Essay: Cell components

The animal and plant cell are composed of organelles that are almost the same. From the ribosomes to mitochondria, both cells have it. However, they still have differences too; animal cell doesn’t have any cell wall while plants have it.

Below are the organelles that animal and plant cells have.

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ORGANELLE

CELL MEMBRANE

Structure: The cell membrane is known as a mosaic because it is consists of different parts. It is flexible and is somewhat a fluid structure to allow other organelles to float and move sideways inside.

Function: The cell membrane acts as a barrier of the cell from its surrounding. It also protects and regulates the interchange of materials.

MITOCHONDRIA

Structure: The mitochondria surrounded by two membranes; outer and inner membrane. These membranes are made up of proteins and phospholipids. Also, it is a rod-shaped structure.

Function: The most important function of it is to produce energy that is why it is also called the ‘power’ or ‘battery’ of the cell.

NUCLEUS

Structure: The nucleus is made up ‘of a nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, nucleolus and chromosomes’.

Function: The nucleus is the command centre of a cell. This is common in eukaryotic cells. It contains genetic information of the cell and also controls growth and reproduction.

NUCLEOLUS

Structure: The nucleolus is a round shape structure that is inside the nucleus.

Function: Its function is to produce ribosomes which produces protein for the cell,

NUCLEAR MEMBRANE

Structure: The nuclear membrane have two layers; outer and inner, that wraps the parts of the nucleus.

Function: Its main purpose is to keep and protect the DNA that is inside the nucleus from the outer organelles in the cytoplasm.

GOLGI BODY

Structure: Golgi bodies are the most important organelle for eukaryotic cells. It is a sac-like organelle.

Function: Its function is to transform, sort, and transport the ‘macromolecules’ created by the cells. It also creates lysosomes.

RIBOSOMES

Structure: Ribosomes are tiny particles approximately ‘200 ‘??. It is made up of proteins and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). It is found in two sections of the cytoplasm; cytoplasm and with the endoplasmic reticulum.

Function: Its main function is to produce proteins.

LYSOSOMES

Structure: The lysosome is a round-shaped organelle and its outer surface is only consist of a single membrane.

Function: The lysosome is known as the ‘rubbish disposal unit’ of the cell since it breaks-down and dispose harmful worn-out materials from the cell.

SMOOTH RETICULUM

Structure: The smooth reticulum is made up of slippery smooth fats and is not covered with ribosomes that’s why it is flat.

Function: Its function is to produce and metabolise steroid hormones and fats.

ROUGH RETICULUM

Structure: On the other hand, rough reticulum is covered with ribosomes that is why it is known as ‘rough’.

Function: Its function is also to produce protein and protein folding. It also function to transport proteins.

CYTOPLASM

Structure: Cytoplasm is the fluid where all the organelles float on.

Function: Its function is important because the expansion and growth of a cell takes place here.

Source: Essay UK - https://www.essay.uk.com/essays/science/essay-cell-components/


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