Integrated Project Management

In Integrated Project management has the capacity to help plan, organize, and manage resource pools and develop resource estimates. Depending on the sophistication of the software, it can manage, estimate and planning, scheduling, cost control and budget management, resource allocation, communication, decision making and quality assurance.


Integrated Project management we can track project and manage project in efficient way. Higher authority can keep eye on it easy. They can provide proper resources and utilized the man power and can complete project on time.

' we can achieve different purpose like,

' Eyes on various projects simultaneous

' Track various projects

' Manage multiple projects

' Provide authority to levels of employees

' Assign work

' Top executive decides deadlines of projects

' Exchange files, messages or work done to team members

' Forward work done to upper level executive after task done

' Reminder alert before deadlines

' Executive can see status of work done

' Profile of employees

' Authority can create, edit and delete tasks

' Timeline Reports

' Mark employees statistics

' Report



The Integrated Project management System come be partitioned into several subsystems. For each of the subsystem, it has several functions.

Integrated Project management

Admin Project Manager Team Leader Employee

Figure No. 1.3 Vertical Partition of System




ASP.NET is more than the next version of Active Server Pages (ASP); it provides a unified Web development model that includes the services necessary for developers to build enterprise-class Web applications. While ASP.NET is largely syntax compatible with ASP, it also provides a new programming model and infrastructure for more scalable and stable applications that help provide greater protection. You can feel free to augment your existing ASP applications by incrementally adding ASP.NET functionality to them.

ASP.NET is a compiled, .NET-based environment; you can author applications in any .NET compatible language, including Visual Basic .NET, C#, and JScript .NET. Additionally, the entire .NET Framework is available to any ASP.NET application. Developers can easily

Access the benefits of these technologies, which include the managed common language runtime environment, type safety, inheritance, and so on.


' ASP.NET stands for Active Server Pages .NET and is developed by Microsoft.ASP.NET is used to create web pages and web technologies and is an integral part of Microsoft's .NET framework vision.

' As a member of the .NET framework, ASP.NET is a very valuable tool for programmers and developers as it allows them to build dynamic, rich web sites and web applications using compiled languages like VB & C#.

' ASP.NET is a web application framework developed and marketed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications & so on.

' ASP.NET is the next generation ASP, but it is not an upgraded version of an ASP. ASP.NET is an entirely new technology for server-side scripting.

'ASP.NET is a server side scripting technology that enables scripts (embedded in web pages) to be executed by an Internet server.'

' ASP.NET is a Microsoft Technology

' ASP stands for Active Server Pages

' ASP.NET is a program that runs inside IIS

' IIS (Internet Information Services) is Microsoft's Internet server

' IIS comes as a free component with Windows servers

' IIS is also a part of Windows 2000 and XP Professional.

New in ASP.NET

' Better language support

' Programmable controls

' Event-driven programming

' XML-based components

' User authentication, with accounts and roles

' Higher scalability

' Increased performance - Compiled code

' Easier configuration and deployment.

Advantages ASP.NET

You have the freedom of choosing from multiple languages (C#, VB.NET, C++, etc.)

' SQL Server is also very fast, secure, and it can store extremely large amounts of data; actually, there's no limit.

' With ASP.NET you get the whole .NET Class Library and the thousands of third party components as well. There are definitely much more third party components out there for .NET than for PHP.

' The Compiled Code (vs. PHP Interpreted Code) ' .NET compiles code, such as C#, into what its creators have termed MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language).

' In ASP.NET it's easy to use threads and builds asynchronous handlers in your server-side web code.

' With built-in Windows authentication and per-application configuration, your applications are safe and secured.

' It provides better performance by taking advantage of early binding, just-in-time compilation, native optimization, and caching services right out of the box.


Visual Studio 2010 integrated development environment (IDE) has been redesigned which, according to Microsoft, clears the UI organization and "reduces clutter and complexity. The new IDE better supports multiple document windows and floating tool windows, while offering better multi-monitor support. The IDE shell has been rewritten using the Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), whereas the internals have been redesigned using Managed extensibility Framework (MEF) that offers more extensibility points than previous versions of the IDE that enabled add-ins to modify the behavior of the IDE.

