Condensation Design Modification and Purity Improvement of Methyl Bromide (MBr)

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project:

Title: “Condensation Design Modification and Purity Improvement of Methyl Bromide (MBr)”

1.2 Project Synopsis:

The research synopsis is the plan for your research project. It provides the rationale for the research, the research objectives, the proposed methods for data collection and recording formats and/or questionnaires and interview guides.

1.2.1 Problem defines:

Problem is defined as a difficulty occurs during the production of the methyl bromide and detail study about the purity improvement of product and to achieve optimum mutual adjustment for the production and beneficial for different industries.

• Adjust the exothermic reaction parameters can be controlled for maximum conversion and minimum by products formation.

• Adjust the condensation design system can be suggested for obtained pure product (MBr).

• Adjust other design system for the maximum conversion of product and reduce the impurities

1.2.2 Product detail

Product is Methyl Bromide is the most important chemical for the fertilizers industries; it is widely use in the fertilizers product use for the agriculture and other use for the production of different chemical products. There are many ways for the production of the MBr. Different industries use different method for production, most widely use raw material for MBr is methyl alcohol and bromine and sulphur powder. This project focus on improves the purity of product and also maximum conversion with minimum by-product formation and also focuses on improvement in condensation design

1.3 Description

Methyl Bromide

 IUPAC name:

• Bromomethane

 Properties:

Chemical formula ¬CH3Br

Molar mass 94.94g/mol

Appearance Colorless gas

Density 3.974g/ml

Melting point -93.66 0C, -136.590F, 179.49 K

Boiling point 3.50C,38.20F, 276.6 K

Solubility in water 15.22g/lit

Vapour pressure 190KPa

 Other properties:

• Methyl bromide is a colorless, non-flammable and oderless gas.

• Methyl bromide is produced naturally and synthetically.

 Hazardous effects:

• The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified methyl bromide as a “Restricted Use Pesticide” (RUP) because methyl bromide use as pesticide, only by certified applicators or persons under their specific condition.

• Methyl bromide having ability to destroy the ozone layer. Because of this Beginning January 1, 2005, production and use of methyl bromide will stop in the United States and it is produces for only emergency and critical uses.

• The major sources of methyl bromide in the environment are the oceans, biomass burning, and fumigation use.

• In short-term inhalation studies, methyl bromide is low in toxicity to mice and very low in toxicity to rats.

 Application:

• Methyl bromide is a Introduced as a pesticide in 1932, and it was first registered in the United States in 1961.

• The Farmers use MBr primarily for prevent a soil and kill nematodes, fungi, and other insecticide.

• Pesticide applicators also use methyl bromide to treat perishable commodities and buildings.

• Methyl bromide is a widely used in a various of pests including spiders, mites, fungi, plants, insects, nematodes, and rats.

• Methyl bromide is moderately toxic when fed to rats.

1.4 Project Background:

The following report first details the process we used to generate and evaluate possible solutions for the design improvement. Since this process resulted in the final design that we are going to build, the main focus of this report is to present an outline for the next phase of development of MBr, which is the actual construction and testing of the design. Specifications, we developed subsystems to accomplish the various requirements of the project, by combining extensive research with our collective engineering knowledge. Finally, we have selected an approach to the entire system that we believe will best satisfy the complete list of specifications.

The first aspect of our design that was addressed was the exothermic reaction parameters can be controlled for maximum conversion and minimum by products formation. Reaction parameters are mostly affecting the formation of the desired product or by-product and sludge. Second, Improve the condensation design system can be suggested for obtained pure product (MBr).

1.5 Parts include in production of MBr:

 Glass Lined Reactor:

• In starting the process first methanol and sulphur is take into the glass lined reactor.

• The sulphur is adding with the methanol for a catalytic purpose and then the bromine is stepwise added.

• The temperature is maintain between 55-6 0C, and continuous stirring apply.

 Distillation column:

• In the glass lined reactor after the end of the reaction the methyl bromide and other by product are produce.

