Essay: The Bugs Project

Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound ocular perceivers and one pair of antennae.

What makes a bug an insect?
3 body parts; a head, thorax and abdomen
1-2 pairs of wings attached to the thorax
3 pairs of legs attached to the thorax
1 pair of antennae attached to the head

Things that are NOT Insects: Some things may be bugs, but are erroneous insects. These include spiders and centipedes ‘ who are authentically in a group with crabs and lobsters and slugs and snails ‘ who are genuinely in a group with clams and oysters.
Mouth components that bite, suck, perforate, lap, sip or rasp. There are over 1 million identified species of insects and spiders in the world with many more awaiting revelation. Insects provide a mostly overlooked – and often times misunderstood – window into our fragile ecosystem that involves perfect balance of millions of components. In many ways, insects sanction our comfortable world to subsist through providing consumable goods, subsidiary consumer products and answers to lingering scientific questions – understanding insects is a diminutive step in understanding the very world you live in. Insects are a component of a more immensely colossal animal group called arthropods. The word Arthropod literally betokens jointed limbs. The arthropods are the first animal group to have jointed legs.
Insects have certain characteristics. They have six legs. They have three body components, a head, a thorax and an abdomen. They have wings. They are by far the most immensely colossal animal group. They withal have an outer or exoskeleton composed of a substance called chitin.There are over 700, 000 species of insects. While they are relatively minuscule in size compared to many animal groups, they are well acclimated to their environments. Most insects live on land.All insects grow from eggs. They go through sundry stages until they reach adulthood. This transformation through these stages is called metamorphosis. Insects undergo either consummate
or.incomplete metamorphosis.The dragonfly, termite, grasshopper and true bug undergo incomplete metamorphosis. In this process there are three stages called egg, nymph and adult. When the nymph hatches from the egg, it looks akin to the adult insect except it is more minuscule, has no wings and cannot reproduce yet. As the nymph grows it outgrows its outside skeleton and it is shed. It then regrows an incipient one. This transpires an abundance of the times afore it conclusively becomes an adult.Insects like the butterfly, bee, ant, beetle and fly undergo consummate metamorphosis. This involves four stages: egg, larvae, pupae and adult. The larvae looks homogeneous to a worm and hatches from the egg. As it grows, it withal sheds it skin. It then grows into a pupa. While the pupa doesn’t kinetically bypass like the larva, it does eventually at this stage change from an immature form to adult form.
There is another group within the arthropods called the arachnids. The arachnids are spiders, scorpions, etc. The annelids are akin to insects. However, they have eight legs. Their wings are quite different from those of the insects.The number of insect species is believed to be between six and ten million.Insect bodies have three components, the thorax, abdomen and head.Insects have two antennae.Insects have three pairs of legs.Some insects, such as gerridae (dihydrogen monoxide striders), are able to ambulate on the surface of dihydrogen monoxide.Bees, termites and ants live in well organized convivial colonies.Only male crickets chirp.Insects are algid blooded.Silkworms are utilized as the primary engenderer of silk.Most insects hatch from eggs.Some cicadas can make sounds proximately 120 decibels loud.The life cycle of a mosquito features four stages, egg, larva, pupa and adult.Female mosquitoes drink blood in order to obtain nutrients needed to engender eggs.Spiders are not insects.Bees are found on every continent except Antarctica.Ants leave trails and communicate with each other utilizing pheromones as chemical signals.Looking at Insect Traits: A good sample insect is the grasshopper. It has all the traits of a typical insect plus some other intriguing features.They heedfully aurally perceive with a type of eardrum on its sides.They have grinding mouthparts for victualing grass and a grinding gizzard to further breakdown its pabulum.They have diminutive apertures all over the body called spiracles through which they breathe.They go through what is called “incomplete metamorphosis’ which denotes that they hatch out looking marginally like an adult but more minute (this is called an instar) and gradually shed their hard outer layer (exoskeleton) as they grown (an abundance of times) into the adult size and form. This is the Insect’s System how they work and what they do.
1).Muscular-Skeletal -A insect has an outer skeleton. The skeleton has three layers: the outer It has three pairs of legs and one or two pairs of wings. The legs are segmented and depending on the insect, may have a clawlike structure on the last segment. Insect muscles are connected to their outside skeleton and are generally gray.
2).Digestion -A insect has different kinds of mouths depending on the species. Some can chew, some can suck objects. The digestive system is a tube that goes from the mouth to the anus. It is divided into several sections, the foregut, the midgut and the hindgut.
3).Nervous-A insect has antennae that can be used to detect odors or to touch objects. Insects have two sets of eyes: simple eyes and compound eyes. The simple eyes have cornea, retina, pigment cells, etc.. There is a brain and nerve cells.
4).Circulation-A insect has a circulatory system that carries food, but not oxygen throughout its body. Since it does not carry oxygen, insect blood is green, not red like mammal blood. The insect heart is a simple tube running along their backs.
5).Respiration-A insect breathes through thoracic and abdominal spiracles. Since the insect has no lungs, the spiracles go throughout the insect body to give gases. Thus the insect bodies are relatively small.
6).Reproduction-A insect generally reproduces sexually, although not always. The female genitals are external or outside the body. The eggs are held in an ovipositor. The females’ internal sexual organs are ovaries and the males’ are testes that produce sperm.
7).Excretion-A insect passes food through its digestive system and the insect feces pass out of its anus from the hindgut.
8).Symmetry-A insect has bilateral symmetry.

