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What is isdn

What is ISDN?

ISDN, which stands for integrated services digital network, is a system of digitizing phone

networks which has been in the works for over a decade. This system allows audio, video,

and text data to be transmitted simultaneously across the world using end-to-end digital


The original telephone system used analog signals to transmit a signal across telephone

wires. The voice was carried by modulating an electric current with a waveform from a

microphone. The receiving end would then vibrate a speaker coil for the sound to travel back

to the ear through the air. Most telephones today still use this method. Computers, however,

are digital machines. All information stored on them is represented by a bit, representing a

zero or a one. Multiple bits are used to represent characters, which then can represent

words, numbers, programs, etc. The analog signals are just varying voltages sent across the

wires over time. Digital signals are represented and transmitted by pulses with a limited

number of discrete voltage levels. [Hopkins]

The modem was certainly a big breakthrough in computer technology. It allowed computers to

communicate with each other by converting their digital communications into an analog

format to travel through the public phone network. However, there is a limit to the amount

of information that a common analog telephone line can hold. Currently, it is about 28.8

kbit/s. [Hopkins] ISDN allows multiple digital channels to be operated simultaneously

through the same regular phone jack in a home or office. The change comes about when the

telephone company's switches are upgraded to handle digital calls. Therefore, the same

wiring can be used, but a different signal is transmitted across the line. [Hopkins]

Previously, it was necessary to have a phone line for each device you wished to use

simultaneously. For example, one line each for the phone, fax, computer, and live video

conference. Transferring a file to someone while talking on the phone, and seeing their

live picture on a video screen would require several expensive phone lines. [Griffiths]

Using multiplexing (a method of combining separate data signals together on one channel

such that they may be decoded again at the destination), it is possible to combine many

different digital data sources and have the information routed to the proper destination.

Since the line is digital, it is easier to keep the noise and interference out while

combining these signals. [Griffiths] ISDN technically refers to a specific set of services

provided through a limited and standardized set of interfaces. This architecture provides a

number of integrated services currently provided by separate networks.

ISDN adds capabilities not found in standard phone service. The main feature is that instead

of the phone company sending a ring voltage signal to ring the bell in your phone, it sends

a digital package that tells who is calling (if available), what type of call it is

(data/voice), and what number was dialed (if multiple numbers are used for a single line).

ISDN phone equipment is then capable of making intelligent decisions on how to answer the

call. In the case of a data call, baud rate and protocol information is also sent, making

the connection instantaneous. [Griffiths] ISDN Concepts:

With ISDN, voice and data are carried by bearer channels (B channels) occupying a bandwidth

of 64 kbit/s each. A delta channel (D channel) handles signalling at 16 kbit/s or 64

kbit/s. H channels are provided for user information at higher bit rates. [Stallings] There

are two types of ISDN service: Basic Rate ISDN (BRI) and Primary Rate ISDN (PRI).

BRI: consists of two 64 kbit/s B channels and one 16 kbit/s D channel for a total of 144

kbit/s. The basic service is intended to meet the needs of most individual users. PRI:

intended for users with greater capacity requirements. Typically the channel structure is 23

B channels plus one 64 kbit/s D channel for a total of 1.544 Mbit/s. H channels can also be

implemented: H0=384 kbit/s, H11=1536 kbit/s, H12=1920 kbit/s. [Stallings]

In this paper, I will concentrate on defining the specifics of Basic Rate ISDN for local

loop transmission. I will provide an in depth view of ISDN as it relates to layer 1 to 3

of the seven layer OSI model. I will also provide the specification for communication at

the S/T customer interface.

Basic Rate ISDN:

Basic Rate Interface (BRI) - The BRI is the fundamental building block of an ISDN network.