• They will be separated in the distillation column (packed tower) so the produced methyl bromide vapour is cooled about 5 to10 0C by using the cooler.

 Round Bottom Flask:

• In this stage five round bottom flask are use, the first RBF is fill by caustic soda lime(CSL) which is remove the unreacted bromine.

• In the second RBF sulphuric acid used for the removing water particle from methyl bromide.

 Chiller:

• Here seven chiller use for the condensation purpose, in which vapour methyl bromide is converted into the liquid methyl bromide, and the temperature is about the -15 0C.

 Packing:

• Here packaging of liquid methyl bromide in different size of canes as per requirement.

1.6 Objective of project:

The main purpose of this project is to modification and develops of new design for the production of MBr for purity improvement and for economy reason.

The objectives are:

• To study of reaction parameter and improve reaction mechanism.

• To develop a new design for purity improvement.

• To develop a new design for reduce by-product formation.

• To improve condensation design for reduce product loss.

1.7 Scope of project:

Review various literatures about the production designs, function and its components.

• Learn various kind of equipment like reaction vessel, chiller, heat exchanger etc.

• Learn and study about the reaction parameter.

• Make changes in reaction parameters if possible.

• Failure analysis on design structure to identify the maximum capacity.

• Develop, fabricate and assemble all part in new design.

• Testing the final product.

1.8 Summary:

Summary of this chapter is generally about project background, problem statement, objective of the project and scope of the project in order to achieve the objectives as mentioned.

1.9 Project flow chart:

Fig. 1.9.1: flow chart

CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction:

Literature survey has been carried out to understand and get information about the project from the reference books, magazines, journals, technical papers and websites. One of the way from (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/) it helps us to generate ideas on new design. In this chapter, we want to discuss all the information that we found from many sources.

2.2 Methodology:

 Literature study

Make review on other design and focusing on how to make it simple and relevance to the project title.

 Conceptual design

Sketching several type of design based on concept that being choose. State the specification for all part.

 Equipment Selection

Selected the true equipment based on model design, criteria and specifications. Light, easy to joining and easy to manufacture. Assemble all the part to the design.

 Fabrication

Fabricate the different equipment according to the main function and design.

 Performance testing.

Purity of product, utility requirement, efficiency and product loss,

1.3 Common problems faced in current process:

 The common problems faced by producers by using current existing process are discussed below:

1. In existing process of manufacturing of MBr is done by using bromine and methyl alcohol and sulphur powder.

2. In this process exothermic reaction occurs and due to this undesirable hydrogen bromide is produce which causes impurity in final product.

3. Also due to improper reaction parameters which causes the unreacted bromine in final product.

4. Due to the impurity, unreacted bromine and other contamination yellowish final product is obtained.

5. Moreover that chiller is used for the condensation process in existing process, due to this improper condensation process some vapour portion of the MBr is present in the final product which causes the some amount of product loss in the form of vapour occurs. This can’t be economically viable.

2.4 Literature Survey

We have done our literature survey about production of methyl bromide and also about different condensation process and reaction mechanism by different patent and research papers also by different sources like Wikipedia and Google scholar etc.

Here, literature survey about production of MBr is given below:

• Manufacturing methyl bromide is done by the reaction of HBr with methanol.

• Methyl bromide produced by slowly distillation a solution of aqueous HBr acid and CH3OH and that such procedure avoided the byproduct formation which can occur when condensing agents, i.e. dehydrating agent, are employed. However, in many reactions a large amount of HBr acid is used for conversion of the CH3OH to MBr. Accordingly, In the manufacture of MBr is carry out the reaction in the presence of condensing agent, like phosphorus halide, sulphuric acid, etc. so fast and complete consumption of the CH3OH, and appreciably less by-product formation.

• We have found that presence of a reducing agent during the reaction of HBr with CH3OH causes more and complete reaction than it is occurs in the absence of such an agent under otherwise similar operating condition.

