Incidence rate is used as a measuring instrument in public health. Incidence gives an expression of how a disease/injury occurs frequently in a population and defined as proportion of group initially free from disease, that develop the disease over a period of time. This will help identify new cases of a disease condition, symptoms presentation, death cases or injury situation that develop during a specific period of time.
Taking history from clients on day to day activity and keeping them as records helps to ascertain cases that frequently occurs in the particular population in other to plan to curb the high incidence of a certain condition or cases.
Health promotion simply means making/putting all strategies in health to ensure that an individual has optimal health and free from illness/disease.
It includes communicable and non-communicable disease of a population. Protecting once health means instituting and initiating plans being public, individuals (private) etc. To ensure that the population adopt and adjust, ensuring that their health is secured and maintained. Health promotion helps to develop framework to promote action across sectors of health and health equity.
Health education helps in the promotion, prevention and protection of health of a population. A nurse has to be educated well in the field of health through which the nurse can output same to the general public. This nurse education is in line with health education.
This helps the nurse to understand population individually or in care of patients/client and the entire population.
The prevention of illness will depend on the understanding of the nurse to the education acquired and learned. Realistic in nursing knowledge based on social life, psychology and cognitive ideas broader based social intervention to help educate population on health.
It is believed historically that there is a link between the environment and illness or disease onset.
This idea helps the health of individual by keeping personal and environmental hygiene as keen to their optimal health.
In the 21st century it has been scientifically proven that optimal health comes from cleanliness of both personal and environmental. The environment of the population gives a clue of health needs of the population.
A clean environment is essential for human health and wellbeing. This makes the use of the precautionary principle particularly useful. Many disease and conditions are linked to contaminants in our environment.
Contact tracing and keeping them under surveillance to trace cases in the community after identification in the health facility. In order to make good assessment of patients/clients in the community, that is environment, family, society, friend and water to provide health needs irrespective of race, religion, culture and political affiliation. Contact tracing and surveillance in the community help to identify new cases and treated in accordance with the health promotion strategies.
Contract tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. Surveillance helps to monitor the population behavior activities and other changing information. It will help interpret the health data that have been collected.
Self-care deficit in clients is another important development from the historical perspective in nursing.
Self-care practices are activities of daily living concerns of personal hygiene, office/environmental hygiene etc. are practices of individuals in their daily life.
When a person/patient can no more do his activities of daily living means there is a deficit. Consideration to the Abraham Maslow hierarchy of needs when most of the basic needs are not attained or met there is deficit in individuals’ daily actions/activities
In cases that affect patients/persons cognitive abilities and debilitating renders them in self-care deficit in the daily life.
Another concept is the prevention of disease or injury. It involves primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention of disease. History taken from patients/clients normally helps the nurse to understand patient and where to start from in prevention of the illness and provision of care given accordingly. The primary prevention aims at preventing disease or injury before they occur while management would be done through education, screening, monitory and medical checks and examinations. The secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of illness/injury from setting into the worse stage or death. Tertiary prevention aims at identifying lasting and softens effort to prevent death or debilitating effects through the community, hospital and other health Centre’s in rehabilitation.
The health economics referred to as Hospital economy in the institution of work. It helps in the management and allocation of resources in the hospital, as well as the unit. Resources allocation has actually being a problem of most developing countries when it comes to resources and equipment for work. Resources such as human resources help to plan and maintain shift system plan in other not to have a shortage. Equipment and materials help achieve aims and targets set for the year. Most of these equipment are not available in some of the facilities in the hospital therefore one needs to do improvising during the case of the people irrespective of the challenges or burden on health institution due to non-payment by insurance the institution still have to function and therefore emergency items etc. are always improvised. The Health policy that help in integration of resources to ensure optimal health holistically of every individual in the country.
Interpersonal relation is a strong, close or deep acquaintance between people. This is based on influence, solidarity, and love through business association. This is usually formed in the context of social, cultural and other influences. Interpersonal relationship in the field of work requires the most effort to nurture and maintain good relationship between the healthcare providers and the reception of the case. A good rapport between the health worker and the patient/client enhances and facilitate the recovery state of the patients by developing and maintaining effective relationships. In terms of relationship context of interaction, the nurse would have acquired much knowledge in the field of work.
The use of nursing diagnoses is done after general assessment of a client/patient. The identification of nursing diagnoses serves as the basis for the nursing care plan. The nursing diagnoses create the links between collection of information and planning of the case of the patient.
Objectives and subjective data helps in deriving and drawing the nursing care plan to implement health actions to curb or augment a situation.