Appearance The insect is generally relatively small. It can be many different colors depending on the species. Well some examples of insects and how they are such a diverse organism are Exoskeleton,Small Size,Flight,Reproductive Potential,Metamorphosis,Adaptability. The Exoskeleton works by insect’s supporting skeleton is located on the outside of its body. This exoskeleton is a marvelous structure that not only gives shape and support to the body’s soft tissues, but also provides protection from attack or injury, both arid and freshwater environments, and assures mechanical advantage to muscles for strength and agility in movement. As a “suit of armor”, the exoskeleton can resist both physical and chemical attack. In general, the insects are marvels of miniaturization. Most species are between 2 and 20 mm (0.1 – 1.0 inch) in length, although they range in size from giant moths that would nearly cover your computer screen to tiny parasitic wasps that could hide inside the period at the end of this sentence. Dichomorpha echmepterygis is the smallest of the small. Discovered in 1997, this Costa Rican wasp (family Mymaridae) is a parasite of other insects’ eggs. Adult males may be only 0.139 mm (0.00055 inch) in length — nearly 1/3 smaller than some single-celled protozoa. Next one is Flight
Insects are the only invertebrates that can fly. Judging from the fossil record, they acquired this ability about 300 million years ago — nearly 100 million years before the advent of the first flying reptiles. Flight gave these insects a highly effective mode of escape from predators.The forces of natural selection have shaped insect flight into a remarkably efficient process employing principles of aerodynamics that human engineers do not yet fully understand. This high efficiency is largely due to elasticity of the thorax — 90-95% of the potential energy absorbed by flexion of the exoskeleton is released as kinetic energy during the wing’s downstroke. Efficient use of energy allows some insects to travel great distances or remain airborne for long periods of time. More than 200 species, including moths, dragonflies, locusts, flies, and beetles are known to migrate over long distances by air. The next one is Reproductive success is one of the most significant measures of an organism’s fitness. In insect populations, females often produce large numbers of eggs (high fecundity), most of the eggs hatch (high fertility), and the life cycle is relatively short (often as little as 2-4 weeks).Together, these three characteristics enable insects to engender remarkably sizably voluminous numbers of progeny. A typical female lays 100-500 eggs in her lifetime, but numbers in the thousands are not (‘unusual’, ‘eccentric’, ‘unorthodox’, ‘unwonted’). The queen of an African termite colony may be the mother of more than ten million workers during her 20-25 year lifespan.Since most insects die afore they ever have an opportunity to reproduce, a high reproductive potential is the species’ best chance for survivalMost insects undergo paramount developmental changes as they grow from immatures to adults. These transmutations, collectively kenned as metamorphosis, may involve physical, biochemical, and/or behavioral alterations that promote survival, dispersal, and reproduction of the species. In the more primitive insects, most of these vicissitudes occur gradually as the animal matures. they often live in homogeneous habitats and aliment on kindred types of victuals. Last one is Adaptability A coalescence of astronomically immense and diverse populations, high reproductive potential, and relatively short life cycles, has equipped most insects with the genetic resources to habituate expeditiously in the face of a transmuting environment. Their record of achievement is impressive: they were among the first creatures to invade the arid expanses of dry land and exploit green plants as a source of pabulum, they were the first animals to utilize flight as an elusion from predators, and they were the first organisms to develop an involute convivial hierarchy with division of labor and cooperative care of the adolescent.Night butterflies have ears on their wings so they can avoid bats.
Monarch caterpillars shed their skin four times before they become a chrysalis, growing over 2700 times their original size.
There may be as many as 3,000 different kinds of insects ‘ more than all the other animal and plant species combined.
Of the huge numbers of insects, only a tiny amount, one percent, are harmful to humans. Most insects are harmless or actually beneficial. For example, without bees to pollinate flowers, plants would not have a way of reproducing and we wouldn’t have anything to eat!
Locusts can eat their own weight in food in a day. A person eats his own body weight in about half a year.
The earliest fossil cockroach is about 280 million years old ”?? 80 million years older than the first dinosaurs!
The desert locust is the world’s most destructive insect. It can eat it’s own weight in food every day. Large swarms can gobble up to 20,000 tons of grain and plants in a day.
The honeybee has to travel an average of 43,000 miles to collect enough nectar to make a pound of honey!