• Mixture of H2 is especially reactive with CH3OH. A mixture of H2 and HBr is prepared as just stated is far more reactive with CH3OH than it is a mixture of H2 and HBr in the same proportion produced by adding H2 to pure HBr but this mixture is somewhat more reactive than HBr alone with the CH3OH.

• It is believed that the mixture of H2 and HBr formed by the reaction of Br2 with excess H2 contains and retains for a long period of time small proportion of the H2 and/or HBr is a usually reactive form, but the invention is not restricted to this theory.

• In different tests on the production of CH3CH2OBr from CH3CH2OH and HBr, it was found that HBr alone was practically as reactive with the CH3CH2OH as it was the mixture of H2 and HBr formed by the reaction of Br2 with excess H2.

• The reaction of HBr with CH3OH is preferably carried out in vapour phase, but it may be carried out in liquid phase, for example by apply heating a solution of CH3OH in aqueous HBr acid, it is requirements that a gaseous reducing agent is found during the reaction and condensing agents like PXe, H2SO4, etc., be excluded from the zone of reaction.

• The reaction is starting in the absence of water at a large elevated temperature, like 40°-50° C., but is preferably carried out at higher temperatures, like temperatures of 50°-125° C. The HBr, CH3OH and the gaseous reducing agent is use in desired proportions, but it is usually most desirable and economical.

• Particularly when operating in vapour phase to apply between 1 and 1.2 moles of HBr per mole of alcohol and to pass into the reacting mixture sufficient gaseous reducing agent so that the latter is evolved with the MBr product. The reducing agent employed should be neutral or acidic, since a basic agent would react with the HBr. Examples of suitable gaseous reducing agents are H2, SO2, H2S and CO etc.

• Reaction occurs rapidly when carried out in vapour phase using a mixture of H2 and HBr produced by reacting Br2 and H2 in the presence of a reducing agent and HBr required. MBr is prepared as follows, Br2 and a molecular excess of\’ H2 is pass in mixture with one another at a temperature that they react instantly in mixing.

• Procedure for reaction is known, but we were mention that the Br2 and H¬2 can be reacted instantly as they flow into contact with one another so that to reduce accumulation of an explosive matter of the reactants. The mixture of H2 and HBr is passed from the HBr generator.

• It is heated to a temperature above 50° C. CH3OH is feed into the distilling column. The reaction that takes place results in the produce the MBr (which is evolved with the H2) and water, which absorbs HBr to form aqueous HBr acid.

• 1 and 1.2 moles of HBr per mole of alcohol is feed to the reaction so that a constant boiling HBr acid solution will be produced and evolution of appreciable HBr with the MBr product shell be avoid but the methanol and HBr employed in different proportions.

• The aqueous HBr acid is adding constantly from the bottom portion of the still so as to prevent its collected in excessive quantity, but a list of the aqueous acid is preferably maintained at its boiling temperature in the boiler of the still so as to reduce collection of unused alcohol in the acid liquor.

• Reaction between the alcohol and HBr acid possibly occurs to a slight region in the boiling acid liquor, it takes place largely and speedily in the vapour mixture of HBr and alcohol above the liquor. Thus, the alcohol reactant is possibly introduced near the centre or in the top portion of the distilling column so that it will descend into the zone of more reactivity while in concentrated form.

• This is possibly operated so that refluxes the alcohol and aqueous HBr acid. The gaseous mixture of MBr and H2 from the reaction mixture is chilled as it leaves the distilling column so that to condense any alcohol and the alcohol is returned to the reaction.

• MBr is separated from the H2 by conventional procedure, For example by chilling, possibly under pressure to liquefy the MBr or by extracting from the gaseous mixture with a solvent. Yields of MBr more than 90% of theoretical based on the CH3OH used, and more than 95% based on the alcohol used, are available by operating as described.

• The following table, which represent the results of four experiments on the production of MBr from CH3OH and HBr, propose certain advantages of the invention. All of the experiments is carried out under same operating conditions, instead of in run 1 of the table HBr alone is react with CH3OH, whereas in each of the runs 2-4 at reducing agent also was available, as required by the invention. The reducing agent employed in run 2 is H2 which is mix with pure HBr former to produce the latter to the reaction.