It is a clinical judgement about actual and potential individual, family or community response to health issues and life processes
2. Significance of these concepts.
Incidence or incidence rate is an integral part of the nursing work I do, it is important to let to know that incidence a measurement instrument which will help the nurse to have an idea on the frequency of diseases such as cholera outbreak or communicable and non-communicable disease. The nurse as well as the institution make pre-assessment and prepare for any on toward outbreak. So that necessary and key equipment and resources provision are done. Preparation for isolation could be done alongside needed drug budgeting. Incidence can tell us how many new cases of a particular illness have been suffered by a community, or it might tell us how patterns of a condition within a population change over time. Conditions such as diarrhea and emerging increase in motor bike accident.
Health promotion simply is helping the individual or the community to institute measures the will promote their health. In high illiteracy developing country the professional would have to help the general public in other to gain and maintain optimal health. Health promotional activities are multi-sectorial and multi-functional involving the nutrition, pediatrics nursing, and the health directorate( government) to ensure the population have maximize their health status. Lifestyle activities are very essential in the promotion (the better lifestyle, the healthier)
Promotion of good health will follow safe environment, enhance immunity, sensible behavior, good nutrition, well born babies (mother fit, child fit and every child planned) and prudent healthcare (cautious skepticism is better than uncritical enthusiasm)
Health education in my country where illiteracy level is high, people constantly need to be told way to prevent diseases, protect from illness/injury and how to promote their own health. Health education is frequently needed to create awareness in both benefits of personal and environmental hygiene. Through health education clients health concerns are addressed respectively including drug/medication taking and educating on good nutrition. Education as I learned from the study has help me to let patients really know the benefits of reviews or follow up, the need to take their drug continuously without interruption, observing any on toward effect of a treatment and reporting. Educating clients with chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and asthma has been very essential after I studied the subject. It is useful in letting co-workers know the need to constantly ensure safe infection prevention and control to avoid infections through education. It is important in assessing individual and community needs, planning health education strategies, implementing and evaluating in the course of caring for the patient.
In our daily activities the environment gets contaminated most often than not by the filth not disposed properly, refuse not dump well because of lack of commitment on people and agencies responsible. Cholera outbreak in my country is a typical example.in nursing profession it helps the nurse to assess clients’ situations and gather information about how the environment can be linked with the current condition to provide the necessary health information. The hospital and the ward environment are very essential and needs to be cleaned, sharps discarded properly and disinfection of fomites and floors to facilitate recovery of patients. Disposal of biological waste is also very vital in the wards to avoid contamination. Environmental health is focused on the built and natural environments for the benefit of human health, whereas environmental protection is interested in protecting the natural environment for the benefit of human health and the ecology. The impact on our health not only involves the consequences of air, ground and water pollution, but also other factors, such as life quality, life style, radiation, food contamination and genetic susceptibility. Gathering this information helps the nurse plan care for patients holistically.
Contact tracing and surveillance in the community help to identify new cases and treated in accordance with the health promotion strategies. Tuberculosis and high risk mothers always needs to be followed up. Public health surveillance helps to identify at risk people such as people with sexually transmitted diseases etc. tracing them to their own environment also makes the see how important they are and why the need to monitor them and help to give a broader based social intervention.
Patients with cognitive/psychiatric conditions most often ignore their activities of daily living. This study has helped me to better assessment and care of patients with their self-care deficit. Self-care deficit may be the result of impermanent limitations such as those one might experience while recovering from surgery or the result of progressive deterioration that erodes the individual’s ability or willingness to perform the activities required caring for themselves. Careful examination of the patient’s deficit is required to be certain that the patient is not failing at self-care because of a lack in material resources or a problem with arranging the environment to suit their physical limitations. The nurse coordinates services to maximize the independence of the patient and to ensure that the environment that the patient lives in is safe and supportive to their special needs. Conditions such as Cerebrovascular accident, osteoarthritis, schizophrenia and terminally ill patient’s self-care will be met by the nurse using the nursing process.
Levels of disease prevention are also very ideal in healthcare delivery system. Prevention is a cornerstone concept in public health. If it is preventable, try to reduce its impact
After doing a thorough assessment, the nurse gets to know level the sickness or infirmity. The primary prevention helps the nurse, by preventing exposures to hazards that cause disease or injury, altering unhealthy or unsafe behaviours that can lead to disease or injury, and increasing resistance to disease or injury should exposure occur. The secondary prevention is done by detecting and treating disease or injury as soon as possible to stop or rather dull in its progress, encouraging personal strategies to prevent injury or recurrence, and implementing programs to return people to their original health and function to prevent long-term problems. Nursing activities is also relevant. The tertiary prevention is done by helping people manage long-term, often-complex health problems and injuries in order to improve as much as possible their ability to function through rehabilitation, their quality of life and their life expectancy.
