TABLE OF CONTENTS
I . Sexually transmitted diseaeses defined
II. Genital Herpes
III. Vaginal Candidiasis
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES DEFINED
A sexually transmitted disease is not the same as genital disease. Most genital
diseases are not caused by sexually transmitted organisms. But most sexually transmitted
infections do involve the genitals. Infection of the rectum, throat, and
the eye are also common. Alot of sexually transmitted diseases spread
from a single place and produce sores on parts of the body. At least a dozen diseases are
sexually transmitted. Sexually transmitted diseases occur mainly in people 15 to 30 years
of age. But sometimes people are born with it because of an infected mother.
People with a sexually transmitted Disease are usually at high risk for catching other
diseases. There are more male infections reported than female cases. This is caused by
prostitutes and homosexual contacts. 50 percent or more infections result from
homosexual contacts. Other infections like syphilis, herpes, and HIV infection may be
passed on to the fetus or during childbirth. The fetus or baby can suffer from the disease
and can die from it. The helping of STDs has three parts: treatment, counseling, and
following up. Sometimes treatment is given in a single dose but in sometimes you have to
take it more than once. A person can still be infected even if the symptoms go away. That
is why a follow-up visit is important. To avoid spreading the infection the person should
not have sex until the doctor says that it is cured. It can take up to fourteen days. This
stops the Ping Pong effect.
This infection is caused by the Herpes simplex virus. The symptoms are similar,
and can result from either oral-to-genital or genital-to-genital contact. The virus causes
blisters on the genitals, similar to the cold sores that occur on the mouth. Cold sores on
the mouth are also caused by the herpes virus. These infections are caused by viruses
cures are not available. It has been estimated that approximately 1 in 6 people in
Australia has had a history of genital herpes at some time.
Not all people infected with the herpes virus will have symptoms. As many as
60-70% of people with herpes virus type 2 infection by a blood test have not had
symptoms diagnosed as genital herpes.
Things occur most often on the penile shaft, glans or anal area and on the labia,
clitoris,vagina or cervix. They also are around the mouth or on the throat after oral sex. .
Genital herpes is usually more painful in women Vaginal and blisters may be so painful
that women become unable to pass urine. It is important to get early treatment in order to
prevent this from getting worse. Some symptoms happen for 1 to 3 weeks. Herpes lives in
the body between symptoms. Relapses can happen by emotional or physical stress, fever,
trauma, hormonal changes, sunlight, alcohol. There are two different Infections
Asymptomatic Infections and Neonatal Infections.
Genital herpes can be passed on through most forms of sexual contact,
genital-to-genital, oral-to-genital, and mutual masturbation. Many people are unaware
that cold sores may cause genital infection during oral sex. It is also possible for a person
to transfer herpes from their own mouth to their genitals, and to their eyes. Condoms may
further reduce spread between attacks.
Some treatments that can relieve discomfort:
Keeping sores clean and dry
Wrapping an ice-block in a towel
Bathing in salt water
Drinking plenty of water
If urination is painful, urinating in a hot bath or, for women, using both hands to separate
the lips of the vulva to achieve a free stream of urine, preventing urine from touching the
Wearing loose, cotton underpants and avoiding tight trousers
Anti-Herpes Drugs: Acyclovir
The use of condoms during vaginal and anal intercourse reduces the risk of
genital herpes, but protects only those areas in contact with the condom. Because herpes
can be transmitted from mouth-to-genitals condoms or dental dams may be used during
oral sex. If there are sores , it is important to avoid oral sex. Because herpes can be
spread by the hands between people, it is important to wash your hands if they have come
into contact with sores.
("THRUSH", MONILIA, YEAST)
The yeast like organisms that cause candidiasis are very common and normally are in the
vagina as well as the mouth and in the intestines of most people. Candida is not an actual
STD. It is seen in most sexually active people. The presence of candida doesn't usually
have symptoms. There is a change in the pH of the vagina and may cause a problem in
the balance of the normal flora. As a result, candidal overgrowth can occur and then
cause symptoms. Some things that cause symptoms are heat, moisture, diabetes, steroid
medications, cancer, chronic infection, and malnutrition . Men can also get candidiasis,
which causes balanitis which causes inflammation of the glans penis. This usually
happens to uncircumcised men who still have a foreskin which gives moist conditions for
Some symptoms are itchiness in the anal and genital area, which intensifies at
night, smooth to firm vaginal pus discharges, inflamed, split, and abraded skin and
Inflammation of the glans penis.
