microsoft’s success comes from the creator of Microsoft outside America, Scott OKI.

OKI is the founder of Microsoft International. He had the foresight to see in the early eighties that the world market was being left fallow by other software companies entering and competing in the technological revolution. His task was putting Microsoft on the global map. Within Microsoft some say that OKI’s contribution was as important as that of founder Bill Gates and president Steve Ballmer. Microsoft made OKI a job offer which intrigued him for a number of reasons. First, he though the company’s strategy was extremely smart. Second, it had a dominant share in the computer language business. In addition, there was also a lot of talk about developing a strategy to develop applications software products. The idea seemed so smart and gutsy, because you can sell more than one application software product for each computer. Although the compensation package offered OKI was less attractive than Micro Pro’s, he joined Microsoft in 1982. He says: " My got told me that they were going to be more successful than Micro Pro.

From his very first day at Microsoft, OKI understood what it would take to succeed in such a high-energy, self critical and confrontational company. In early 1982, Microsoft had approximately 20 employees. OKI liked the entrepreneurial environment. He was searching for the biggest opportunity for Microsoft. Having come from HewLeh-Packard, he understood what an international presence meant. Virtually all the software companies were concentrating on US sales. During the next month, OKI wrote a business plan to set up Microsoft International. He identified the largest market opportunities. France, the United Kingdom and Germany OKI recommended starting wholly-owned subsidiaries for each market rather than setting up a single European head quarters. Although he had faith in his plan and his ability, he knew he was taking a huge risk. There were no guidelines to follow and no one in the nascent PC Software industry had done it successfully before. Fortunately, Microsoft was still a small company and it was fairly easy to set goals and achieve them. Bureaucracy was virtually nonexistent. OKI was putting him self and his future on the line, as he says: "I had made some bold premises to Bill, but I delivered". OKI’s imprint was all over Microsoft International. He wrote the rules, hired the people and established the culture for each subsidiary so it would look, feel, and work like the mother ship. The only vision was that there was this huge untapped market. OKI was extremely dedicated to his work; In his first few years with Microsoft he didn’t take a single day off. He even worked on Christmas days when no one else was there. It was hard work but OKI didn’t mind the hours because he was just totally passionate about it.

Obviously, OKI needed to hire the right people. He wanted to find the ones who would work harder than others and set an example for Microsoft International. He didn’t care whether they were successful or failed start-ups. He looked for people who were risk takers and who had high energy. He set up the Munich, Paris and London Subsidiaries on the money that Gates had given him. The first 10 general managers OKI hired had start-up experience. He spent long hours hiring the country managers, working with them, training them and educating them, as he says: "It required just being there". After finding the right people, OKI had his work cut out for him. Once the international hardware manufacturers licensed the operating system, Microsoft took advantage of that fact by then licensing Localized applications software to them. Ironically, getting into that business led Microsoft into all its other businesses. OKI left Microsoft in 1992 worth some US$ 600 million.

His contribution to Microsoft had been us great as Steve Ballmer’s and Paul Allen’s’ and no one disputed that.

B- Brief Discussion of OKI’s Leadership traits

It is inevitable that Scott OKI showed extreme dedication to his work. This dedication is revealed through the long hours of training his employees. In fact, his true devotion is obvious since he didn’t take a single day off in his first few years with Microsoft.

Scott OKI is a risk taker with on intuitive vision, who had the courage to look for new international markets while others where content in local markets.

Microsoft is currently at the top of its industry and Mr oki was capable in identifying that Microsoft would be a success when he trusted his intuition by rejecting a higher paid offer by Micro Pros and sticking with Microsoft.


A- Summary of Article

Heroics are made in many different ways, but when the topic is related to business a person who lived by the name of Michael Marks definitely stands out as one of the best retailers of our time. Marks, like millions of people in the would had ideas, his were three simple ones that revolted the shop keeping system of Europe. These founding ideas introduced Britain’s biggest and largest retail chain (MARKS AND SPENCER). With such an entrepreneurial vision for the retailing system, it was obvious that he had found the best way to achieve success in this field. Due to unfortunate circumstances related to the situation he was in during his arrival to Britain as a penniless loner, his future looked much less promising. He was a Youngster that was in his early twenties that didn’t know a word of English and had no training in specific trade. He made his living by selling certain household goods such as nails and screws etc... He moved about form door to door so he could provide himself with a bite to eat, but the lack of the English language was a drawback in him achieving joyful success. Luckily he meat a man named Isaac Dewhirst that worked as a young local wholesaler. As an immigrant he wood up well, that dewhirst decided to show him around the warehouse from whom he bored £ 5 (Pounds).