Resources such as human resources help to plan and maintain shift plan in other not have a shortage. Equipment and materials help achieve aims and targets set for the year. Most of these equipment are not available in some of the facilities in the hospital therefore one needs to do improvising during the case of the people irrespective of the challenges or burden on health institution due to non-payment by insurance the institution still have to function and therefore emergency items etc. are always improvised.
Good communication skills help to build up therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient. It allows the patients give out all necessary with confidence and trusting in the nurse. Good interpersonal relationship creates a nonjudgmental environment. It makes the patient feel supported. Myth surrounds almost everything in the community I work and therefore sometimes it’s very difficult to get all the necessary information. But with a good relationship the patient can voice out all credible information owning to the trust he/she has for the nurse to keep it confidential.
Nursing diagnosis is a major tool in the care of patients internationally accepted. In fact the nursing process is essential in the care of the patient and family. This is usually obtained from the subjective and objective data provision. It helps the nurse to make a clinical judgment about individual, family, or community experiences/responses to actual or potential problems. Identification of the diagnosis from the data collected helps the nurse to begin implementation of care to curb any challenge.
3. Current research activities related to the concept/implementation of activities related to the concept.
In calculating incidence rate the numerator is the number of new events that occur in a defined time period and the denominator is the population at risk of experiencing the event during this period. The most accurate way of calculating incidence rate is to calculate what Last (1995) calls ‘person-time incidence rate’ each person in the study population contributes one person-year to the denominator for each year of observation before disease develops or the person is lost to follow-up.
Health education is the primary means of bringing about a change and development. Health education is one strategy of health promotion and is focused on helping individuals learn and use health-enhancing skills. Health education is often very visible and tangible (i.e., it’s what most health education programs are ‘known for’), and it may often include educational programs, activities and skill-building group or individual sessions. Health education is part of health promotion, but health promotion is more than health education.
Environmental health addresses all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related factors impacting behaviours. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health. It is targeted towards preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments. This definition excludes behavior not related to environment, as well as behavior related to the social and cultural environment, and genetics. (Environmental health, WHO, 2015) How much disease could be prevented through better management of our environment? The environment influences our health in many ways ‘ through exposures to physical, chemical and biological risk factors, and through related changes in our behaviour in response to those factors. To answer this question, the available scientific evidence was summarized and more than 100 experts were consulted for their estimates of how much environmental risk factor contributes to the disease burden of 85 diseases.
This report summarizes the results globally, by 14 regions worldwide and separately for children. The evidence shows that environmental risk factors play a role in more than 80% of the diseases regularly reported by the World Health Organization.( World Health Organization 2006
ISBN 92 4 159382 2). The findings in this first multi-country review of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services in health care facilities are sobering. Drawing on data from 54 low- and middle-income countries, the report concludes that 38% lack access to even rudimentary levels of water, 19% lack sanitation and 35% do not have water and soap for hand washing
Contact tracing is defined as the identification and follow-up of persons who may have come into contact with a person infected with the Ebola virus. All close contacts should be monitored for 21 days following their last known exposure to the case, and be isolated if they become ill. A public health surveillance system should be in place to immediately detect and report cases of illness compatible with Ebola virus disease, or any other unusual health event possibly associated with the virus. Upon detection of a possible Ebola virus disease event, a rapid response team (or equivalent) should investigate, and conduct initial controls, including systematic contact tracing. An alert system should be in place at the following sites: health-care facilities, especially in major hospitals, major border crossings with already affected countries, including at land crossings, airports and seaports (Emergencies preparedness, response, WHO, 2015)
self-care deficit any of a group of NURSING DIAGNOSES approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as impaired ability to perform basic self-care (ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING) in the areas of feeding, bathing/hygiene, dressing/grooming, and toileting. Related factors include diminished strength and endurance, pain or discomfort, impaired mentation, neuromuscular disorder, depression, and anxiety. The defining characteristics for each functional level are readily observed and graded on a scale of 0 to 4. The suggested code for functional level classification is as follows: 0, Completely independent; 1, Requires use of equipment or device; 2, Requires help from another person for assistance, supervision, or teaching; 3, Requires help from another person and equipment or device; 4, Dependent; does not participate in activity.( North American Nursing Diagnoses Association, NANDA)
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and Public Health Units help prevent the onset of many chronic diseases and their devastating effects, by supporting the development of healthy environments and policies, and providing information and tools that help individuals develop healthy habits such as eating healthy, nutritious foods, being active every day, and being smoke-free. The government launched the Injury Prevention Strategy in 2007 to reduce preventable injuries in Ontario, taking a government-wide approach to injury prevention. Most injuries are not “accidents”. They are predictable and therefore preventable. (Ministry of health and long term care, Ontario. CA)
The definition of a slum is considered to be same as set forth by Islam, Mahbub, Nazem, Angeles & Lance (2005) , ‘A slum (is) thus defined as a neighborhood or residential area with a minimum of 10 households or a mess unit with at least 25 members with four of the following five conditions prevailing within it: predominantly poor housing; very high population density and room crowding; very poor environmental services, particularly water and sanitation facilities; very low socioeconomic status for the majority of residents and lack of security of tenure.’
