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The watergate scandal

The Watergate Scandal

The Watergate Scandal was a series of crimes committed by the President and his

staff, who were found to spied on and harassed political opponents, accepted

illegal campaign contributions, and covered up their own misdeeds. On June 17,

1972, The Washington Post published a small story. In this story the reporters

stated that five men had been arrested breaking into the headquarters of the

Democratic National Committee. The headquarters was located in a Washington,

D.C., building complex called Watergate. These burglars were carrying enough

equipment to wiretap telephones and take pictures of papers.

The Washington Post had two reporters who researched deep into the story. There

names were Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, they discovered that one of the

suspects had an address book with the name and phone number of a White House

official who could have been involved in the crime. The reporters suspected

that the break-in had been ordered by other White House officials.

In a press conference on August in 1972, President Nixon said that nobody on

the White House Staff was involved in the crime. Most of the public accepted

Nixon's word and dropped the questioning. But when the burglars went to trial

four months later, the story changed rapidly from a small story to a national

scandal. It ended only when Richard Nixon was forced from office.

Watergate was connected to Vietnam, it eventually exposed a long series of

illegal activities in the Nixon administration. Nixon and his staff were found

to have spied on and harassed political opponents, planned contributions to the

campaign, and tried to cover-up their illegal acts. These crimes that they did

were called the Watergate scandal, named after the building that it happened.

For years Nixon was carrying on the crimes and they were not noticed until now.

1969 was the really date in which Watergate was really beginning. It all

started when the White House staff made up a list called "enemies list". Nixon

had enemies which include 200 liberal politicians, journalists and actors. Most

of these people made a public speech against the Vietnam war. Nixon's aides

formed a conducts tax audits on these people that he thought were enemies. He

also had agents find out secret information that would harm them.

Nixon was always worried about govt. Employees revealing secret info. To the

news paper or any sort of press. The presidents agents helped him by

wiretapping phone lines that belonged to reporters in order to find any

revealing some material. Nixon was so worried that during the Cambodia bombing

he had to wiretap his own staff members.

On June in 1971, The New York Times formed work that was published about the

history of the Vietnam War, these were known as the Pentagon Papers. They got

the information from secret government papers. The papers blamed the policies

that were formed and caused the beginning of the war in Vietnam. Daniel

Ellsberg, a former employee , gave the documents to the paper. Nixon became

very angry by their publishes.

Nixon tied to make Ellsberg's actions a form of treason, but he was not content

to take him to court. Instead he made a secret group of CIA agents they were

called the "plumbers" this is a name made up because they cover up leaks, such

as the pentagon papers, that could hurt the White House. While they were

searching for info. They found Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office. They

discovered nothing wrong. The next time the plumbers are involved is the next

election.

Nixon was always worried about having enough votes for the election in 1972.

Nixon was concerned that Edmund Muskie of Maine would win because he was the

strongest Democratic candidate. Hoping to wipe out Edmund from the competition,

the plumbers began to play a bunch of so called "dirty tricks". They issued

make believe statements in Muskie's name and told the press false rumors about

him, so that they could publish it to the public. And most of all, they sent a

letter to the New Hampshire newspaper starting that Muskie was making mean

remarks about French Canadian ancestry. All of these aides forced Nixon to

begin getting above Muskie in the elections.

Overall, the Democratic nomination went to George McGovern, a liberal senator

from South Dakota. His supporters included many people who supported the civil

rights, anti-war, and environmental movements of the 1960s. McGovern had fought

to make the nomination process more open and democratic. Congress had also

passed the 26th amendment to the Constitution allowing eighteen-year-Olds to

vote. As a result, the 1972 Democratic Convention was the first to include

large numbers of woman, minorities, and young people among the delegates.

McGovern's campaign ran into trouble early. The press revealed that his running

mate, Thomas Eagleton, had once received psychiatric treatment. First McGovern

stood by Eagleton. Then he abandoned him , picking a different running mate. In

addition, many Democratic voters were attached to Nixon because of his

conservative positions on the Vietnam War and law enforcement.

Meanwhile, Nixon's campaign sailed smoothly along, aided by millions of dollars

in funds. Nixon campaign officials collected much of the money illegally. Major

corporations were told to contribute at least 100,000 dollars each. The

collected much it clear that the donations could easily buy the companies

influence with the White House. Many large corporations went along. As

shipbuilding tycoon George Steinbrenner said "it was a shakedown. A plain

old-fashioned shakedown"

The final blow to McGovern's chances came just days before the election, when

Kissinger announced that peace was at hand in Vietnam. McGovern had made his

political reputation as a critic of the war, and the announcement took the wind

out of his sails. Nixon scored an enormous victory. He received over 60 percent

of the popular vote and won every state except Massachusetts. Congress,

however, remained under Democratic control.