Out of every 1,000 Mosquitos, one female carries a disease that could be fatal to humans.Honeybees have hair on their eyes.The average housefly lives for one month.There is only one insect that can turn its head ‘ the praying mantis.
A slug has four noses.Some male spiders pluck their cobwebs like a guitar, to attract female spiders.A mosquito flaps its wings 500 times a second.Only male crickets can chirp.Baby robins eat 14 feet of earthworms every day!
About 80% of the Earth’s animals are insects!The common garden worm has five pairs of hearts.Dragonflies can fly up to 50 miles per hour.
The earliest fossil cockroach is about 280 million years old ‘ 80 million years older than the first dinosaurs!The praying mantis is the only insect that can look behind its shoulders.One kind of insect called a spittlebug, lays its eggs in a big nest of saliva bubbles. I guess no predator would look for a meal in there!
A snail can sleep for 3 years straight!The heaviest insect in the world weights 2.5 ounces.A cockroach can live for up to 3 weeks without its head!
A butterfly has its taste receptors in its feet!The mayfly only lives for 8 hours!
The female black widow’s poison is 15 times deadlier than a rattlesnake’s!
There are worms in Australia that are over 4 Feet Long!The weight of all the termites in the world outweigh the weight of all humans 10 to 1!. Bugs are so cool and yet we know so little about them. Here are just a handful of cool things we do know about bugs. Check back with us often. We will continuously add new and fascinating bug facts for you. The weight of all Americans is less than one fiftieth of the insects, earthworms, and spiders in the United States. Insects date back to over 300 million years! Based on various sampling, the total number of insect species is between 15 and 30 million. Some female cockroaches are devoted mothers, carrying their offspring in little pouches like kangaroos. One species even nourishes her young in the uterus with a milk rich in protein, carbohydrates, and fat. Out of the 4000 known species of cockroach only 20 types are classified as pests. A cockroach’s head will live and respond for at least 12 hours after the animal has been decapitated. The exoskeleton of a scorpion, made of chitin, reflects back ultraviolet rays and will glow pink or green under the moonlight or a black light. Fossilized scorpions still glow under ultraviolet after 300 million years.
* Scorpions can live for more than a year without eating. All insects are bugs but not all bugs are insects. An Insect has three body parts; a head, thorax, and abdomen. Insects have six legs and two antennae. Spiders and Scorpions have eight legs and are not considered insects. Got it? Mites and Ticks are Arachnids (they have eight legs) and are related to the Spider and Scorpion. Scientists believe the Mayfly is the most primitive present-day insect around. These insects are the most popular models for artificial flies. Dragonflies keep their wings spread out when at rest. Most Damselflies hold their wings together above their backs when they rest. They both eat mosquitoes are good to have around! You will never get bit by a male mosquito. Only the females bite! Mosquitoes are attracted to the carbon dioxide we breath out from our mouths. Mosquitoes must dilute the blood of their victim with their saliva before they can drink it. It is the saliva that causes the bite to itch Caterpillars aren’t the only ones to spin cocoons. Flea larvae pupate in a silken cocoon on the ground before turning into a real pest! Some female Giant Water bugs will ‘glue’ over one hundred eggs to the back of the male. He carries the eggs around for a week or so until they hatch. What a Dad! Beetles make up the largest order of living things with about 290,000 species known worldwide. Approximately 27,000 can be found in North America. Lightningbugs or Fireflies are not true bugs or flies. They are actually beetles. Scientists recently discovered that insects such as cockroaches and honeybees make collective decisions and use voting and quorums to help decide where to make their next home. The elevated carbon dioxide concentrations and increasing temperatures associated with climate change will have substantial impacts on plant-insect interactions, integrated pest management programs and the movement of nonnative insect species into California. Natural ecosystems will also be affected by the expected changes in insect diversity. Many insects will alter how much they eat in response to changing plant nutrition. Also, we can expect increased problems with many pest insects as they develop more rapidly in response to rising temperatures. If we hope to maintain sustainable agro-ecosystems and preserve native species in our natural ecosystems, we need to begin preparing now for the challenges of our changing environment.Insect Species
There are about 900,000 known insect species, three times as many as all other animal species together, and thousands of new ones are described each year. They are commonly grouped in 27 to 32 orders, depending upon the classification useds.