Visual studio 2008 is upgraded version of visual studio 2005. ASP.NET 3.5 and Visual Studio 2008 bring great new functionality around Web development and design that makes building standards based, next generation Web sites easier than ever. From the inclusion of ASP.NET AJAX into the runtime, to new controls, the new LINQ data capabilities, to improved support for CSS, JavaScript and others, Web development has taken a significant step forward.

Earlier, each Visual Studio release only supported a specific version of the .NET Framework. For example, VS 2003 only works with .NET 1.1, and VS 2005 only works with .NET 2.0.

One of the major changes with the VS 2008 release is to support what Microsoft calls "Multi-Targeting". This means that Visual Studio will now support targeting multiple versions of the .NET Framework, and developers will be able to take advantage of the new features that Visual Studio provides without having to migrate their existing projects and deployed applications to use a new version of the .NET Framework.

Now when we open an existing project or create a new one with VS 2008, we can pick which version of the .NET Framework to work with. The IDE will update its compilers and feature-set to match the chosen .NET Framework. Features, controls, projects, item-templates, and references that do not work with the selected version of the Framework will be made unavailable or will be hidden.

Front End: ASP.NET (C#)

ASP.Net, which is the .net version of ASP, is built on the Microsoft .Net Framework. Microsoft introduced the .Net Framework to help developers create globally distributed software with Internet functionality and interoperability.

ASP.NET has been developed to work seamlessly with HTML editors and other programming tools; including Microsoft Visual Studio .NET. Not only does this make Web development easier, but it also provides all the benefits that these tools have to offer. Also its code-behind feature allows designing not to be interfered with coding. This helps in systematic approach to the application.

Back End: Microsoft SQL Server 2008

Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database, it is a software product whose primary function is to store and retrieve data as requested by other software applications, be it those on the same computer or those running on another computer across a network (including the Internet). There are at least a dozen different editions of Microsoft SQL Server aimed at different audiences and for different workloads (ranging from small applications that store and retrieve data on the same computer, to millions of users and computers that access huge amounts of data from the Internet at the same time). Its primary query language is T-SQL and ANSI SQL.

SQL Server 2008 was released on August 6, 2008 and aims to make data management self-tuning, self organizing, and self maintaining with the development of SQL SERVER always on technologies, to provide near-zero downtime. SQL Server 2008 also includes support for structured and semi-structured data, including digital media formats for pictures, audio, video and other multimedia data. In current versions, such multimedia data can be stored as BLOBs (binary large objects), data: XML, email, time/calendar, file, document,

SQL SERVER 2008 also provides services like relational database, Reporting Services, Analysis Services & Integration Services.

Key Features Offered By SQL Server 2008

' Supports stored procedures, triggers, functions, and views

' Store all kinds of business data with native support for relational data, XML, FILESTREAM and spatial data

' Improved performance, usability, visualization, in addition to integration with the Microsoft 2007 Office System in SQL Server Reporting Services

' Simplify development efforts by leveraging existing T-SQL skills, ADO.NET Entity Framework and LINQ

' Closely integrated with Visual Studio and Visual Web Developer


For any organization to reach great heights and success can be obtained only by good corporation of employee between themselves and cooperation of head of organization with the employees so as to get the feedback from them and do necessary needs requires, this is nothing but a theoretical concept for intranet mailing system called as Corporate communication. In their early stages, when there was no such system people lacked knowledge about various design standards, definite structure of an information, support from other organizations so the employees lacked adequate information that they were looking into and therefore they couldn't reach their aim for a particular information.

In recent years, the organization has seen tremendous development due to Intranets to solve not only existing collaborative efforts and put all the online potential. To interpret the capability and efficiency of Intranet Mail Server, interviews, periodicals, previously accomplished case studies

And past personal experience, adopting these techniques this research shows that the corporate world is seeing Intranets as an important contributor towards reaching their corporate vision. This system not only reduces the cost of the computer mailing system but also provides information with greater speed and efficiency.

