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Sexually transmitted diseases report


I . Sexually transmitted diseaeses defined

II. Genital Herpes

III. Vaginal Candidiasis

IV. Chlamydia

V. Prevention

VI. Bibliography


A sexually transmitted disease is not the same as genital disease. Most genital

diseases are not caused by sexually transmitted organisms. But most sexually transmitted

infections do involve the genitals. Infection of the rectum, throat, and

the eye are also common. Alot of sexually transmitted diseases spread

from a single place and produce sores on parts of the body. At least a dozen diseases are

sexually transmitted. Sexually transmitted diseases occur mainly in people 15 to 30 years

of age. But sometimes people are born with it because of an infected mother.

People with a sexually transmitted Disease are usually at high risk for catching other

diseases. There are more male infections reported than female cases. This is caused by

prostitutes and homosexual contacts. 50 percent or more infections result from

homosexual contacts. Other infections like syphilis, herpes, and HIV infection may be

passed on to the fetus or during childbirth. The fetus or baby can suffer from the disease

and can die from it. The helping of STDs has three parts: treatment, counseling, and

following up. Sometimes treatment is given in a single dose but in sometimes you have to

take it more than once. A person can still be infected even if the symptoms go away. That

is why a follow-up visit is important. To avoid spreading the infection the person should

not have sex until the doctor says that it is cured. It can take up to fourteen days. This

stops the Ping Pong effect.


This infection is caused by the Herpes simplex virus. The symptoms are similar,

and can result from either oral-to-genital or genital-to-genital contact. The virus causes

blisters on the genitals, similar to the cold sores that occur on the mouth. Cold sores on

the mouth are also caused by the herpes virus. These infections are caused by viruses

cures are not available. It has been estimated that approximately 1 in 6 people in

Australia has had a history of genital herpes at some time.

Not all people infected with the herpes virus will have symptoms. As many as

60-70% of people with herpes virus type 2 infection by a blood test have not had

symptoms diagnosed as genital herpes.

Things occur most often on the penile shaft, glans or anal area and on the labia,

clitoris,vagina or cervix. They also are around the mouth or on the throat after oral sex. .

Genital herpes is usually more painful in women Vaginal and blisters may be so painful

that women become unable to pass urine. It is important to get early treatment in order to

prevent this from getting worse. Some symptoms happen for 1 to 3 weeks. Herpes lives in

the body between symptoms. Relapses can happen by emotional or physical stress, fever,

trauma, hormonal changes, sunlight, alcohol. There are two different Infections

Asymptomatic Infections and Neonatal Infections.

Genital herpes can be passed on through most forms of sexual contact,

genital-to-genital, oral-to-genital, and mutual masturbation. Many people are unaware

that cold sores may cause genital infection during oral sex. It is also possible for a person

to transfer herpes from their own mouth to their genitals, and to their eyes. Condoms may

further reduce spread between attacks.

Some treatments that can relieve discomfort:

Keeping sores clean and dry

Wrapping an ice-block in a towel

Bathing in salt water

Drinking plenty of water

If urination is painful, urinating in a hot bath or, for women, using both hands to separate

the lips of the vulva to achieve a free stream of urine, preventing urine from touching the


Wearing loose, cotton underpants and avoiding tight trousers


Anti-Herpes Drugs: Acyclovir

The use of condoms during vaginal and anal intercourse reduces the risk of

genital herpes, but protects only those areas in contact with the condom. Because herpes

can be transmitted from mouth-to-genitals condoms or dental dams may be used during

oral sex. If there are sores , it is important to avoid oral sex. Because herpes can be

spread by the hands between people, it is important to wash your hands if they have come

into contact with sores.



The yeast like organisms that cause candidiasis are very common and normally are in the

vagina as well as the mouth and in the intestines of most people. Candida is not an actual

STD. It is seen in most sexually active people. The presence of candida doesn't usually

have symptoms. There is a change in the pH of the vagina and may cause a problem in

the balance of the normal flora. As a result, candidal overgrowth can occur and then

cause symptoms. Some things that cause symptoms are heat, moisture, diabetes, steroid

medications, cancer, chronic infection, and malnutrition . Men can also get candidiasis,

which causes balanitis which causes inflammation of the glans penis. This usually

happens to uncircumcised men who still have a foreskin which gives moist conditions for

candidal overgrowth.