• The mixture of HBr and H2 contained 13% of the latter. In run 30.2% by volume of SO2 is mix with pure HBr former to produce the latter to the reaction. In run 4 a mixture of HBr and H2 containing about 15% of the latter, is produce by the combustion of H2 with Br2 and is passing directly from the combustion chamber to the reaction with CH3OH.

• The procedure in carrying out CH3OH near the centre of a distilling column and heated to a temperature of about 60°C and HBr or a gaseous mixture of HBr and the reducing agent into the pot of the still, at that time condensing and returning to the still column any CH3OH in the MBr vapour evolved. As the reaction occurs, the aqueous HBr acid produced is boiled under reflux in the still.

• In each run between 1.1 and 1.2 moles of HBr was passed into the reaction mixture per mole of CH3OH utilized. The reaction between CH3OH and HBr observed to take place largely in the distilling column. It is occurred also to some extent in the pot of the still.

• The MBr evolved was liquid and collected in a trap cooled with a mixture of acetone and solid carbon dioxide. The table gives the identity of the HBr containing gas fed into each reaction mixture and the yield of MBr, based both upon the total quantity of CH3OH employed and upon the alcohol consumed in the reaction.

TABLE

Run no. HBr-containing gas Percentage yield of CH3Br based on

CH3OH Employed CH3OH Consumed

1 Pure HBr 73.8 88.0

2 H2 mixed with HBr 86.0 94.6

3 S02 mixed with HBr 86.3 96.0

4 H2 and HBr mixture from reaction of

Br2 with excess H2 92.9 97.2

• From the above table, it will be seen that the presence of a gaseous reducing agent increases materially both the rate of reaction between HBr and CH3OH and the yield of MBr from the reaction. It will also be seen that these advantages are most pronounced when a mixture of H2 and HBr produced by the reaction of Br2 with excess H2 is used in the reaction.

• Other modes of applying the principle of the invention may be employed instead of those explained change being made as regards the method herein disclosed provided the step or steps stated in any of the following claims or the equivalent of such stated step or steps be employed.

We therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim as our invention:

1. In the production of MBr by reacting HBr with CH3OH in the substantial absence of dehydrating agents the step of carrying the reaction in the presence of a gaseous reducing agent.

2. In the production of MBr by reacting HBr with CH3OH in the absence of dehydrating agents, the step of carrying the reaction out in the presence of SO2.

3. In the production of MBr by reacting HBr with CH3OH in the absence of dehydrating agents, the step of carrying the reaction out in the presence of hydrogen.

4. In the production of MBr by reacting HBr with CH3OH in the absence of dehydrating agents, the steps of employing as a reactant HBr formed by the reaction of Br2 with H2 in the presence of excess H2 and of carrying the reaction between the HBr and CH3OH out in the presence of the excess H2.

5. In a method for producing MBr the steps of reacting Br2 with H2 to form a gaseous mixture of HBr and H2 and passing this gas mixture into mixture with CH3OH while heating the resultant mixture to a reaction temperature above 50°C. Whereby CH3OH is produced and evolved from the mixture.

6. In the method for producing MBr the steps of boiling an aqueous HBr acid solution under reflux while introducing to the solution a freshly produced mixture of HBr and H2 (which mixture is produced by the reaction of Br¬2 with H2 in the presence of an excess of the latter) simultaneously introducing CH3OH into mixture with the vapour above the boiling HBr acid and collecting the MBr involved from the reaction mixture.

2.5 Conclusions Derived From Literature Review

Presented literature survey summarizes that change in reaction parameter is very difficult or not possible, but we can improve condensation design.

• The objectives of the design and fabrication of a new condensation process is to reduce the product loss and proper condensation.