In the last few years Internet turns into complex part of everyday experience. It serves as a line of approach for personal or private communication worldwide. After the internet and world wide web arrives this field has been back into existence. Initially software makers concentrated on web browsers. The internet knowledge is shared among the people later. Then the software makers got an opportunity to involve corporate customer to design intranet. Then the storage of employee data on paper are reduced and also no need to go to the human resource office to update the personnel information.

Then there is a cut down in cost to afford the employees of an organization for the corporate meetings. Instead of that they have their meeting at their desks. In this process intranets are saving a number of hours and money and also improving corporate communication. If the communication is forever good then there is a growth in corporate culture. Intranets provide users to have quick access to resources in an organization. The corporations should be aware of success when they setup and intranet.



Project planning is part of project management, which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment.

Initially, the project scope is defined and the appropriate methods for completing the project are determined. Following this step, the durations for the various tasks necessary to complete the work are listed and grouped into a work breakdown structure. The logical dependencies between tasks are defined using an activity network diagram that enables identification of the critical path. Float or slack time in the schedule can be calculated using project management software. Then the necessary resources can be estimated and costs for each activity can be allocated to each resource, giving the total project cost. At this stage, the project plan may be optimized to achieve the appropriate balance between resource usage and project duration to comply with the project objectives. Once established and agreed, the plan becomes what is known as the baseline. Progress will be measured against the baseline throughout the life of the project. Analyzing progress compared to the baseline is known as earned value management.

A software development process, also known as a software development life cycle (SDLC), is a structure imposed on the development of a software product. Similar terms include software life cycle and software process. It is often considered a subset of systems development life cycle. There are several models for such processes, each describing approaches to a variety of tasks or activities that take place during the process. Some people consider a lifecycle model a more general term and a software development process a more specific term.

Waterfall Model approach was first SDLC Model to be used widely in Software Engineering to ensure success of the project. In "The Waterfall" approach, the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases. In Waterfall model, typically, the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the next phase sequentially.

Following is a diagrammatic representation of different phases of waterfall model.

Figure No. 2.1 Waterfall Model

The sequential phases in Waterfall model are:

' Requirement Gathering and analysis: All possible requirements of the system to be developed are captured in this phase and documented in a requirement specification doc.

' System Design: The requirement specifications from first phase are studied in this phase and system design is prepared. System Design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and also helps in defining overall system architecture.

' Implementation: With inputs from system design, the system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality which is referred to as Unit Testing.

' Integration and Testing: All the units developed in the implementation phase are integrated into a system after testing of each unit. Post integration the entire system is tested for any faults and failures.

' Deployment of system: Once the functional and non functional testing is done, the product is deployed in the customer environment or released into the market.

' Maintenance: There are some issues which come up in the client environment. To fix those issues patches are released. Also to enhance the product some better versions are released. Maintenance is done to deliver these changes in the customer environment.


The objective of project planning is to provide a framework that enables the manager to make reasonable estimates of resources, cost and schedule.

' Identify objectives

' Determine information requirements

' Analyze System Needs

' Designing

' Development

' Testing

' Deployment



Managers need information. As software is intangible, this information can only be provided as document that describes the state of the software being developed. Without this information, it is important to judge progress and cost estimates and schedules cannot be updated.

When planning, a project a series of milestones should be established where a milestone is an end-point of a software process activity. At each milestone, there should be a formal output, such as a report, they can be represented to management. Milestone reports don't need large documents. They may simply be a short report of achievements in a project activity. Milestones should represent the end of a distinct, logical stage in the project. Indefinite milestones such as "Coding 80% complete" which are impossible to validate are useless for project management.

While milestones are unique to each project, some example project milestones are shown below:

' Requirements Approval

' Phase Review Approval

' Prototype Approval

' Design Reviews Complete

' Code Reviews Complete

' Unit Test Complete

' Integration Test Complete

' Acceptance Test Complete

' System Acceptance by User

' Customer Shipment

' Documentation Delivery

A "deliverable" is a project result that is delivered to the customer. It is usually delivered at the end of some major project phase such as specification, design, etc. Deliverables are usually milestones but milestones need not to be deliverables. To establish milestones, the software process must be broken down into basic activities with associated outputs.