It is composed of a single 16 kbit/s "D-channel" which is used for call setup and control

and two 64 kbit/s "B-channels". The B-channels can be used to carry voice and both circuit

mode and packet mode data traffic. The D-channel may also be used to carry X.25 packet

traffic if the network supports that option. [Griffiths]

Basic Rate Interface D Channel - In the analog world, a telephone call is controlled

in-band. Tones and voltages are sent across lines for signalling conditions. ISDN does

away with this. The D channel becomes the vehicle for signalling. This signalling is

called common channel since a separate channel for signalling is used by two or more bearer

channels. [Hopkins]

User - Network protocols define how users interact with ISDN networks. Between the user

equipment and network equipment is a set of defined interfaces. The U interface is between

the central office and the customer premise. This interface carries information on the

twisted pair of wires between the customer and the central office. At the S/T interface

located at the customer location, two pairs of wires (one for transmitting, one for

receiving) are used. The intermediate device between the U and the S/T interface is known

as an NT1. The NT1 is a hybrid that converts from four wire to two wire and also

transforms the 2B+D signal into a different bit stream format. [Griffiths]

ISDN and the OSI Model - The OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) seven layer protocol was

developed to promote interoperability in the data world. ISDN, which followed OSI, was

designed to be a network technology inhabiting the lower three layers of the OSI model.

Consequently, an OSI end system that implements an OSI seven layer stack can contain ISDN at

the lower layers. Also, services such as TCP/IP (Internet Transmission Control Protocol)

can use the ISDN network. [Griffiths]

Layer 1 of User-Network Interface:

Layer 1 protocols provide the details that describe how the signals (electrical or optical)

are encoded onto the physical medium. These protocols describe how the user data and

signalling bits are transformed into line signals, then back again into user data bits.

The ISDN layer 1 protocol supports the functions outlined below. [ITU-T, I.430] ( B Channel

Transmission ( D Channel Transmission ( D Channel Access Procedure

B Channel Transmission - Layer 1 must support for each direction of transmission, two

independent 64 kbit/s B channels. The B channels contain user data which is switched by the

network to provide the end-to-end transmission source. There is no error correction

provided by the network on these channels. [ITU-T, I.430]

D Channel Transmission - Layer 1 must support for each direction of transmission, a 16

kbit/s channel for the signalling information. In some networks user packet data may also

be supported on the D channel. [ITU-T, I.430]

D Channel Access Procedure - This procedure ensures that in the case of two or more

terminals, on a point to multipoint configuration, attempting to access the D Channel

simultaneously, one terminal will always successfully complete the transmission of

information. [ITU-T, I.430]

Binary Organization of Layer 1 frame - The structures of Layer 1 frames across the interface

are different in each direction of transmission. Both structures are shown in figure 1

below. [Griffiths]

A frame is 48 bits long and lasts 250(s. The bit rate is therefore 192 kbit/s and each bit

is approximately 5.2(s long. Figure 1 also shows that there is a 2-bit offset between

transmit and receive frames. This is the delay between frame start at the receiver of a

terminal and the frame start of the transmitted signal. [Griffiths] Figure 1 also

illustrates that the line coding used is AMI (Alternate Marks Inversion); a logical 1 is

transmitted as zero volts and a logical 0 as a positive or negative pulse. Note that this

convention is the inverse of that used on line transmission systems. The nominal pulse

amplitude is 750mV. [Griffiths] A frame contains several L bits. These are balance bits to

prevent a build up of DC on the line. For the direction TE to NT, where each B-channel may

come from a different terminal, each terminal's output contains an L bit to form a balanced

block. [ITU-T, I.430] Examining the frame in the NT to TE direction, the first bits of the

frame are the F/L pair, which is used in the frame alignment procedure. The start of a new

frame is signalled by the F/L pair violating the AMI rules. Once a violation has occurred

there must be a second violation to restore correct polarity before the next frame. This

takes place with the first mark after the F/L pair. The FA bit ensures this second

violation occurs should there not be a mark in the B1, B2, D, E, or A channels. The E

channel is an echo channel in which D-channel bits arriving at the NT are echoed back to

the TEs. There is a 10 bit offset between the D channel leaving a terminal, traveling to

the NT and being echoed back in the E channel. [ITU-T, I.430] The A bit is used in the

activation procedure to indicate to the terminals that the system is in synchronization.