CHAPTER-3

ELEMENT OF PRODUCTION OF MBr

3.1 ELEMENTS

• GLASS LINED REACTOR

• DISTILATION COLUNM (PACKED TOWER)

• ROUND BOTTOM FLASK

• CHILLER

• STORAGE TANK

• COOLER

• HEATER

• VALVES

• PUMP

• PAKAGING MACHINE

3.2 PROCESS DISCRIPTION

• At beginning methanol is charged in glass lined reactor, then adding sulfur powder for catalytic purpose, and add bromine water in stepwise. During this reaction maintain 550C -600C temp in glass lined reactor. Here heat applied by hot water coil surrounding the reactor. Also continuous stirrer applied during process.

• Vapour mass of reactor is passing through the distillation column; here packed distillation column is used. In distillation column unreacted methanol is recovered. Here cooler is use for the reduce vapour temp up to 400C.Then vapour is passed from the round bottom flask.

• Total 5 RBF is used; in first RBF collect the vapour from distillation column by applying vacuum, then vapour is drown in to second RBF, here caustic soda lime liquid present in second RBF which causes the removal of the unreacted bromine and hydrogen bromide vapour. Now vapour is collected in third RBF by applying vacuum.

• In fourth and fifth RBF H2SO4 is already present, then vapour from third RBF is passing through them which removing water particles present in MBr vapour.

• At that point vapour temp near about 400C. Now this MBr vapour is passing through the condensation unit.

• In condensation unit total 7 chiller is used in which MBr vapour is converted in to liquid MBr. Here temp is maintaining up to -150C. This liquid MBr is stored in stainless steel tank. And also maintain temp -150C in storage tank.

Now it is sent to packaging section. Here below fig is shows the actual process.

CSL H2SO4

Cooler

Distillation column

er

Sulfur powder + CH3OH

Chiller

\\ Br2

GLR

H2SO4

GLR Hot water tank

Receiver (S.S) MBR (S.S.)

FIG 1.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM OF PRODUCTION OF MBr WITH CHILLER

CHEPTER-4

POSSIBLE SOLUSION

4.1 POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR THE PROBLEM

From different literature survey, research papers, patent and help from internal and external guide we have found a new possible solution for the proper condensation process.

4.2 Detailed Solution

In our existing process we use seven chiller for condensation purpose, during this process condensation was not occur properly, so in this process the vapour of methyl bromide is not converted properly

Due to this problem we recommended to use of heat exchanger for condensation of methyl bromide behalf of chiller.

Here the we will use two heat exchanger capacity of 20 m2 & 10 m2 respectively.

4.2.1 Process Description

 Process description after modification

• At beginning methanol is charged in glass lined reactor, then adding sulfur powder for catalytic purpose, and add bromine water in stepwise. During this reaction maintain 550C -600C temp in glass lined reactor. Here heat applied by hot water coil surrounding the reactor. Also continuous stirrer applied during process.

• Vapour mass of reactor is passing through the distillation column; here packed distillation column is used. In distillation column unreacted methanol is recovered. Here cooler is use for the reduce vapour temp up to 400C.Then vapour is passed from the round bottom flask.

• Total 5 RBF is used; in first RBF collect the vapour from distillation column by applying vacuum, then vapour is drown in to second RBF, here caustic soda lime liquid present in second RBF which causes the removal of the unreacted bromine and hydrogen bromide vapour. Now vapour is collected in third RBF by applying vacuum.

• In fourth and fifth RBF H2SO4 is already present, then vapour from third RBF is passing through them which removing water particles present in MBr vapour.

• At that point vapour temp near about 400C. Now this MBr vapour is passing through the condensation unit.

• In condensation unit total 2 heat exchanger is used in which MBr vapour is converted in to liquid MBr. Here temp is maintaining up to -150C. This liquid MBr is stored in stainless steel tank. And also maintain temp -150C in storage tank.

• Now it is sent to packaging section. Here below fig is shows the actual process.

CSL H2SO4

Cooler Shell & Tube H.E

Distillation Column (20m2)

Sulfur powder + CH3OH S&T.