Because this is a deliverables-based project, we have created two additional responsibilities: primary owner and secondary owner. These responsibilities are associated with either an artifact or a process.


The responsibility of primary owner combines the responsibilities of planning, implementing, and monitoring. In addition, the responsibility includes assuring that the necessary quality, change, and risk processes are applied to the artifact or process.


The responsibility of secondary owner usually applies to project processes. For example, the change management process can have a primary owner who initiated, planned, and implemented the process. The responsibility of the secondary owner is monitoring and controlling. Additional responsibilities include holding meetings as required by the process, maintaining logs, and facilitating decisions.



The project scheduling provides graphical representation of predict tasks, milestones, dependencies, resource requirements, task duration and deadlines.

Like the development of each of the project plan components, developing a schedule is an iterative process. Milestones may suggest additional tasks, tasks may require additional resources, and task completion may be measured by additional milestones. For large, complex projects, detailed sub-schedules may be required to show an adequate level of detail for each task.

During the life of the project, actual progress is frequently compared with the original schedule. This allows for evaluation of development activities. The accuracy of the planning process can also be assessed.

Basic efforts associated with developing a project schedule include the following:

' Define the type of schedule: The type of schedule associated with a project relates to the complexity of the implementation. For large, complex projects with a multitude of interrelated tasks, a PERT chart (or activity network) may be used.

' Define precise and measurable milestones: The completion of key actions is important in all projects. These completions are denoted by milestones. These events have no duration. For example, deliverables often are represented as milestones, while the effort to produce the deliverable is referred to as a task.

' Estimate task duration: Estimating task duration is one of the most challenging aspects of project planning. It is also a key to later cost estimation. This is a refined process that occurs throughout the planning process, as it is directly affected by results of the staffing and costing activities.

' Define priorities: Clearly defining the task properties helps to resolve any scheduling resource conflicts. Understanding the priorities and relationship of the tasks assists in resolving difficult conflicts.

' Define the critical path: The critical path is the longest path through a project. It determines the earliest possible completion of the work. The critical path is carefully managed because if critical path tasks slip, the entire project is delayed. In order to manage the project, the project manager determines the critical path and remains aware of its importance throughout the implementation of the plan.

' Document assumptions: Documentation of the assumptions made in developing the project schedule are critical to the later success of the project. Without clear documentation of these assumptions, later changes to the schedule are very difficult and risky.

' Identify risks: Risks are inherently involved with scheduling limited resources.


Name Implement functionalities

Jaykumar P. Goswami Analysis of all the modules

System Requirement Study, Database design, System Design, Coding of few Modules.

Coding Of other Modules, Reports[ Documentation ].


Estimation of the effort and time required to develop a Web Based Communication Management shall be done using the COCOMO estimation technique. There are various possible solutions to this problem, which will be analyzed subsequently.

We use the Visual studio 2008 for developing this site. We assuming that the average number of lines of code we would be required to write is 4120, and that the project is an organic one, we can use the COCOMO model to estimate the effort and time required for development as follows

Effort = 2.4 * (4.120 KLOC) ^1.05PM


Effort = 4.70 PM

Time required for development = 2.5 * (4.70 PM Effort) ^ 0.38


Time required = 12 months

Now, the project has to be completed in six months. So this solution is feasible.

Hence this solution is feasible. It is the best solution for this problem in terms of cost, efficiency and technical feasibility.



The purpose of a feasibility study is to determine whether or not the purpose of a new system can be justified. The analysis has to answer one fundamental question: can the other processing be carried out by a new system more efficiently than the last?

There are several reasons for a new system to be introduced in to a business as they strive up boost their productivity, efficiency, and ultimate proficiency. Below are a few reasons why change would be necessary:

' The current system may no longer suite its purpose.

' Technology advancement may have rendered the current system redundant.

' The business is expanding, allowing it to cope with extra workload.

' Customers are complaining about the speed and quality of work the system provides.

The feasibility study to be conduct for this project Involves.

' Technical Feasibility

' Operational Feasibility

' Economic Feasibility

' Schedule Feasibility


Technical Feasibility determines whether the work for the project be done with the present equipment, current procedures, existing software's technology and available personnel? If new technology is needed then what alternatives will be needed in the present structure and work ethos?

