TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS
There are many methods and techniques that can be applied in teaching for someone to learn but not all methods of teaching are applicable for every individual. I find that when I have attended some classes I tend to re-write everything in neat and expand on main points so I understand what the topic is about and also it remains in my head for longer. cal1966, please do not redistribute this dissertation. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this dissertation elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.
With any deliverance concerning teaching programs the method used to evaluate and implement plays a vital role in the process of teaching and learning for both the teacher and the learner. The environment also plays an important part, the richer the environment in physical and stimulation, and the more varied the opportunities for educative activity, the more effective is the learning. A survey was done in London, Northumberland, Scotland and Wales showing that school attainments were affected the environment as estimated by the occupational status of fathers (Hochberg 1964).
Reasoning is the mental process used in argument, demonstration, or proof. J.S. Mill defined it in the most extensive meaning of the term as ‘inferring a proposition from a previous proposition or propositions; giving credence to it or claiming credence for it as a conclusion from some else’. (Stebbings 1939)
cal1966, please do not redistribute this dissertation. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this dissertation elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.
It is commonly believed that there are two general methods of reasoning – induction and deduction. Induction is said to be the method in which we pass, mentally from the examination of particular cases to the assertion of a generalization about them. Conversely, in deduction we are said to pass, mentally, from a universal proposition to an assertion about a particular case.
At a closer inspection it is apparent that induction in this significance is rather a case of classification than of reasoning, and deduction the enlargement of a class by the addition to it of another particular instance.
In teaching children the elements of parsing might call their attention to a number of sentences like the following:
The boy is near the fire Visit coursework ea in ea f not ea redistribute
The book is on the table (Pinsett 1969)
Words in italic shows that they all perform similar function indicating a relation between the things named by two other words wither nouns or pronouns in sentence. Deduction, strictly speaking, is a process in which we accept certain propositions as data then work out the implication, which follow from these data.
Of the powers, which lay public demand that, the teacher shall cultivate in the pupils next in the importance after intelligent action is the ability to observe.
Observation is usually treated together with sense perception and sense training as though it were merely a function of perception. Actually observation depends as much upon imagination and reasoning as upon sensory discrimination. Most readers will have heard of Sherlock Holmes’s famous phrase, "Watson, you see; I observe".
To infer the condition of effective observation from the theoretical principals which are as follows:
This trait permits of fine sensory discrimination so that more precise analysis of characters of objects is possible. It is unlikely that a physician can become a first rate heart-specialist unless he can hear well enough to distinguish fine differences in heart murmurs.
However, good sensory acuity is not sufficient for good observation. As Holmes implies, there is more in observing than mere seeing. In any given situation, other things being equal, superior ability in observation will depend upon the following psychological conditions:
Frequent contact with the same situation produces facilitation and makes the discrimination of characters and relations more easy and rapid.
The more characters and relations known and memorised, the more significant correlates is the observer likely to educe mentally and then search for in the actual situation. The importance of such knowledge is demonstrated every time an intelligent expert is compared with an equally intelligent novice.
Thus interest in familiarity with, and knowledge about the situation are essential for effective observation. The blind man’s superior observation of sound and touch details is due to interest in them and concentrated attending. Having lost his eyesight he needs sound and touch impression for his personal safety and as a means of gaining further knowledge.
The above two examples shown helps me to learn more effectively, it might not be the same for the next person but through self evaluation I have concluded that I am able to incorporate observation and reasoning to help me understand better. Observation helps me to analyse and absorb as much information as possible and when it comes to reasoning I am in a position to recollect what I have observed and use my intellect to debate or put forth my opinion etc.
Many a times when I have attended classes I find myself switching off due to the method of teaching, primarily when the teacher is constantly talking in front of the class and not paying any attention to the boredom displayed on the students faces. At that point some teachers fail to change the topic of which they are talking and not allowing the students to get into the mode of concentrating again but they continue to drift away and making that hour spent in the class as not a learning episode. Depending on the subject taught it is also important to employ the right techniques to the right audience, obviously teaching children will be different compared to the adults.
Hochberg, J. E. (1964) Perception, New Jersey Prentice-Hall
Pinsent, A (1969) The principles of teaching-method, London, George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd,
Stebbings, L.S. (1939) Thinking to Some Purpose, Pelican Book
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