Br2 (10m3)

GLR

H2SO4

Hot Water Tank

Receiver (S.S) MBR (S.S)

FIG 2.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM OF PRODUCTION OF MBr WITH HEAT EXCHANGER

CHAPTER-5

IMPURITY PROBLEM

 Problem define

• We have found that there is some amount of impurity found in final product due to the some unreacted raw material, and by-products.

• Due to this problem we must have solve this by change in reaction parameter or my addition or modification of design.

 Literature review

We have done our literature survey about production of methyl bromide and also about different condensation process and reaction mechanism by different patent and research papers also by different sources like Wikipedia and Google scholar etc.

Here, literature survey about production of MBr is given below:

• Manufacturing methyl bromide is done by the reaction of HBr with methanol.

• Methyl bromide produced by slowly distillation a solution of aqueous HBr acid and CH3OH and that such procedure avoided the byproduct formation which can occur when condensing agents, i.e. dehydrating agent, are employed. However, in many reactions a large amount of HBr acid is used for conversion of the CH3OH to MBr. Accordingly, In the manufacture of MBr is carry out the reaction in the presence of condensing agent, like phosphorus halide, sulphuric acid, etc. so fast and complete consumption of the CH3OH, and appreciably less by-product formation.

• We have found that presence of a reducing agent during the reaction of HBr with CH3OH causes more and complete reaction than it is occurs in the absence of such an agent under otherwise similar operating condition.

• Mixture of H2 is especially reactive with CH3OH. A mixture of H2 and HBr is prepared as just stated is far more reactive with CH3OH than it is a mixture of H2 and HBr in the same proportion produced by adding H2 to pure HBr but this mixture is somewhat more reactive than HBr alone with the CH3OH. The reaction of HBr with CH3OH is preferably carried out in vapour phase, but it may be carried out in liquid phase, for example by apply heating a solution of CH3OH in aqueous HBr acid, it is requirements that a gaseous reducing agent is found during the reaction and condensing agents like PXe, H2SO4, etc., be excluded from the zone of reaction.

• The reaction is starting in the absence of water at a large elevated temperature, like 40°-50° C., but is preferably carried out at higher temperatures, like temperatures of 50°-125° C. The HBr, CH3OH and the gaseous reducing agent is use in desired proportions, but it is usually most desirable and economical.

• Particularly when operating in vapour phase to apply between 1 and 1.2 moles of HBr per mole of alcohol and to pass into the reacting mixture sufficient gaseous reducing agent so that the latter is evolved with the MBr product. The reducing agent employed should be neutral or acidic, since a basic agent would react with the HBr. Examples of suitable gaseous reducing agents are H2, SO2, H2S and CO etc.

• Reaction occurs rapidly when carried out in vapour phase using a mixture of H2 and HBr produced by reacting Br2 and H2 in the presence of a reducing agent and HBr required. MBr is prepared as follows, Br2 and a molecular excess of\’ H2 is pass in mixture with one another at a temperature that they react instantly in mixing.

• It is heated to a temperature above 50° C. CH3OH is feed into the distilling column. The reaction that takes place results in the produce the MBr (which is evolved with the H2) and water, which absorbs HBr to form aqueous HBr acid.

• 1 and 1.2 moles of HBr per mole of alcohol is feed to the reaction so that a constant boiling HBr acid solution will be produced and evolution of appreciable HBr with the MBr product shell be avoid but the methanol and HBr employed in different proportions.

• The aqueous HBr acid is adding constantly from the bottom portion of the still so as to prevent its collected in excessive quantity, but a list of the aqueous acid is preferably maintained at its boiling temperature in the boiler of the still so as to reduce collection of unused alcohol in the acid liquor. Reaction between the alcohol and HBr acid possibly occurs to a slight region in the boiling acid liquor, it takes place largely and speedily in the vapour mixture of HBr and alcohol above the liquor. Thus, the alcohol reactant is possibly introduced near the centre or in the top portion of the distilling column so that it will descend into the zone of more reactivity while in concentrated form.

• This is possibly operated so that refluxes the alcohol and aqueous HBr acid. The gaseous mixture of MBr and H2 from the reaction mixture is chilled as it leaves the distilling column so that to condense any alcohol and the alcohol is returned to the reaction.