The technical feasibility should ask questions related to:

' Adequacy of available technology.

' Adequacy of hardware.

' Available of computer.

' Operating time and support facilities, etc.

Technical feasibility determines whether the technology needed for the proposed system is available and how it can be integrated within the 'INTRANET WEB SERVER' and Technical evaluation must also assess whether the existing system can be upgraded to use the new technology and whether the 'INTRANET WEB SERVER' has the expertise to use it.

The development process of Intranet Web Server would be advantageous to the organization because we would make use of only the currently available resources of the organization. All the tools needed for the development are already available with the organization and the organization does not have to acquire any new resources. The tools required for this application are ASP.NET and Microsoft SQL server, which are already available. The technical feasibility is also attributed to the fact that the system does not make use of any additional or external components which can lead to increased load on the system.


Test of operational feasibility asks if the system will work when it is developed and installed. Also as this system does not cause any harm to the current system, and can also be implemented in-phase with the current system of the institute. The system is also very easy to use. System provides the user-friendly interface, which helps new users in operating the project. So, considering all this factors, I can say that the system is operationally feasible.


Economic feasibility looks at the financial aspects of the project. Economic feasibility concerns with the returns from the investments in a project.

The 'Intranet Web Server' plans to acquire the necessary hardware and software requires for the system and there is no hindrance whether economical or otherwise towards its purchase.

As the application is very user friendly and easy to use, there is no need to provide special training to the users of the application, thus saving valuable time and money. Also since the tool that are being used are easily available that is VISUAL BASIC and MICROSOFT SQL SERVER, so our project is economical feasible.


Projects are always given deadlines. Every project is completed in a specific duration. Schedule feasibility is concerned with time. Time is greater resource for developing any system. Hence, the chance of insufficient experience and expertise halting the project development process was reduced. So, the risk of wasting huge amounts of time is eliminated. We also had the resources to complete the goal in specified time period. So here the system is scheduled feasible.


A risk is an anticipated unfavorable event or circumstance that can occur while a project is underway. A risk is a potential problem ' it may be happen or may not be. So, risk analysis and management is a series of steps that help a software team to understand and manage the uncertainty.


Risk identification is the first step of risk management. It is concerned with discovering possible risks to the project. Risk identification is a systematic attempt to specify threats to the project plan.

In our project, we have identified various risks which are:

Risks Risk Type Description


' ASP.NET Business

Scaling the System

The underlying technology on which the system is built is superseded by new technology.

Security Risk Is the Price of Freedom

Table 2.3 Risk Identification


Risk analysis or monitoring involves regularly assessing each of the identified risk to decide whether or not the risk is becoming more or less probable and whether the effects of the risk have been changed.

Sr. No. Risk Probability Effect

1. Very Low (< 10 %) Insignificant

2. Low (10 ' 25 %) Tolerable

3. Moderate (50 ' 75%) Serious

4. High (50 ' 75 %) Catastrophic

5. Very High (> 75 %) S/W not acceptable

Table 2.4 Risk Analysis


Scheduling risk occurs when everything is not properly defined, so any requirement which comes to us, we will first check its feasibility.


Technical Risk: The tools and technology were selected in such a way that these kinds of risks are maintained. The application is also going to be deployed on a backup server. So hardware failure risk is also minimized.

Requirement Risk: All the user and domain requirements were understood properly. So there will not be any major changes in requirements. Any new requirement can be handled as the software is designed in a modular way.

Resource Risk: All the required resources are provided in advance. So, the possibility of this risk is minimized.



Types of User

' Admin

Admin can add/update/delete Projects, Manage Employee, Generate reports.

' Project Manager

Project Manager assigns Project, Track Project, Generate Report, and Check Milestone.

' Team Leader

Team Leader assign task, check status, bugs, timeline and reports.

