A wide variety of both inorganic and organic pollutants are presented in the effluents from breweries, tanneries, dyeing, textiles, papers and pulp mills, steel industries and mining operations etc. The pollutants are including oils, greases, plastics, plasticizers, metallic wastes, suspended solids, phenols, toxins, acids, salts, dyes, cyanides and DDT etc., Those are not readily susceptible to degradation and thus causes made on serious pollution problems. Sulphuric acid acts an acid waste from the coal mines which is a serious pollutant that increased the hardness of water and made disastrous effect in the living organisms and corrodes concrete Na, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb etc.,.These are the heavy metal effluents discharged from industries.
This attempt has been made to find out in the impact of dyeing effluent on ground water at a particular area and also to know about the quality of dyeing effluents after the treatment of using RO plant. The effect of effluent from Dyeing industry at Chellandipalayam in Karur where discharging through the drain into the water resources. The ground water is highly polluted. During the rainy season the rain water collected in the water resources which are the main sources of ground water to the wells, bore wells located around the district of Karur . In the rainy season, the rain water mixed with Dyeing effluent , sewage into the ground water and reached the wells and bore wells. In turning of the quality of water is easily affected through this way. It makes the water hard with high TDS and unfit for drinking, domestic and agricultural uses.
An analysis has been carried on the toxic heavy metals present in the dyeing Industry effluent and the ground water of quality parameters in the water resources in and around the dyeing units at Chellandipalayam. The quality of effluent water used to after the treatment of using RO Plant. A suitable remedial measure for the treatment of polluted ground water using reverse osmosis technology has been proposed.
Keywords: Chellandipalayam, pollutant, dyeing effluent, reverse osmosis, toxic heavy metal,
Water and Life
Without water there is no life. The human body contains about 70% water. All body of mechanism in animals and plants depended on only water as a media. Some of the salts naturally present in water serves as nutrients and are essential for the Junctions and growth of body. About 97% of water availed on the earth’s crust which is the saltiest and non-potable and another 2%of water is available on Polar ice. but the contaminated Water is making so many causes on illness of health and spreading the diseases. About 80% of human diseases are spreading only unpurified water.
Water Quality Parameters
Parameters decides the quality of water may be classified as follows:
Substances Dissolved in Water
About 2,000 chemical contaminants have been so far found in water resource. This Water may naturally contain about 15 to 20 parameters only. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) adds the sum of all dissolved chemicals presented in the water resource.
Total dissolved Solids (TDS)
About 97-99% of TDS of natural water is contributed only by the six major ions i.e. Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Bicarbonate, Chloride and Sulfate.
The balance of TDS is contributed by a number of contaminants like Iron, Manganese, Potassium, Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate, Fluoride, Phosphate, Trace metals and organic substances.
In addition the permissible limit of TDS 1OO mg//1. it may be relaxed upto 2000mg/l with the absence of better alternative sources are included here.
Total Dissolved Solids in some waters
Rain water – 1-50 mg/1
Surface water in hills – 10-100 mg/l
Surface water in plains – 100-1000 mg/1
Ground water – 500-5000 mg/1s
Ground water polluted by tannery – 10000-20000 mg/1
Sea water – 35000 mg/1
Bottled (mineral) water – 100-300 mg/1
Permissible Limit – 500 mg/1
Maximum allowable Limit – 2000 mg/1
WATER QUALITY IN WATER SOURCES
Ground Water has – high TDS, low turbidity, less bacteria
Surface water has – low TDS, high turbidity, more bacteria
Heavy metal Pollution`
Motivation of controlling heavy metal concentrations in gas streams is diverse. Some of them are dangerous to health or the environment (e.g. mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium), some may cause the corrosion (e.g. zinc, lead), some are harmful in other ways (e.g. arsenic may pollute catalysts). European community has been provided the thirteen elements of the highest concerns are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, tin, and thallium, the emissions are regulated in waste incinerators. Some of these elements are actually necessary for human within the minute amounts (cobalt, copper, chromium, manganese, nickel). While others are carcinogenic or toxic, affecting, to among others. The central nervous system may be added the (manganese, mercury, lead, arsenic), the kidneys or liver (mercury, lead, cadmium, copper) or skin, bones, or teeth (nickel, cadmium, copper, chromium).
Heavy metal pollution could be provided in many sources but most commonly arises from the purification of metals, e.g., the smelting of copper and the preparation of nuclear fuels. An electroplating is one of the primary sources of chromium and cadmium. Through precipitation of their compounds or by ion exchanged into the soils and muds, heavy metal pollutants can be localized and lay dormant. Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals do not decay and thus pose a different kind of challenging for remediation. Currently, plants or microrganisms are tentatively used to remove some heavy metals such as mercury. Plants which exhibits the hyper accumulation can be used to remove the heavy metals from soils by concentrating them in their bio matter. Some treatment of mining tailings has been occurred where the vegetation is then incinerated to recover the heavy metals.
One of the largest problems associated with the persistence of heavy metals are the potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification causing heavier exposure for some organisms than the environment alone. Coastal fish (such as the smooth toadfish) andseabirds (such as the Atlantic Puffin) are often monitored by the presence of such contaminants.
Ground water pollution
Ground water pollution may be defined as the artificially induced degradation of natural ground water quality. Pollution can impaired the use of water and can create some hazards to public health through the toxicity or the spreading of diseases. Most pollution originates from the disposal of waste water by following the use of water of wide variety of purposes.
Thus a large number of source and causes can be the modify groundwater quality, ranging from septic tanks to irrigated agriculture. In contrast with the surface water pollution, sub surface water pollution are difficult to detect, and even more difficult to control of them. It may persist for decades with the growing recognition of the importance of under ground water resources and their efforts are increasing to prevent, reduce and eliminate groundwater pollution.
Factors affecting groundwater pollution:
The extent of ground water pollution depends on the following factors.
1. Rainfall pattern
2. Depth of water table
3. Distance from the source of contamination and
4. Soil properties such as texture, structure and filtration rate.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Eight water samples of different sites were collected from the different areas of karur in chelladipalayam region. The water samples were extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. The samples were collected in high grade plastic bottles of one liter capacity after rinsing with Distilled water. Their techniques and methods were followed by the collection, preservation, analysis and interpretation.
The physicochemical characteristics of the ground water samples were determined by standard methods .The pH, Electrical conductivity, Nitrate were measured by using portable meters. The concentrations on Magnesium, Calcium hardness, total hardness were estimated by the volumetric methods and their results are compared with Water standards.
Location of sampling stations:-The samples were collected from villages of different regions