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Moon exploration


The U. S. has explored the moon since the 1960,s. "The

Apollo Program" tells why the United States went to the

moon. "The Apollo Spacecraft" tells ho we got to the

moon. "The First Lunar Landing" tells about the first

voyage to the moon. This paper will discus the lunar


The Apollo progam was made to meet the goal set by

John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961. The goal was to

land a man on the moon and return him to Earth alive

and well.

The program was a succes. There were 11 manned

lunar landings and other test flights totaling 15 manned

flights. Out of all these there was only one major

problem, and no one was injured. There was three

deathes on the lanchpad but none in space.

The Apollo Spacecraft was developed from the work of

two other programs, the Mercury and Gemini Programs.

The actual spacecraft was made of the combined

Command Module and the Service Module also called

the CSM. It was 34ft. long and 10ft. in diameter at the

end. It had a major advantage with its internal guidence

system, that was developed by The Massachusetts

Institute of Technology.

The CSM was made of two parts. The crew stayed in

the Command Module, which had some couches and

was pressurized with oxygen.

Behind the CM was the SM or Service Module which

had the main engine, which had 21,500lb. of thrust.

The reaction control system , oxygen, fuel cells,

hydrogen tanks, and envirnmental control systems. The

main engine was only used for changes in course and

changes in orbit and escape from the lunor orbit.

When the crew came back for reentry the CSM would

split. The Command Module had heat sheilding so it

would not burn-up. When the CM first came into

reentry it was stabilized by its own engines. The

second part was done by three parachutes and a


The First Lunar Landing took place on July 16,1969, it

was named Apollo 11. It made the first landing on the

moon on July 20, 1969. Lt. Michael Collins stayed in

the CM and orbited the moon while, Neil Armstrong and

Col. Edwin Aldrin Jr. landed down on the moon. The

landing took place in Mare Tranquillitatis (the Sea of

Tranquility) "at 4:17:42 PM

Eastern Daylight Time with this report:

"Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has

landed."" Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on

the moon. "Dropping the last meter from the ladder he

said: "That,s one small step for {a} man, one giant

leap for mankind" (NASA later reported that the word

"a" had been lost in transmission)." When on the moon

Armstrong and Aldren stup an American flag and left

scientific instruments, including a laser beam reflector,

a sheet of aluminum foil to to trap SOLAR WIND

particles, and a seismometer that later transmitted

evidence of a moonquake. The astronauts took soil

and rock samples and photographs.

At 12:56 AM Eastern Daylight Time on July 22, 1969

the land craft called the LEM, or Lunar Excursion

Module, left the surface and orbit of the moon. They

landed in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969.

Works Cited

"The Apollo Program" Grolier Encyclopedia Inc. 1994

"The Apollo Spacecraft" Grolier Encyclopedia Inc. 1994

"The First Lunor Landing" Grolier Encyclopedia Inc.


Source: Essay UK -

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