' Employee

Employee perform task, submit report

3.2 System Requirements

3.2.1 Hardware Requirements of the System

This system needs following configuration to run:

1. Intel Pentium IV ,2.6 GHz Pc(Recommended)

2. 1 GB RAM(Recommended)

3. 250 GB Hard Disk (Recommended)

4. Internet connection Or intranet connection

5. Mouse, Keyboard

6. Monitor[800 x 600 Display]


1. Operating System

Microsoft Windows XP and above.

2. Front-end tool

Microsoft Visual Studio 2008

3. Database

Database: Microsoft SQL Server 2008



In multinational companies there are lots of projects going on every year. Due to lots of employee to manage all the projects efficiently on line is a problem for the Project Manager and their employees. Also an employee might be involved in several different projects, he/she might have different roles in different projects. For example, an employee might be a team leader for one project, while at the same time; he/she might be a team member for another project. Right now they do not have software to manage their projects yet.

By using an on- line project management system, without having a meeting, the employee could know the tasks assigned to them by their project leaders; the Project Manager could know the progress of the current project; and the supervisor will know how many projects are going on concurrently and who is responsible for each of the project. Also, sometimes people need to modify their projects. These could be done by using Integrated Project management. The design and implementation of such a project management system is the goal of this project.

4.2 Requirements of new system

By using our system we can track project and manage project in efficient way. Higher authority can keep eye on it easy. They can provide proper resources and utilized the man power and can complete project on time.

Project contains these Features:-

' we can achieve different objective like,

' Eyes on various projects

' Track various projects

' Manage multiple projects

' Provide authority to levels of employees

' Assign work

' Top executive decides deadlines of projects

' Exchange files, messages or work done to team members

' Forward work done to upper level executive after task done

' Reminder alert before deadlines

' Executive can see status of work done

' Profile of employees

' Authority can create, edit and delete tasks

' Report


The main aim of the feasibility study is to determine whether it would be practically possible to develop the assigned task. A Feasibility study is a detailed assessment of the need, value and practicality of a proposed enterprise, such as systems development. The ultimate deliverable is a report that discusses the feasibility of a technical solution and provides evidence for the steering committee to decide whether it is worth going on with any of the suggestions. This study is important both for the organization and the developer. The simple reason is that one can know whether efforts are being put in the right direction or not. If this study shows against the possible development of the project then a new approach would be needed. Thus, then and there only the major problem would be solved. First, the preliminary study should be carried out.


An important outcome of the preliminary investigation is the determination that the system requested is feasible that is the likelihood the system will be useful to the organization.

The organization didn't have an official system, so the requirement of building the same was very much feasible and hence we were assigned the same task.

Company provides good quality of PCs and wonderful atmosphere. So throughout implementation was not too much of a big problem.

There was ample of help received from the company and the seniors always helped out with the doubts.

After studying the requirements whether the proposed project is feasible or not was determined by checking the various feasibilities for each module. There are three aspects in the feasibility study portion of preliminary investigation.


Proposed system is beneficial only if it can be turned into information system that will meet the organization's operating requirements. This test of feasibility focuses on the possibility of whether the system will work when it is developed and installed or not.

Operationally the system is feasible because of the following mentioned reasons:-

The proposed system will be operationally feasible, since online learning, Integrated Project management we can track project and manage project in efficient way. Higher authority can keep eye on it easy. They can provide proper resources and utilized the man power and can complete project on time.

The users have been involved in planning and development of the project. This reduces the chances of resistance to use the system.


Technically the project is feasible because of the following reasons:

' For the system the necessary technology existed and any changes required, were suggested by the company.

' The proposed equipments have the technical capacity to hold the data required to use the new system.

' The system can be expanded when needed.

' The system guarantees accuracy, reliability and ease of access and data security.

Thus the existing equipments and technologies are accommodating and supportive enough to carry out the project successfully. Project work can be done through the existing hardware and software technologies.


A system after getting developed and installed must be a good investment for the organization. Financial benefits must be equal or exceed the previous figures.

Various questions that are raised for addressing economical feasibility are:

' Is the organization having the suitable budget to develop the proposed idea?

' How much profit can be earned from this project by the organization?

' Would it be cost effective to develop the system or it is worthwhile to continue with the present system?

Economically the project is feasible because of the following reasons which answer the above issues:

This project actually isn't an income-based strategy. Integrated Project management we can track project and manage project in efficient way.