• From the above literature survey we have found that the impurity is due to the unreacted bromine.

• For the removal of the unreacted bromine we can use any solvent, which is reacts with the unreacted bromine.

• And then by using of any purification method we can purify the final product.

5.3 Conclusions Derived From Literature Review

• Presented literature survey summarizes that change in reaction parameter is very difficult or not possible, but we can improve condensation design.

• The objectives of the design and fabrication of a new condensation process is to reduce the product loss and proper condensation.

CHEPTER-6

POSSIBLE SOLUSION

6.1 POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR THE PROBLEM

From different literature survey, research papers, patent and help from internal and external guide we have found a new possible solution for the proper purification process.

6.2 Detailed Solution

• In our existing process we can use GLR, distillation process, also RBF process and condensation process.

• But in this process impurity in the final product present.

• Due to this problem we recommended to use of distillation column and another heat exchanger.

• Here, we recommended use packed column (30 feet) heat exchanger capacity of 20 m2.

6.2.1 Process Description

 Process description after modification

• At beginning methanol is charged in glass lined reactor, then adding sulfur powder for catalytic purpose, and add bromine water in stepwise. During this reaction maintain 550C -600C temp in glass lined reactor. Here heat applied by hot water coil surrounding the reactor. Also continuous stirrer applied during process.

• Vapour mass of reactor is passing through the distillation column; here packed distillation column is used. In distillation column unreacted methanol is recovered. Here cooler is use for the reduce vapour temp up to 400C.Then vapour is passed from the round bottom flask.

• Total 5 RBF is used; in first RBF collect the vapour from distillation column by applying vacuum, then vapour is drown in to second RBF, here caustic soda lime liquid present in second RBF which causes the removal of the unreacted bromine and hydrogen bromide vapour. Now vapour is collected in third RBF by applying vacuum.

• In fourth and fifth RBF H2SO4 is already present, then vapour from third RBF is passing through them which removing water particles present in MBr vapour.

• At that point vapour temp near about 400C. Now this MBr vapour is passing through the condensation unit.

• In condensation unit, Total two heat-exchanger is used in which MBr vapour is converted in to liquid MBr. Here temp is maintaining up to -150C. This liquid MBr is stored in stainless steel tank. And also maintain temp -150C in storage tank.

• After suggestion of S&T heat exchanger for better condensation of MBr. We suggest new technique for purity improvement of MBr.

• In new technique, MBr is taken from stainless steel storage tank in stainless steel Vessel.

• In stainless steel Vessel two inlets and two outlets provide. In first inlet MBr is feed into vessel, in second inlet mixture of NaOH & Soda ash is feed. First outlet is providing for vent gases and second outlet is for reacted mixture of MBr, NaOH and soda ash mixture.

• In this stainless steel vessel impure MBr is react with mixture of NaOH & Soda ash. During this reaction heat is provide by hot water circulation.

• Due to the reaction of mixture, unreacted Br2 is removing from the product MBr.

• Now product mixture is passing through the packed distillation column.

• Boiling point of MBr is low compare to the mixture so due to the heating, first of all pure MBr vapour is generated which is pass through distillation column( Packed Tower) which is 30 ft. long.

• At the end of packed tower, Shell and tube heat exchanger is providing in which MBr vapour is converted in to liquid MBr. Here temp is maintaining up to -150C. This liquid MBr is stored in stainless steel tank. And also maintain temp -150C in storage tank.

• Now it is sent to packaging section. Here below fig is shows the actual process.

FIG 3

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM OF PRODUCTION OF MBr WITH HEATEXCHANGER AND PACKED TOWER

 CONCLUSION

• After literature survey and other sources we concluded that change in reaction parameter is can’t be possible, but by modifying the condensation process we can reduce the loss.

• Also we can reduce the impurity by modifying design.

Source: Essay UK - https://www.essay.uk.com/essays/science/condensation-design-modification-purity-improvement-methyl-bromide-mbr/


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