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The heart its diseases and functions


You need your heart for all your body needs. It pumps about 2000

gallons of blood a day. It takes about 20 seconds for blood to reach

every cell in the body. An artery carries blood out from the heart. A

vein carries blood back to the heart. An average adult heart weighs about

10-13 ounces (300 to 350 grams). The rate which the heart pumps varies

depending on what your doing. When at rest the heart pumps more slowly.

When you run the heart rate increases to provide muscles and other tissues

with additional oxygen they need. The typical heart rate is 72 beats per

minute. Each beat gives out 2-3 ounces of blood pumped into the arterial

system. At this heart rate it beats about 104,000 times a day. The

Superior and Inferior are the biggest veins in the body.

The Superior is really the biggest. These veins have a lot of

carbon dioxide and have oxygen-poor blood. The aorta is the biggest

artery in the whole body. Which will be covered in the report. The

pulmonary vein takes the blood out of the heart and takes it to the


Today we will talk about many different parts of the heart:

The Three Layers of Muscle, Atriums, Ventricles, Systole and Diastole,

Treatments for the Heart, Valves, and many Diseases.

The Three Layers of Muscle

The heart has three layers of a muscular wall. A thin

layer of tissue, the pericardium covers the outside, and another layer,

the endocardium, lines the inside. The myocardium is the middle layer and

is the biggest of all. Myocardial Infarction is a disease later read

about in this report. The pericardium is a fibrous sac which is very

smooth lining. In the space space between the pericardium and epicardium

is a small amount of fluid. This fluid makes the movement of the heart

muscles smooth. Myocardium is the heart muscle itself.


The right atrium is a low pressure pump that moves blood into the

right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. The atria are the two upper

chambers of the heart. The right atrium receives blood from the veins

which is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide; this blood is then

transferred to the right lower chamber, or right ventricle, and is pumped

into the lungs.


The ventricle is a muscular chamber that pumps blood out of the heart

and into the circulatory system.

Right Ventricle

The right ventricle has a thicker and stronger muscular wall than

the right atrium. The right ventricle pumps the oxygen-poor blood through

the pulmonic valve into the lungs where blood gives up carbon dioxide it

has carried from tissues. At the same time blood absorbs oxygen. From

the lungs pumping action moves blood to a receiving chamber on the other

side of the heart. The left atrium, gently pumps the blood to the left

ventricle through the mitral valve.

Left Ventricle

The left ventricle gives a powerful pumping action

to send the oxygen enriched in blood into the aorta. The aorta is the

principal artery which subdivides and delivers the blood to the body's

tissues including brain, organs, and extremities.

Systole and Diastole

Systole is the contraction of the ventricles of the heart which

forces blood out. Diastole is the relaxation of ventricles to allow blood

to enter.

Treatments for the Heart

Angioplasty is a technique used to clear arteries that have become

blocked with fatty deposits. Angiography is used to x-ray the blood



In the heart there are two valves that prevent backflow of blood

from the ventricles into the atria. On the right side of the heart is the

tricuspid valve, composed of three flaps of tissue; on the left is the

two-piece mitral valve.


Congenital Disorders

Range of minor to serious congenital disorders are very evident at or

shortly after birth.

Ventricular Septal Defect

Ventricular Septal Defect is most common for heart malformation. An infant

born with a defect has an opening between the lower chambers (ventricles)

of its heart so there is an increased blood flow from the left side to the

right side because the left side has more pressure than right side. The

lungs at this state are under very high in pressure.

Treatment for this disease depends on it size of defect. About 30%-50% of

small defects close spontaneously during the first year of life.

Artrial Septal Defect

Atrial Septal defect is a opening which is high in the heart between the

upper chambers (atria). This disease is more common in female infants

than in male infants, and it often occurs with children who have Down


Disorders of Heart Rate and Rhythm

The control mechanism for heart rate involves electrical impulses. One

of the four chambers, right atrium, contains group cells called sinus

node. The sinus node acts as a pacemaker, which produces electrical

impulses that signal the muscle of the heart to expand and to contract

in the pumping cycle. The heart rate of a human can get up to 200 beats

a minute if you exert yourself. If something goes wrong with the sinus

node and normal pacing of heart is disturbed or bothered, one of a number

of rhythmic disorders can happen.

Too rapid or fast of a heartbeat is called tachycardia, and too slow of a

heartbeat is called bradycardia. The heart can also be affected by

tobacco or use of other drugs.

Heart Arrhythmias

Here are some signs of this disease: None, skipped heartbeats,

light-headedness, chest discomfort, and shortness of breath. If the

rhythm of heart beat is disturbed problem is arrhythmia. You maybe unaware

of the problem.

Heart Murmurs

Heart murmurs can be heard by a physician as a soft hissing sound

which follow the normal sounds of heart action. Heart murmurs can tell

you if that blood is leaking out through a valve and can signal a serious

heart problem. Heart murmurs can sometimes fix themselves.

Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial infarction is a disease of myocardium muscle in the heart.

Heart muscle and it's linings can get a disease for instance myocardial

infarction. You might not have done anything wrong even though, but it

still could happen. Myocardium gets blood from the coronary artery. When

not enough blood reaches the this muscle it is called myocardial

infarction. It is usually rare, but it can damage the heart muscle very



Here are some signs for this disease: short times of fast heartbeats,

breathlessness, weakness, chest pain, fainting, and fluid retention.

Fluid retention is also known as redema. Redema means swelling of body

tissues due to excessive fluid. When the muscle of the heart is damaged

or defective it could led to a disease known as cardiomyopathy. This

could happen by bacteria or enlargement of the wall.

Diseases and Disorders for Heart Valves

Each valve consists of 2 or 3 thin folds of tissues. When closed valve

prevents blood from flowing to the next chamber or from returning from

the previous one. When a valve opening is narrowed and flow through is

limited, the condition is stenosis. Each valve may be subject to stenosis

or obstruction. In some cases a valve will lose its shape or sag

(prolapse) or fail to close which causes a back flow of blood

(regurgitation) could also be caused by infection or congenital problems.


Tachycardia occurs normally during and after exercise or during stress

and represents no danger to healthy individuals. In some cases, however,

tachycardia occurs without apparent cause.The heart can beat as many as

240 times per minute in tachycardia. Tachycardia can be ended by lying


Vascular System and Diseases of It

The vascular system consists of blood vessels in the body.

The vessels become smaller as they extend farther from the heart.

The aorta delivers its flow to large arteries into smaller vessels.

Arterioles supply tiny capillaries which nourish tissues. Oxygen is

going from the capillaries to the tissues, and carbon dioxide from

tissues taken up into the capillaries. Arteries have to be strong as

well as flexible because of the pressure of the blood being pumped

through the venous system. Veins get bigger when they get closer to

the heart.

Disorders of Blood Vessels

A disease or a disorder for the blood vessels can be fatal.

Coronary Artery Disease

The coronary arteries supply and maintain the myocardium. Coronary

artery disease can cause a heart attack or hypertension when blood

vessels get small or filled up with cholesterol, scar tissue, or

calcium. Other problems can happen also. For instance disorders for the

heart valves or for the heart muscle and pericardium.


The heart is something you need every day you can't live with out it.

Exercise, eat a balanced diet, and always have checkups. People don't

think a checkup will really do anything, but believe it because it will.

You might not know you have something wrong with your heart or something

else in your body and then you might get ill. So, don't eat junky foods

too often. Keep your heart safe and healthy as long as you can.

Today I have talked about the heart and many other things as well such

as the diseases of the heart, the vascular system, and more.

This Concludes My Report

Source: Essay UK -

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