As the project is to be developed by the trainee the cost incurred by the company is in the form of Resource Allocation rather than monetary. The cost on the company is indirect in the form of resource utilization.



5.1.1 ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP diagrams Basics of Entity Relationship diagram

' Entity-Relationship Diagram is an abstract and conceptual representation of data. Entity-relationship modeling is a database modeling method, used to produce a type of conceptual schema or semantic data model of a system, often a relational database, and its requirements in a top-down fashion.

Figure No. 5.1.5

[State Transition Diagram for Different type of Login]'

5.2 Data Dictionary

' The volume of data in most information systems application is substantial-more than a single analyst's work on a system, the task of coordinating data definitions becomes more complex. Individuals depend on the definitions others establish and the assumptions they make about data specifications.

' Yet, unless they meet almost daily (in fact/they seldom do),it is virtually impossible to have acceptable data coordination data dictionaries are an integral component of structured analysis, since data flow diagrams by themselves do not fully describe the subject of the investigation.

' The data dictionary provides additional information about the system. These sections discuss what a data dictionary is/why it is needed in data flow analysis, and how it is developed. The Yarn Grading Systems Example will be used to describe data dictionaries

What Is a Data Dictionary?

' A data dictionary is a catalog-a-repository-of the elements in a system. As the name suggests, these elements center on data and the way they are structured to meet user requirements and organization needs. In a data dictionary you will find a list of all the elements composing the data flowing through a system.

' The major elements are data flows, data flows, data stores, and processes. The data dictionary stores details and descriptions of these elements.

' If analysts want to know how many characters are in a data item by what other names it is referenced in the system, or where it is referenced in the system or where it is used in the system, they should be able to find the answers in issued in the system, they should be able to find the answer in properly developed data dictionary.

' The dictionary is developed during data flow analysis and assists the analysts involved in determining systems requirements. However, its contents are used during systems design as well

5.3 Functional Behavior Modeling

5.3.1 Data Flow Diagram

Basics of Data Flow Diagram

' A data-flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. DFD can also be used for the visualization of data processing.

' A DFD provides no information about the timing or ordering of processes, or about whether processes will operate in sequence or in parallel.

' It is therefore quite different from a flowchart, which shows the flow of control through an algorithm, allowing a reader to determine what operations will be performed, in what order, and under what circumstances, but not what kinds of data will be input to and output from the system, nor where the data will come from and go to, nor where the data will be stored.


The implementation planning deals with planning for the implementation after the design phase has been completed. The analysis and design of the system help in deciding the technology, language, framework, database, etc. to be selected so as to build an efficient system.


' The website is developed for employees all higher authority of users so GUI is to be simple and easily to understand.

' Hence the website is usable to multiple people and it is being hosted on server so that multi user can access the same website at a time

' Thus, the website is developed for Multiple User.

' As the website is completely new and very few developments are present of the website, the website requires a proper GUI so that the user can easily access the website and manage it.

' The application is dynamic and it is utilized by a multiple people.

' The application provide multiple panel according to the authorities, according to the designation he will get his Desk Board.


' Admin

' Project Manager

' Team Leader

' Employee

' Projects

' Task

' Miscellaneous Setting

' Profile

6.2.1 Security Features

' The security issues are more in the website as most of the things are manual and multi user website. Hence there is login module implemented in the website as this is handled by algorithm, according to designation he/she will redirect to his panel.

' The website is basically implemented only on the GUI that are accessed by the Employee and manage by the admin of the website.

6.2.2 Coding Standards

' The website comprises of the main menu module that handles the all the other modules from the single GUI.

' All the functions of the website are created in different files so that they can be easily identified.

' The images are stored in the images folder that save the images in the database and can be retrieved easily.

' All the main files are located in the same folder with the database included.

' The variables names are relevant to their use.


Testing is the process used to help identify correctness, completeness, security, and quality of developed computer software. The purpose of testing is verification, validation and error detection in order to find problems and the purpose of finding those problems is to get them fixed.