Soon enough he used tables to sell goods at an open market in Leeds that he had bought from dewlirst.

When marks arrived in Britain, the people there were disposing more income than ever before. Dramatic rise in wages while prices had remained the same for about half a century, smartly marks spotted the ongoing way quickly, which prompted him to find more unusual consumer goods as temptations to new consumers. He stuck to his "One penny" policy which forced him to find better value for money suppliers. This allowed his mind to focus on pushing up turn over to compensate for the lower margins.

Spencer, who was marks’ "helper", contributed by teaching marks to perfect the English language. Spencer was a book keeper that carefully looked over the accounts while marks was discovering new business opportunities.

On 4th June 190s marks and Spencer became a private limited company with a capital of £ 30.000 of which marks and Spencer held half each year. By them M and S had a large number of employees. Marks was know to be as an unusual generous employees and their families. He took extra care of female means to keep them comfortable. Such good treatment of staff proved to be a positive step for the company towards success that was later imitated by other companies.

B- Brief Description of his leadership traits

Undeniably, Marks was an entrepreneur whose ideas where transformational in his own time and will still be considered so. His system of reward towards his employees are highly considered as innovative especially for a man with no educational background. His dominant personality and intelligent vision allowed him to directly contact wholesalers at a time where such a direct contact was impossible without a middle man. His success as a retailer caused a threat on wholesalers. Such success cannot be achieved without a business oriented mind. Although not mentioned, it could be assumed that Marks was capable to satisfy customers by providing them with the best services and high quality. His motivation, vision and innovation definitely classifies him as one of the most successful entrepreneurs with leadership traits that cannot be forgotten.

Obviously, Marks life was a successful one, although he suffered at the beginning of his revolutional journey concerning the retail system, he proved that his ideas and the way they were carried out changed and improved the European ?? conventions. He is indisputably one of the best Business man of the 20th century and should be looked at as a ?? generous leader that carried out his work in an outstanding fashion.


A- Summary of Article

Young Marcus was born, so he would say, with a sense of duty and a sense of destiny. He went straight into banking after business studies in Stockholm. In 1925 he became an assistant manager of Enskilda Bank in Stockholm. Passionate about expanding the family business, Marcus was a high achiever who might have found the intense levels of expectation placed on him a burden. Instead he continued to blossom as natural heir to his grand father’s Legacy. He proved within the business and within high society that he was abundantly gifted and energetic. Also, as an athlete Wallen berg was a sensation. Too busy in business ever to really fulfill his sporting potential, he played for relaxation throughout his life. In 1930 he began his career as a tycoon by turning around ailing Atlas Diesel, A company with only 300 employees. In 1954 he founded Scandinavian Airlines which, as SAS, would quickly become Scandinavia’s Largest airline. Marcus Wallen berg’s charisma, sense of duty and inimitable work ethic transformed Sweden from economic sluggard into one of the World’s richest countries. In accordance with his public service ethic he championed innumerable charitable causes, was chairman of the council of European Industrial Federation and the Business and Industry Advisory committee to the OECD, as well as member of the Nobel prize committee for many years. By the time he died Wallen Berg’s interests employed half a million people and turned over 14 billion. He had become an icon of capitalism in Scandinavia. An unheard of achievement for a business man.

B – Brief Discussion of Wallen berg’s Leadership traits

The achievement and success that wallenberg enjoyed was accompanied by a great deal of responsibility, charisma and vision. The intense levels of expectation made him an exceptional transformational leader. He was also inspirational to many people, because he was both a business man and an athlete. However, he was able to single-handedly transform Sweden into one of the world’s richest country, which required a great deal of perseverance and a sense of achievement.

IV All these men were visionary leaders. Marks showed great personal skills with his reward policy. However, their leadership traits. Differ slightly. OKI showed extreme dedication to his work. However Marks was undoubtedly a true entrepreneur. In fact, all of them showed dedication to their work. Wallen berg’s passion and high achievement started out first by expanding the family business. Michael Mark’s had a vision in a time where there wasn’t any vision and OKI had a vision in a time where there were many visions. However, a little luck could be attributed to their huge successes. Their innate intuition drove them to be the leaders that they are known to be.

Source: Essay UK -

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