Next is a byte of the B2 channel, a bit of the E channel and a bit of the D channel,

followed by an M bit. This is used for multiframing. The M bit identifies some FA bits

which can be stolen to provide a management channel. [ITU-T, I.430] The B1, B2, D, and E

channels are then repeated along with the S bit which is a spare bit. [ITU-T, I.430]

Layer 1 D Channel Contention Procedure - This procedure ensures that, even in the case of

two or more terminals attempting to access the D channel simultaneously, one terminal will

always successfully complete the transmission of information by first gaining control of the

D channel and then retransmitting its information. The procedure relies on the fact that

the information to be transmitted consists of layer 2 frames delimited by flags consisting

of the binary pattern 01111110. Layer 2 applies a zero bit insertion algorithm to prevent

flag imitation by a layer 2 frame. The interframe time fill consists of binary 1s which are

represented by zero volts. The zero volt line signal is generated by the TE transmitter

going high impedance. This means a binary 0 from a parallel terminal will overwrite as

binary 1. Detection of collision is done by the terminal monitoring the E channel (D

channel echoed from the NT). [ITU-T, I.430]

To access the D channel a terminal looks for the interframe time fill by counting the

number of consecutive binary 1s in the D channel. Should a binary 0 be received the count

is reset. When the number of consecutive 1s reaches a predetermined value (which is

greater than the number of consecutive 1s possible in a frame because of the zero bit

insertion algorithm) the counter is reset and the terminal may access the D channel. When

a terminal has just completed transmitting a frame the value of the count needed to be

reached before another frame may be transmitted is incremented by 1. This gives other

terminals a chance to access the channel. Hence an access and priority mechanism is

established. [ITU-T, I.430] There is still the possibility of collision between two

terminals of the same priority. This is detected and resolved by each terminal comparing

its last transmitted bit with the next E bit. If they are the same the terminal continues

to transmit. If, however, they are different the terminal detecting the difference ceases

transmission immediately and returns to the D channel monitoring state leaving the other

terminal to continue transmission. [ITU-T, I.430]

Layer 1 Activation/Deactivation Procedure - This procedure permits activation of the

interface from both the terminal and network side, but deactivation only from the network

side. This is because of the multi-terminal capability of the interface. Activation and

deactivation information is conveyed across the interface by the use of line signals called

'Info signals'. [ITU-T, I.430]

Info 0 is the absence of any line signal; this is the idle state with neither terminals nor

the NT working. [ITU-T, I.430] Info 1 is flags transmitted from a terminal to the NT to

request activation. Note this signal is not synchronized to the network. [ITU-T, I.430]

Info 2 is transmitted from the NT to the TEs to request their activation or to indicate

that the NT has activated as a response to receiving an Info 1. An Info 2 consists of

Layer 1 frames with a high density of binary zeros in the data channels which permits fast

synchronization of the terminals. [ITU-T, I.430] Info 2 and Info 4 are frames containing

operational data transmitted from the TE and NT respectively.[ITU-T, I.430] The principal

activation sequence is commenced when a terminal transmits an Info 1. The NT activates the

local transmission system which indicates to the exchange that the customer is activating.

The NT1 responds to the terminals with an Info 2 to which the TEs synchronize. The TEs

respond with an Info 3 containing operational data and the NT is then in a position to send

Info 4 frames. Note that all terminals activate in parallel; it is not possible to have

just one terminal activated in a multi-terminal configuration. The network activates the

bus by the exchange activating the local network transmission system. Deactivation occurs

when the exchange deactivates the local network transmission system. [ITU-T, I.430]

Layer 2 of User-Network Interface:

The Layer 2 recommendation describes the high level data link (HDLC) procedures commonly

referred to as the Link Access Procedure for a D channel or LAP D. The objective of Layer

2 is to provide a secure, error-free connection between two endpoints connected by a

physical medium. Layer 3 call control information is carried in the information elements

of Layer 2 frames and it must be delivered in sequence and without error. Layer 2 also has

the responsibility for detecting and retransmitting lost frames.

LAP D was based originally on LAP B of the X.25 Layer 2 recommendation. However, certain

features of LAP D give it significant advantages. The most striking difference is the

possibility of frame multiplexing by having separate addresses at Layer 2 allowing many LAPs

to exist on the same physical connection. It is this feature that allows up to eight

terminals to share the signalling channel in the passive bus arrangement. [ITU-T, Q.920]

Each Layer 2 connection is a separate LAP and the termination points for the LAPs are

within the terminals at one end and at the periphery of the exchange at the other. Layer 2

operates as a series of frame exchanges between the two communicating, or peer entities.

The frames consist of a sequence of eight bit elements and the elements in the sequence

define their meaning as shown in Figure 2 below. [ITU-T, Q.920]

A fixed pattern called a flag is used to indicate both the beginning and end of a frame.

