Essay: Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis is an economic alternative over chemical and physical methods for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles [1]. The nanoparticles were extensively used in consumer products such as tires, textiles, cosmetics, food industries and in medical devices [2]. Several approaches are in practice to generate AgNPs, such as, chemical, electrochemical, photochemical and radiation [3-6]. However, still there is an increasing demand to develop high-yield, low cost, non-toxic and environmentally friendly procedures. Therefore, the biological [7] approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles becomes essential.
Nanoparticles have created much more impact in recent years in the areas of chemical, electronic, and biological sciences [8, 9]. The silver nanoparticles have reported strong antimicrobial [8], anti-inflammatory [10], anti-viral [11], anti-angiogenesis [12] and anti-platelet activity [13]. Recently, the organic and inorganic nanoparticles finding medical applications in an area of continued interest [14]. The new drugs are synthesized from nanoparticles of polymers, metals or ceramics, which can fight against cancer and kills human pathogens like bacteria, fungi and viruses [15]. Now, phytosynthesis of nanoparticles is gaining more importance due to its simple experimental procedure and eco-friendliness [16].
The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is advantageous over chemical synthesis concerning adverse effect of hazardous chemicals on environment. Therefore, there is need to develop a method that can eliminate such problem; a green process of nanoparticle synthesis can be a solution for this problem. There are different natural sources like plants, bacteria, fungi and yeast that are used for synthesizing gold and silver nanoparticles [17, 18]. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using plant extracts has been evolved in recent years into the branch of nanotechnology. The use of leaf extract is inexpensive and eliminates the requirement for special culture preparations and maintenance of aseptic condition that are required for microbes [19].
Syzygium cumini, is an evergreen, slow growing tropical tree in the flowering plant family. It can reach heights of up to 30 m and can live more than 100 years [20]. The fruit has a very long history of use for various medicinal purposes and currently has a large market for the treatment of chronic diarrhea and other enteric disorders [21]. The antimicrobial potential of silver nanoparticles is applicable in immense area of biology and medicine to prevent infections in burns and open wounds [22].
The present study aims to investigate the biosynthesis of AgNPs from extract of Syzygium cumini and evaluation of its antibacterial and chemocatalytic potential.

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