On January of 1973, two months after Nixon had won the presidential election,

the misdeeds of Watergate began to surface. The Watergate burglars went on

trial in Washington D.C.., courtroom. James McCord, one of the burglars , gave

shocking evidence. A former CIA agent who had led the Bay of Pigs invasion of

Cuba in 1961, McCord worked for the Nixon re-election campaign. McCord

testified that people in higher office had paid people "hush money" to the

burglar who were involved in Watergate. With the money they were supposed to

conceal White House involvement in the crime.

After they investigated for awhile, they quickly found out that the break-in

was approved by the attorney General, John Mitchell. Even thought John Mitchell

was one of the most trusted advisors, Nixon denied to know anything about the

break-in and cover-up of the crime. The public found out not to soon that Nixon

was not telling the truth. The public also found out that Nixon had ordered his

aides to block any info to the investigators.

The White House also tried to stop flow of the investigations, because they

were afraid that it would uncover very important secrets. Nixon would not

appear at the congressional committee, complaining that if he were to testify

it would violate the separation of powers. Even thought that idea doesn't

appear in the constitution at all. It was a developing tradition to protect the

president. This made people feel that Nixon was abusing executive privileges

just to cover-up his crimes.

When Nixon had no possible way of protecting the White House staff he fired

them. Such as when he fired two of his aides, Bob Haldeman and John Ehrlichwan,

because they were on the line of being charged for the crimes. But they were

still convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury.

On may of 1973, they broadcasted the hearings on television to millions of

people, the public felt that it was very gripping and made them distraught

A official told the court that Nixon had tape-recorded all the conversations on

tape. Nixon had hoped these tapes would one day be used by historians to

document the triumph of his term, instead they were used to prove that he was

guilty.

The president refused to release the tapes, claiming the executive privilege

gave him the right to keep his record private. That caused him to go to court,

before it was decided, Vice President Agnew was charged with income tax

evasion. He was also charged for accepting bribes and exchanging for political

favors. Agnew resigned because of the charges on October of 1973. He was only

charged of tax evasion and the others were dropped. This scandal was not

connected to Watergate, but it put a lot of stress on Nixon. Nixon nominated

Gerald Ford in place of Agnew. Ford did very little to salvage Nixon

reputation.

A couple of days after Agnew resigns, the federal court made Nixon hand over

the tapes. Nixon refused, and Cox ordered him to, but Nixon had his attorney

fire him. Cox was a idle to Richardson, because he was his professor in law

school. Richardson refused Nixon's order and resigned. President Nixon then

ordered the deputy Attorney General to fire Cox. This massive event was known

as the Saturday Night Massacre. Many people of the nation felt that Nixon's

blocking of the judicial process a proof of guiltiness. People mailed Congress

many telegrams saying to begin impeaching proceedings against the president. So

the House Judiciary Committee did that, and fired him.

President Nixon had remained cool and still acted as if he was innocent. At a

press conference on November, his famous quote was " I am not a crook". He

avoided questions and was agitated. People that day who were watching

television knew that Nixon was gonna be in hot water.

Internal Revenue Services also discovered something that could harm Nixon. They

noticed that in 1970 and 71' he had only paid $800 in taxes when he earned over

$500,000. The nation found out that he also used public money to fix-up his

house in Florida and California.

Nixon keep on refusing to give up Watergate tapes. Then, on April 1974, he gave

out the transcripts of the tapes. He edited the transcripts and tried to cover

up the crimes, but it did not work and it gave Nixon a bad reputation.

The Committee voted to bring impeachment charges in July against Nixon. The

first one said that the president knowingly covered-up the crimes of Watergate.

The second said that he used Government Agencies to violate the Constitution of

the U.S.. The third asserted that he would be impeached because of the

withholding of evidence from Congress.

Shortly after the house committee voted to impeach the President, the case want

to the entire House for a final say. Nixon at this point still counted on the

public to back him out , because of some that doubted his involvement.

A decision came out a couple of days after the vote for Nixon to release the

tapes that involved the Watergate. Nixon at this point had to follow through

with it and hand over t he tapes.

Nixon for a long time claimed that he had no idea of the Watergate scandal

until John Dean told him on March 21, 1973. The tapes showed that Nixon was a

true liar, and not only knew about it, but ordered it.

Because of this Nixon met with A group of republican leaders and they tried to

convince him to resign from office. He did just that on August 9, 1974, Nixon

broadcasted that he was resigning to the nation. This meant that President

Richard Nixon was the first president of the United States to resign from

office.

The nation was shocked after this whole scandal by the way Nixon had lied to

the public and abused his own powers. This lead most of the public never to

trust a president as they did before, because of the massive secrecy in the

Government. But the best part is that the country did survive the trauma, which

is wonderful. The day of Nixon's resignations Gerald Ford was sworn in to

presidency.

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