Two octets are needed for the Layer 2 address and carry a service identifier (SAPI), a

terminal identifier (TEI) and a command /response bit. The control field is one or two

octets depending on the frame type and carries information that identifies the frame and

the Layer 2 sequence numbers used for link control. The information element is only

present in frames that carry Layer 3 information and the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) is used

for error detection. A detailed breakdown of the individual elements is given in Figures 3

and 4 below. [ITU-T, Q.920] What cannot be shown in the diagrams is the procedure to avoid

imitation of the flag by the data octets. This is achieved by examining the serial stream

between flags and inserting an extra 0 after any run of five 1 bits. The receiving Layer 2

entity discards a 0 bit if it is preceded by five 1's. [ITU-T, Q.920]

Layer 2 Addressing - Layer 2 multiplexing is achieved by employing a separate Layer 2

address for each LAP in the system. To carry the LAP identity the address is two octets

long and identifies the intended receiver of a command frame and the transmitter of a

response frame. The address has only local significance and is known only to the two

end-points using the LAP. No use can be made of the address by the network for routing

purposes and no information about its value will be held outside the Layer 2 entity. [ITU-T,


The Layer 2 address is constructed as shown in Figure 3. The Service Access Identifier

(SAPI) is used to identify the service intended for the signalling frame. An extension of

the use of the D channel is to use it for access to a packet service as well as for

signalling. Consider the case of digital telephones sharing a passive bus with packet

terminals. The two terminal types will be accessing different services and possibly

different networks. It is possible to identify the service being invoked by using a

different SAPI for each service. This gives the network the option of handling the

signalling associated with different services in separate modules. In a multi-network ISDN

it allows Layer 2 routing to the appropriate network. The value of the SAPI is fixed for a

given service. [ITU-T, Q.921] The Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI) takes a range of

values that are associated with terminals on the customer's line. In the simplest case

each terminal will have a single unique TEI value. The combination of TEI and SAPI

identify the LAP and provide a unique Layer 2 address. A terminal will use its Layer 2

address in all transmitted frames and only frames received carrying the correct address

will be processed. [ITU-T, Q.921] In practice a frame originating from telephony call

control has a SAPI that identifies the frame as 'telephony' and all telephone equipment

examine this frame. Only the terminal whose TEI agrees with that carried by the frame will

pass it to the Layer 2 and Layer 3 entities for processing. There is also a SAPI

identified in standards for user data packet communication. [ITU-T, Q.921] Since it is

important that no two TEIs are the same, the network has a special TEI management entity

which allocates TEI on request and ensures their correct use. The values that TEIs can

take fall into the ranges:

0-63 Non-Automatic Assignment TEIs

64-126 Automatic Assignment TEIs

127 Global TEI [ITU-T, Q.921]

Non-Automatic TEIs are selected by the user; their allocation is the responsibility of the

user. Automatic TEIs are selected by the network; their allocation is the responsibility

of the network. The global TEI is permanently allocated and is referred to as the

broadcast TEI. [ITU-T, Q.921] Terminals which use TEIs in the range of 0-63 need not

negotiate with the network before establishing a Layer 2 connection. Terminals which use

TEIs in the range 64-126 cannot establish a Layer 2 connection until they have requested a

TEI from the network. In this case it is the responsibility of the network not to allocate

the same TEI more than once at any given time. The global TEI is used to broadcast

information to all terminals within a given SAPI; for example a broadcast message to all

telephones, offering an incoming telephone call. [ITU-T, Q.921]

Layer 2 Operation - The function of Layer 2 is to deliver Layer 3 frames, across a Layer 1

interface, error free and in sequence. It is necessary for a Layer 2 entity to interface

both Layer 1 and Layer 3. To highlight the operation of Layer 2 we will consider the

operation of a terminal as it attempts to signal with the network. [ITU-T, Q.921]

It is the action to establish a call that causes protocol exchange between terminal and

network. If there has been no previous communication it is necessary to activate the

interface in a controlled way. A request for service from the customer results in Layer 3

requesting a service from Layer 2. Layer 2 cannot offer a service unless Layer 1 is

available and so a request is made to Layer 1. Layer 1 then initiates its start-up

procedure and the physical link becomes available for Layer 2 frames. Before Layer 2 is

ready to offer its services to Layer 3 it must initiate the Layer 2 start-up procedure

known as 'establishing a LAP'. [ITU-T, Q.921] LAP establishment is achieved by the exchange

of Layer 2 frames between the Layer 2 handler in the terminal and the corresponding Layer 2

handler in the network. The purpose of this exchange is to align the state variables that

will be used to ensure the correct sequencing of information frames. Before the LAP has

been established the only frames that may be transmitted are unnumbered frames. The

establishment procedure requires one end-point to transmit a Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode

Extended (SABME) and the far end to acknowledge it with an Unnumbered Acknowledgment (UA).

