Oppositional Defiant Disorder
There are many different psychological disorders that can affect people of all ages. Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which aggressiveness and the purposeful bothering and irritating of others. This disorder can be treated. But, it is treated only if the characteristics are observed, and correctly diagnosed with the disorder. The observation of an individual shows the symptoms he or she suffers from and determines how the person is to be treated correctly.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder is characterized as a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting for at least six months during which many varieties of negative actions are present. These symptoms are not necessarily all present but usually the majority of them will be if the specimen has Oppositional Defiant Disorder. The subject will often lose their temper when they do not get there way or if they are made fun of. He or she will constantly argue with, most in not all, adults they come into contact with because they view them as authority figures that they are supposed to listen to. The person in question will then often defies or refuses to conform to adults' rules or even requests. The subject will often annoy others for pleasure. They will sometimes become angry and resentful when something they do not like is brought up. Then they will blame their problems on someone or something else. They can be touchy, but if someone does this back to them they become easily annoyed by this outside force. Last, the subject can become spiteful or vindictive when confronted with something he or she doesn't want to discuss. These people that have this disorder usually do not do well with social situations (they do not usually have many or even any friends). They can usually be provoked extremely easily be anyone from basically any age. This disorder is most likely not a result from drugs or alcohol, but it can be from a past with certain medical conditions. cal1966, please do not redistribute this cours. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this cours elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.
This disorder affects people of all ages but it contracted within the first few years of a person's life. They mostly developed this between the ages of one and three. Five percent of children have this problem. Chances are that if a child has it they will have it for life. Of the children that have it, seventy-five percent will keep it for life. Of that seventy-five percent, a few will develop Conduct Disorder. This is when a person cannot control their behavior and will do outrageous things for fun or even uncontrollably. This is one of the many other disorders that can accompany Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
In most cases this is not a condition passed down by generation but it has been shown that there has been some type of link in numerous cases. This disorder is usually found in more boys than girls early on, but as people grow older the rate of cases is evens out and then decreases at a steady rate together in the older age groups. Culture also affects how many children are affected.
The culture of an area greatly affects the amount of cases of Oppositional Defiant Disorder. In upper class families this disorder is rarer than in lower class families and neighborhoods because these families have taken their children to get the necessary help they need, which can be very expensive. The lower class families may not have the money to treat the problem. The type of environment the person is in can be a large part of the problem. It seems that Oppositional Defiant Disorder is more common in the United States than in other countries. ff!
These characteristics of a person who has developed Oppositional Defiant Disorder are usually found in close to all cases of this problem. When a child is thought to have such a problem they are taken usually to a psychiatrist's office to try to determine whether or not this is true. Here is an example of what a visit of this nature might be like:
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Little Jimmy has been brought to the therapist's office by his mother and while he sits in the waiting area his mom speaks with Dr. Rick about a day with Jimmy. The mother explains, "Jimmy is ten years old. We usually begin our day arguing about what he can and cannot bring to school. His teacher has given me a list of what she has noticed about him. Here it is": internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.
· Jimmy constantly pushes and shoves the other children in the hall.
· He brought a knife to school one day. This writing from studentcentral.co.uk
· When he gets teased he retaliates immediately (usually physically).
· Sometimes if he doesn't get his way or if gets frustrated he will tear up his work, swear, and even flip desks..
· He can become very bossy towards me and other students at times.
· Many kids avoid him whenever he is in large groups.
"The teacher, Mrs. Dodgeson, called me one day when he had apparently taken a calculator of mine and told her that I had let him bring it in. She had made this list ahead of time to give to me." "Yes, keep going," Dr. Rick replied. "When he got home from school, Jimmy would be so determined to drag his homework out to up to two hours for a half hour assignment. He is then overbearing until dinner where he is rude and usually ends up not eating his food and in his room for a timeout. Then, Jimmy's father will play games with him for an hour or two usually until Jimmy gets frustrated and flips the board or starts throwing pieces across the room," Said Jimmy's mother. "I see. Is there anything else?" the doctor asked. "Well, for a while now we have been taking Jimmy to his aunt's apartment for a dessert around eight o'clock in the evening. This seems to keep Jimmy calm for the rest of the evening until he goes to bed. We just let him stay up until he falls asleep and then put him in his bed." "Okay, let's bring him in and I will evaluate him further from there," claims the psychologist. Jimmy is brought in and the mother is shown back out to the waiting room while Dr. Rick begins...
This is an example of a child with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. As, we know this disorder is usually paired with another illness such as mood or anxiety disorders. Jimmy does not seem to have acquired this but he appears to also have developed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. This disorder is much like Oppositional Defiant Disorder because it deals with aggressiveness, but with this disorder it is not intentional. Jimmy exhibits aggressive behavior along and also seems to feel that he does not need to obey the rules. He does not have all of the characteristics of the disorder, but will still be diagnosed with it. He has exercised enough of the traits that the psychiatrist will most likely diagnose Jimmy with the problem.
There are two choices of treatment in dealing with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Therapy is the most obvious one with residential treatment following. Residential treatment involves the parents and the child in question to create a plan of agreements that if a certain requirement is not met, like being courteous or doing a chore, the child's privileges will be reduced or even taken away. This has been just as effective as therapy but requires the constant attention of the parents. For those parents that do not have this luxury therapy has been shown to dramatically improve this problem.
There are two types of therapies for this type of condition: behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy. Behavioral therapists focus on behavior and the fact that all behavior, both normal and abnormal, is learned. Whereas, cognitive therapists feel that if a person can change their distorted ideas about themselves and the world, that they can change their problem behaviors and make their lives more enjoyable.
Behavioral psychology has been around for a long time. It is based on the idea that all behavior is learned from the environment around the individual. Behavioral therapists believe that if an abnormal behavior is learned it can be unlearned and replaced with some thing else. This requires a change in environment for the individual. This can also be completed by using a positive reinforcement for the individual, not including money. For example if Jimmy were to be good for a day at school he would be allowed to watch the television for an extended period of time. This approach works well but any family looking for options should consider the side of the cognitive therapist.
Cognitive psychology is the belief that if people can change their ideals then they can make their lives more coping for others. The cognitive therapist will try to change a person's thinking that was associated with the negative attributes, like bothering others purposefully, to more positive traits. This technique involves reasoning with the individual to find the flawed thinking patterns and correct them using different techniques related to changing the subject's ideas. Stress Inoculation therapy uses a person's drive to talk to them self to help a client deal with stress. Rational emotive therapy introduces the idea that people have a set of irrational and self-defeating beliefs. Once these are established then the therapist can begin picking away at them asking the subject how these rules work. When they conflict the subject realizes the error and corrects this with a more realistic belief.
This disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, can be treated but only in rare cases. Most likely, the person will have it for life. Usually the only treatment is suppression of some of the symptoms of the disorder. Although this disorder is not curable almost all of the time, this therapy can make the life of the individual and the people around him or her much happier and easier to deal with.
cal1966. Thus, we can say that whilst this represents a progression, in the end we have come no closer to any "real" knowledge.
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