Some symptoms are itchiness in the anal and genital area, which intensifies at

night, smooth to firm vaginal pus discharges, inflamed, split, and abraded skin and

Inflammation of the glans penis.

There is some treatment to change some of the factors that prevent the

organism to spread. Minor vaginal candidiasis is treated with anti fungal agent in the

form a capsule of nystatin which is inserted into the vagina, or a vaginal cream. Another

way to treat this is natural yoghurt which can be inserted into the vagina or a vinegar and

water douche. Genital and oral antifungal therapy can be effective also, however, thrush

can always recur because candida lives in the bowel. Candida cannot be permanently

taken care of. Carefully washing and drying of the anal and genital area using soap helps



Chlamydia grows within cells. Chlamydia usually infects the cervix

and fallopian tubes of women and the urethra of men. Chlamydial infections are said to

be the most common of all STDs. It is also said that in a population of 15 million, there

are up to 300,000 cases of chlamydia each year. There are many undiagnosed cases of

chlamydia in the community. It has been estimated that the true population of chlamydia

in sexually active people may be in the order of 5% to 10%.

Chlamydia often produces no symptoms. 60% of women and 40% of men have no

symptoms. Infection of the cervix and fallopian tubes occurs more, and chlamydia can

also cause urethral infection. Symptoms can include pain in urination, bladder infection,

a thin vaginal discharge of pus and lower abdominal pain. Inflammation of the cervix

with pus is very common. Eye infections in infants born of infected mothers can also

occur. In men, chlamydia may produce inflammation of the urethra similar to

gonorrhoea. Symptoms for men may include discharges also. The most severe

complication of chlamydia, is the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). As a result

of infection to women it travels into the upper genital tract. Chlamydia can also lead

tothe genital tract in men causing epididymitis,although this is much less common for

men than for women. The risk of infection from person-to-person is alot like gonorrhoea.

It can also be passed to the eye by a hand moistened with infected fluids. Chlamydia can

be transmitted during anal intercourse causing inflammation of the rectum. Chlamydial

infections are treated the best with a drug doxycycline, taken orally for 10 days. Other

infections, such as PID, require longer treatment.

For prevention, use of condoms during vaginal and anal intercourse works well.

Because chlamydia can infect the eyes, care must be taken to avoid spreading sexual

fluids into them.


Some ways to reduce the chance of having sexual contact with a person infected are:

1. If you are born of uninfected and not having sex. Which makes life fairly


2. Being careful in selecting your partners.

3. If you cannot resist having sex with every person you have a relationship with,

you can examine your sex partner by looking them to actually see if they have an


4. Use of a condom helps the risk of passing on the infection

5. After unprotected sex with your sex partner you should go to the doctor and

make sure you didn't catch anything.

6. If medical treatment is started, IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO MAKE SURE



How to know if you have an STD.

1.Discharge of fluid from the penis or vagina

2.Pain or irritation when urinating or having sex.

3.Sores, blisters, warts, lumps or rashes anywhere in the genital or anal area.

4.Itchiness or irritation in the genital or anal area

5.Frequent diarrhea

If you have any of these, you should see a doctor at once. Do not wait for them to

go away,even if they do, this does not mean the disease is gone. Most STDs can go

undetected and cause serious illness later. Having no symptoms doesn't mean that you do

not have a STD.

How to avoid STDs.

It is not hard to avoid getting STDs. The risk can be reduced by using condoms

during vaginal or anal sex. Scientific research has shown that latex condoms are an

effective against HIV and the viruses and bacteria that causes STDs. Condoms, will only

protect you against disease if you use them every time you have sex. Sometimes is not

good enough. Another way to avoid STDs not to have sex at all. Kissing,touching and

masturbation. To have sex only with a partner who has no other sexual partners is an

assuring way also.






TELEPHONE: +61 (8) 8226 6025

FACSIMILE: +61 (8) 8226 6560

COUNTRY CALLERS (South Australia only): 1 800 806 490

Web site designed and maintained by

Dr Christopher Miller

email: [email protected]

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Control


Public and Environmental Health Division

South Australian Health Commission

PO Box 6

Rundle Mall

Adelaide SA 5000


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