[ITU-T, Q.921] Once the LAP is established Layer 2 is able to carry the Layer 3 information

and is said to be the 'multiple frame established state'. In this state Layer 2 operates

its frame protection mechanisms. Figure 5 below shows a normal Layer 2 frame exchange.

[ITU-T, Q.921]

Once established the LAP operates an acknowledged service in which every information frame

must be responded to by the peer entity. The most basic response is the Receiver Ready

(RR) response frame. Figure 5 shows the LAP establishment and the subsequent I frame RR

exchanges. The number of I frames allowed to be outstanding without an acknowledgment is

defined as the window size and can vary between 1 and 127. For telephony signalling

applications the window size is 1 and after transmitting an I frame the Layer 2 entity will

await a response from the corresponding peer entity before attempting to transmit the next

I frame. Providing there are no errors all that would be observed on the bus would be the

exchange of I frames and RR responses. However Layer 2 is able to maintain the correct

flow of information in the face of many different error types. [ITU-T, Q.921]

Layer 2 Error Control - It is unlikely that a frame will disappear completely but it is

possible for frames to be corrupted by noise at Layer 1. Corrupted frames will be received

with invalid Frame Check Sequence (FCS) values and consequently discarded. [ITU-T, Q.920]

The frame check sequence is generated by dividing the bit sequence starting at the address

up to (but not including) the start of the frame check sequence by the generator polynomial

X16 + X12 + X5 + 1. In practical terms this is done by a shift register as shown in figure

6. All registers are preset to 1 initially. At the end of the protected bits the shift

register contains the remainder from the division. The 1's complement of the remainder is

the FCS. At the receiver the same process is gone through , but this time the FCS is

included in the division process. In the absence of transmission errors the remainder

should always be 1101 0000 1111. [ITU-T, Q.920]

The method for recovering from a lost frame is based on the expiration of a timer. A timer

is started every time a command frame is transmitted and is stopped when the appropriate

response is received. This single timer is thus able to protect both the command and

response as the loss of either will cause it to expire. [ITU-T, Q.920] When the timer

expires it is not possible to tell which of the two frames has been lost and the action

taken is the same in both cases. Upon the timer expiring, Layer 2 transmits a command with

the poll bit set. This frame forces the peer to transmit a response that indicates the

value held by the state variables. It is possible to tell from the value carried by the

response frame whether or not the original frame was received. If the first frame was

received, the solicited response frame will be the same as the lost response frame and is

an acceptable acknowledgment. If however the original frame was lost, the solicited

response will not be an appropriate acknowledgment and the Layer 2 entity will know that a

retransmission is required.

It is possible for the same frame to be lost more than once and Layer 2 will restransmit the

frame three times. If after three transmissions of the frame the correct response has not

been received , Layer 2 will assume that the connection has failed and will attempt to

re-establish the LAP. [ITU-T, Q.921]

Another possible protocol error is the arrival of an I frame with an invalid send sequence

number N(S). This error is more likely to occur when the LAP is operating with a window

size greater than one. If, for example, the third frame in the sequence of four is lost

the receiving Layer 2 entity will know that a frame has been lost from the discontinuity in

the sequence numbers. The Layer 2 must not acknowledge the fourth frame as this will imply

acknowledgment of the lost third frame. The correction operation is to send a Reject (REJ)

frame with the receive sequence number N(R) equal to N(S) + 1 where N(S) is the send

variable of the last correctly received I frame, in this case I frame 2. This does two

things; first it acknowledges all the outstanding I frames up to and including the second I

frame, and secondly it causes the sending end to retransmit all outstanding I frames

starting with the lost third frame. [ITU-T, Q.920] The receipt of a frame with an out of

sequence, or invalid, N(R) does not indicate a frame loss and cannot be corrected by

retransmissions. It is necessary in this case to re-establish the LAP to realign the state

variables at each end of the link. [ITU-T, Q.920] The Receiver Not Ready (RNR) frame is

used to inhibit the peer Layer 2 from transmitting I frames. The reasons for wanting to do

this are not detailed in the specification but it is possible to imagine a situation where