Interpersonal relations between health care providers and young clients have long being cited as an important element for improving client up take of services, satisfaction and overall health outcomes. In an era of HIV and AIDS this forms a critical determinant to young people accessing sexual and reproductive health care. This study explores to what extent interpersonal relations form a barrier to young people’s access to and satisfaction of health services. The study draws on data from 200 client exit interviews and four in-depth interviews conducted with university students and university health care staff in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. While young people are aware of the importance of utilising STI, HIV and family planning services they experienced barriers in their relationship with providers. This served as a deterrent to their use of the health facility. Adequate training in interpersonal relations for youth-friendly service provision is essential in helping overcome communication problems and enabling providers to interact with young clients at a more personal level.( J Community Health. 2013 Feb;38(1):150-5)
Millery, M., Hall, M., Eisman, J., & Murrman, M. (2014). Using innovative instructional technology to meet training needs in public health: A design process. Health Promotion Practice, 15, 39S-47S
Last M.J., (1987), Public Health and Human Ecology, Appleton and Lange
Ofei Victoria and Abaka-Quansah Joyce, 2009, Principles of Public/Community health Nursing. Vol. 1&2 Adonai Publications, Accra
Tones, K. and Green, J. (2008) Health Promotion: Planning and Strategies, Sage, London.
Joint Committee on National Health Education Standards (2006) National Health Education Standards: Achieving Health Literacy, American School Health Association, Kent, Ohio
Miller-Keane,(2003), Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.
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Phillips C. (2009) What is cost-effectiveness? London: Hayward Medical Communications, 2009. 2.
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4. Application of concepts in current job
In my current job, incidence rate it helps to assess conditions very well and prepare to meet the incidental cases that may be reported to the hospital. It helps me to put in place necessary resources to meet any incoming challenge. After my monthly report now I calculate the incidence of the morbidity and make ready care appropriately.
Health promotion and education strategies have help me very to give health education clients effectively on various conditions. I provide health education to the hypertension and diabetic patients in the institution and the ward.
After taking history of patients I am able ascertain which level of prevention needed to ensure patient educated on to provide optimal health and to prevent further deterioration in diseases condition.
Contact tracing has help to identify possible people who might have gotten typhoid fever in the community. Family name was used to trace other family members of a man with typhoid perforation. It helps to identify possible infected person.
Nursing diagnoses is very essential in every nursing institution and my is no exception. Using nursing diagnoses is the best way to solve patient problems through nursing interventions.
5. Usefulness of the concept in the current world.
Incidence rate gives an expression of how a disease or injury occurs frequently in a population and defined as proportion of group initially free from disease, that develop the disease over a period of time. In all health settings in the world it helps in knowing how frequently certain conditions occur.
Health promotion helps to develop framework to promote action across sectors of health and health equity. It engages so many avenues in the world to ensure people have optimal health. Health promotion activities such as, school health and occupational health very essential in every part of the world.
Health education is a profession of educating people about health. Areas within this profession encompass environmental health, emotional health, and physical health, intellectual health, and spiritual health, social health. Health education helps people to become aware of their own health in the world.
Environmental health is very important in the world we live. There is a saying that ‘when the last tree dies the last man dies’ environmental pollution, noise pollution, chemical poisoning of water body and keeping the ecosystem intact will benefit every living being on earth. The world at large has this in mind and policies, health measures instituted to ensure this effect.
Contact tracing a vital part in epidemiology helps to promote and prevent diseases in the world. Communicable diseases to avoid spread. Contact tracing also help in science and health research to find solutions to existing diseases.
Prevention of diseases very significant in the modern world in other to avoid, control and sustain diseases and injuries all over the world. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of diseases and injuries are essential for health promotion.
Patients with deteriorating conditions cannot do their activities of daily living independently, cognitive impairment, and osteoarthritis needs assistant. Provision of nursing care/actions is worldly used to such patients. Nursing diagnosis is derived from presenting signs and symptoms to provide patient comfort and relaxation.
Good interpersonal relationship is very important in everywhere in the world. In our personal, community, professional field, and other business good relationship between people yield good results. In health good relationship build confidence between health worker and health recipient.