As u can optically discern this if how a flower bug made it commences if a egg then it get more immensely colossal and then it called nymphal stages and then it get to a adult and then the adult make a another eggs to stared an incipient life With incomplete metamorphosis, the nymphal stages look homogeneous to the adult except that they don’t have wings, and the nymphs may be colored differently than the adults. Nymphs and adults customarily live in the same kind of habitats. Incomplete metamorphosis is typical of true bugs and grasshoppers: consummate metamorphosis is typical of beetles, flies, moths, and wasps. the adolescent insects that go through consummate metamorphosis do not look akin to the adults, they often live In different habitats, and aliment on different things. Some moth and wasp larvae weave a silken shell (cocoon) to bulwark the pupa. In flies, the last larval skin becomes a puparium, a kind of hard shell, that forfends the pupa.

So this how a lady bug made it stared with a eggs then it called a larval stages then it get more sizably voluminous to a pupa then get to adult and yeah that it. Eggs are laid piecemeal or in masses, in or on plants, or even inside another insect! Eventually a larva or nymph emerges from the egg. There are conventionally several larval or nymphal stages, called instars. During each stage the nymph grows more astronomically immense and molts, or sheds its outer skin afore the next stage. They grow the most during the last one or two instars, or stages. All the growing transpires during the larval or nymphal stages. The eggs, pupae, and adults don’t grow in size.

Insects are gelid-blooded, so the rate at which they grow and develop depends on the temperature of their environment. Cooler temperatures cause slow magnification; higher temperatures expedite the growing process. If a season is sultry, more generations, or life cycles, might transpire than during a cool season.

Like any insect, stick insects have six legs, to antennae and their body is divided in three segments; head, thorax and abdomen. Virtually all stick insects have a body that is not exclusively designed for kineticism or efficiency, but withal designed for camouflage. Their body and legs are elongated to mimic a stick or straw. Other species have many projections on their legs and body to mimic leaves or other natural occurring material. On the picture here you can visually perceive the camouflage of an Australian stick insect.It hard to optically discern them in the wild because they are camouflage good but sometimes u can catch some. I cerebrate like bug it increments because how is look homogeneous to like they are an abundance of bug that doesn’t look homogeneous to this bug it look way better and KOOL for people to find one of this bugs.

This is a Extatosoma tiaratum stick insect in the process of shedding its skin.Stick insects occur on all continents except Antarctica. Their natural range is very broad; they occur at high and low altitudes, in temperate and tropical temperatures and in dry or wet conditions. Stick insects generally live in trees and bushes, but some species live entirely on grassland.Stick insects are nocturnal animals, betokening the are only active at night.

Relationship to humans.
1).In research
2).As food
3).In culture.

1).Insects play paramount roles in biological research. For example, because of its diminutive size, short generation time and high fecundity, the mundane fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism for studies in the genetics of higher eukaryotes. D.

2). In some cultures, insects, especially deep-fried cicadas, are considered to be delicacies, while in other places they compose part of the mundane diet. Insects have a high protein content for their mass, and some authors suggest their potential as a major source of protein in human alimentation.10’13 In most first-world countries, however, entomophagy (the victualing of insects), is taboo.Since it is infeasible to entirely eliminate pest insects from the human victuals chain, insects are inadvertently present in many foods, especially grains. Pabulum safety laws in many countries do not proscribe insect components in pabulum, but rather limit their quantity.