Layer 3 is only one of many functions to be serviced by a microprocessor and a job of

higher priority requires that no Layer 3 processing is performed. [ITU-T, Q.920] Another

frame specified in Layer 2 is the FRaMe Reject frame (FRMR). This frame may be received by

a Layer 2 entity but may not be transmitted. It is included in the recommendation to

preserve alignment between LAP D and LAP B. After the detection of a frame reject

condition the data link is reset. [ITU-T, Q.920]

Disconnecting the LAP - After Layer 3 has released the call it informs Layer 2 that it no

longer requires a service. Layer 2 then performs its own disconnection procedures so that

ultimately Layer 1 can disconnect and the transmission systems associated with the local

line and the customer's bus can be deactivated. [ITU-T, Q.921]

Layer 2 disconnection is achieved when the frames disconnect (DISC) and UA are exchanged

between peers. At this point the LAP can no longer support the exchange of I frames and

supervisory frames. [ITU-T, Q.921] The last frame type to be considered is the Disconnect

Mode (DM) frame. This frame is an unnumbered acknowledgment and may be used in the same

way as a UA frame. It is used as a response to a SABME if the Layer 2 entity is unable to

establish the LAP, and a response to a DISC if the Layer 2 entity has already disconnected

the LAP. [ITU-T, Q.921]

TEI Allocation - Because each terminal must operate using a unique TEI, procedures have been

defined in a Layer 2 management entity to control their use. The TEI manager has the

ability to allocate, remove, check, and verify TEIs that are in use on the customer's bus.

As the management entity is a separate service point all messages associated with TEI

management are transmitted with a management SAPI. [ITU-T, Q.921]

TEI management procedures must operate regardless of the Layer 2 state and so the

unnumbered information frame (UI) is used for all management messages. The UI frames have

no Layer 2 response and protection of the frame content is achieved by multiple

transmissions of the frame.

In order to communicate with terminals which have not yet been allocated TEIs a global TEI

is used. All management frames are transmitted on a broadcast TEI which is associated with

a LAP that is always available. All terminals can transmit and receive on the broadcast TEI

as well as their own unique TEI. All terminals on the customer's line will process all

management frames. To ensure that only one terminal acts upon a frame a unique reference

number is passed between the terminal and the network. This reference number is contained

within an element in the UI frame and is either a number randomly generated by the terminal,

or 0 is the TEI of the terminal, depending on the exact situation. Figure 7 below shows the

frame exchange required for a terminal to be allocated a TEI and establish its data link

connection. [ITU-T, Q.921]

Layer 3 of User-Network Interface:

This layer effects the establishment and control of connections. It is carried in Layer 2

frames as can be seen in figure 8. [ITU-T, Q.930]

The first octet contains a protocol discriminator which gives the D channel the capability

of simultaneously supporting additional communications protocols in the future. The bits

shown in figure 8 are the standard for user-network call control messages. [ITU-T, Q.930]

The call reference value in the third octet is used to identify the call with which a

particular message is associated. Thus a call can be identified independently of the

communications channel on which it is supported.

The message type coded in the fourth octet describes the intention of the message (e.g. a

SETUP message to request call establishment). These are listed in Table 1 at the end of

this paper. A number of other information elements may be included following the message

type code in the fourth octet. The exact contents of a message are dependent on the message

type. [ITU-T, Q.931]

The message sequence for call establishment is shown in figure 9. In order to make an

outgoing call request, a user must send all of the necessary call information to the

network. Furthermore, the user must specify the particular bearer service required for the

call (i.e. Speech, 64 kbit/s/s unrestricted, or 3.1 kHz Audio) and any terminal

compatibility information which must be checked at the destination. [ITU-T, Q.931]

The initial outgoing call request may be made in an en bloc or overlap manner. Figure 9

illustrates the call establishment procedures. If overlap sending is used then the SETUP

message must contain the bearer service request but the facility requests and called party

number information may be segmented and conveyed in a sequence of INFORMATION messages as

shown. Furthermore if a speech bearer service is requested and no call information is

contained in the SETUP message, then the network will return in-band dial tone to the user

until the first INFORMATION message has been received. [ITU-T, Q.931] Following the receipt

of sufficient information for call establishment , the network returns a call PROCEEDING


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