There is some treatment to change some of the factors that prevent the
organism to spread. Minor vaginal candidiasis is treated with anti fungal agent in the
form a capsule of nystatin which is inserted into the vagina, or a vaginal cream. Another
way to treat this is natural yoghurt which can be inserted into the vagina or a vinegar and
water douche. Genital and oral antifungal therapy can be effective also, however, thrush
can always recur because candida lives in the bowel. Candida cannot be permanently
taken care of. Carefully washing and drying of the anal and genital area using soap helps
Chlamydia grows within cells. Chlamydia usually infects the cervix
and fallopian tubes of women and the urethra of men. Chlamydial infections are said to
be the most common of all STDs. It is also said that in a population of 15 million, there
are up to 300,000 cases of chlamydia each year. There are many undiagnosed cases of
chlamydia in the community. It has been estimated that the true population of chlamydia
in sexually active people may be in the order of 5% to 10%.
Chlamydia often produces no symptoms. 60% of women and 40% of men have no
symptoms. Infection of the cervix and fallopian tubes occurs more, and chlamydia can
also cause urethral infection. Symptoms can include pain in urination, bladder infection,
a thin vaginal discharge of pus and lower abdominal pain. Inflammation of the cervix
with pus is very common. Eye infections in infants born of infected mothers can also
occur. In men, chlamydia may produce inflammation of the urethra similar to
gonorrhoea. Symptoms for men may include discharges also. The most severe
complication of chlamydia, is the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). As a result
of infection to women it travels into the upper genital tract. Chlamydia can also lead
tothe genital tract in men causing epididymitis,although this is much less common for
men than for women. The risk of infection from person-to-person is alot like gonorrhoea.
It can also be passed to the eye by a hand moistened with infected fluids. Chlamydia can
be transmitted during anal intercourse causing inflammation of the rectum. Chlamydial
infections are treated the best with a drug doxycycline, taken orally for 10 days. Other
infections, such as PID, require longer treatment.
For prevention, use of condoms during vaginal and anal intercourse works well.
Because chlamydia can infect the eyes, care must be taken to avoid spreading sexual
fluids into them.
PREVENTION OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
Some ways to reduce the chance of having sexual contact with a person infected are:
1. If you are born of uninfected and not having sex. Which makes life fairly
2. Being careful in selecting your partners.
3. If you cannot resist having sex with every person you have a relationship with,
you can examine your sex partner by looking them to actually see if they have an
4. Use of a condom helps the risk of passing on the infection
5. After unprotected sex with your sex partner you should go to the doctor and
make sure you didn't catch anything.
6. If medical treatment is started, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO MAKE SURE
YOU GO TO THE DOCTOR FOR RE-EXAMINATIONS UNTIL THE
DOCTOR SAYS YOUR INFECTION IS CURED.
How to know if you have an STD.
1.Discharge of fluid from the penis or vagina
2.Pain or irritation when urinating or having sex.
3.Sores, blisters, warts, lumps or rashes anywhere in the genital or anal area.
4.Itchiness or irritation in the genital or anal area
If you have any of these, you should see a doctor at once. Do not wait for them to
go away,even if they do, this does not mean the disease is gone. Most STDs can go
undetected and cause serious illness later. Having no symptoms doesn't mean that you do
not have a STD.
How to avoid STDs.
It is not hard to avoid getting STDs. The risk can be reduced by using condoms
during vaginal or anal sex. Scientific research has shown that latex condoms are an
effective against HIV and the viruses and bacteria that causes STDs. Condoms, will only
protect you against disease if you use them every time you have sex. Sometimes is not
good enough. Another way to avoid STDs not to have sex at all. Kissing,touching and
masturbation. To have sex only with a partner who has no other sexual partners is an
assuring way also.
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Web site designed and maintained by
Dr Christopher Miller
email: [email protected]
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Control
Public and Environmental Health Division
South Australian Health Commission
PO Box 6
Adelaide SA 5000
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