3).Scarab beetles held religious and cultural symbolism in Old Egypt, Greece and some shamanistic Old World cultures. The antediluvian Chinese regarded cicadas as symbols of renaissance or immortality. In Mesopotamian literature, the epic poem of Gilgamesh has allusions to Odonata which betoken the infeasibility of immortality. Amongst the Aborigines of Australia of the Arrernte language groups, honey ants and witchety grubs accommodated as personal clan totems.

Defense and predation.
Insects are mostly soft bodied, fragile and virtually defenseless compared to other, more astronomically immense lifeforms. The immature stages are diminutive, move gradually or are immobile, and so all stages are exposed to predation and parasitism. Insects then have a variety of bulwark strategies to evade being assailed by predators or parasitoids. These include camouflage, mimicry, toxicity and active bulwark.Camouflage is a paramount bulwark strategy, which involves the utilization of coloration or shape to coalesce into the circumventing environment. This marginally protective coloration is prevalent and widespread among beetle families, especially those that victual on wood or vegetation, such as many of the leaf beetles (family Chrysomelidae) or weevils.

Insect morphology
A- Head B- Thorax C- Abdomen
1. antenna
2. ocelli (lower)
3. ocelli (upper)
4. compound eye
5. brain (cerebral ganglia)
6. prothorax
7. dorsal blood vessel
8. tracheal tubes (trunk with spiracle)
9. mesothorax
10. metathorax
11. forewing
12. hindwing
13. mid-gut (stomach)
14. dorsal tube (Heart)
15. ovary
16. hind-gut (intestine, rectum & anus)
17. anus
18. oviduct
19. nerve chord (abdominal ganglia)
20. Malpighian tubes
21. tarsal pads
22. claws
23. tarsus
24. tibia
25. femur
26. trochanter
27. fore-gut (crop, gizzard)
28. thoracic ganglion
29. coxa
30. salivary gland
31. subesophageal ganglion
32. mouthparts

The life cycles of insects vary but most insects hatch from eggs. Insect magnification is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts. The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo 4-stage metamorphosis (optically discern holometabolism). Insects that undergo 3-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.The higher caliber relationship of the hexapoda is obscure. Fossilized insects of cyclopean size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm (22’28 in). The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants.They are among the most diverse groups of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than a moiety of all kenned living organisms. The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million,and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth.Insects may be found in proximately all environments, albeit only a minute number of species reside in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans.For many bugs, flying is the only way to peregrinate, providing access to pabulum that other creatures can’t reach, and a swift elusion from predators. More than 99.9 percent of the 900,000 species of insects on Earth are relegated as Pterygota, or winged insects. Entomologists verbally express these invertebrates (backboneless animals) were the first creatures to fly, dating from the Carboniferous period about 360 million years ago. Insect flight remained something of a mystery to scientists until recently. The diminutive size of insects, coupled with their high wing-beat frequency, made it proximately infeasible for scientists to observe the mechanics of flight. The invention of high-speed film sanctioned scientists to record insects in flight, and visually examine their forms of kineticism at super slow speeds. Such technology captures the action in millisecond Spikes snapshots, with film speeds of up to 22,000 frames per second.Some insects achieve flight through a direct action of a muscle on each wing. One set of flight muscles affixes just inside the base of the wing, and the other set annexes scarcely outside the wing base. When the first set of flight muscles contracts, the wing moves upward. The second set of flight muscles engenders the downward stroke of the wing. The two sets of flight muscles work in tandem, alternating contractions to move the wings up and down, up and down. Generally, the more primitive insects like dragonflies and roaches utilize this direct action to fly.

The Borneo walking stick (Phobaeticus kirbyi) can grow to up to 32 centimeters long, with another 14 centimeters if you measure the legs stretched out! But you might not see one, even if you are in Borneo and looking for them, since they closely resemble the slender tree branches they live on.

Goliath beetles (Goliathus) are the largest insects in terms of bulk and weight. They can reach over 4 inches long, which doesn’t sound like much, til you look at the picture. The beetles are native to the African tropics, where they subsist on tree sap and fruit. Goliath beetles can be kept as pets, just feed them dog food (but don’t expect them to come when called).

The Hercules beetle (Dynastes hercules) is a species of rhinoceros beetle that lives in South America. It can grow to over 6 inches in length (counting its horns), but its claim to fame is its strength. The Hercules beetle can support 850 times its own weight on its shell! This beetles eats only vegetation and is not aggressive, except to other Hercules beetles, when males fight each other over females.

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