Software Testing has a dual function; it is used to identify the defects in program and it is used to help judge whether or not program is usable in practice. Thus software testing is used for validation and verification, which ensure that software conforms to its specification and meets need of the software customer. Testing Planning involves how to plan testing before we are going to start making test suite.


Software testing must be planned carefully so that there is no wastage of development time and resources. Testing begins "in the small" by focusing on software components and progresses "to the large" by considering system functionality as a whole. Initially individual components are tested and debugged. After the individual components have been tested and added to the system, integration testing takes place. Once the full software product is completed, system testing is performed. The test specification document should be reviewed like all other software engineering work products. Software testing involves executing an implementation of the software with test data and examining the outputs of the software and its operational behavior to check that it is performing as required.

We have tested our project using bottom up testing strategy.

' Bottom up testing involves integrating and testing the modules to the lower levels in the hierarchy, and then working up hierarchy of modules until the final module is tested.

' Bottom up testing strategy shows how actual testing is to be done with whole system but it does not show any detail about each module testing.

' For each module testing we have decided to test each lower level module with white box testing strategy.

' When all modules are tested successfully then we will integrate those modules and try to test integrated system.

Why black box testing in our project?

In our project whatever we have implemented was going to be tested by Mr. Arpit Sir without knowing our code, so black box testing is involved.

Why white box testing in our project?

We create this project so we have internal knowledge about the project and testing was performed by us also, so white box testing is involved.

Why interface testing in our project?

We examined the code to be tested and explicitly list each call to an external component. In the system, standards tests for GUIs have been performed, which are as follows:

' Testing the screen control for its position and side.

' The position and the related labels for all controls were checked.

' Name of the form in our project is given appropriately.

' All functions and sub functions were verified for correctness.

' Whether the system prompts the user with appropriate message as and when invalid information is entered.


1. Unit Testing

Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design the software component or module. It can be done in two ways top-down approach or bottom-up approach.

2. Integration Testing

After our individual modules were tested out we proceed to the integration testing to create a complete system. This integration process involves building the system and testing the resultant system for problems that arise from component interactions. It might be possible that all modules may work individually, but they may not work when we put them together.

3. System Testing

System testing is actually a series of tests whose purpose is to fully exercise the computer-based system. It verifies that system elements have been properly integrated and perform allocated functions. It checks whether the system as a whole works as per requirement.

4. Validation Testing

After the integration testing software is completely assembled as a package, interfacing error have been uncovered and corrected, and then validation testing may begin. Validation can be defined in many ways but a simple definition is what a validation succeeds when software functions in a manner that can be reasonably accepted by the customer.




' If the system crash, higher authority has to check manually.

' System required large bandwidth.

' Heavy traffic can degraded the performance of system.

' Difficult to implement and Troubleshooting is difficult.

' The tool can't show the list of Task, Issues, Risk factor pretty clear.

' You can't get any detail about your team member task, they completed or not.


' The whole system would be optimized to complete execution in less time.

' Company can create their own customize desk and structure.

' We can add employee statics.

' Finance sector.

' Cost control system.

' Bug tracking system.

' Software and System testing plan.

' We can synchronies with our smart phone.

' We can get deadline and remaining task info in our smart phone and in email.


' Tracking: Tracking the progress of your projects and programs is important for the long term success of your business. A project management software system will give you the visibility to see if a project is running to its predetermined time frame, what has been done and what still needs to be complete. The software reduces the need for paper or electronic updates from the project team members to their project manager.

' Resourcing: The project management system ensures that the optimal resources are working on the right projects by examining the level of skills and abilities needed to successfully complete the project. Assigning resources to tasks or projects through the project management system will ensure that each resource knows all the information needed for them to complete the project.

' Communication: A project management system makes communication channels regarding tasks, projects and programs easier through the uploading and sharing of files, collaborating on an online space and emailing updates through the system. Communication channels with your customers/ clients can be made simpler also as business documents e.g. invoices can be sent directly from the project management system to its required destination and information on those customers/ clients can be kept on a virtual database to help with the follow up process that takes place.

' Financial Control: A critical item in the management of projects is the budget and the way in which the budget is managed could ultimately decide the future of the business. The project management software gives the project manager a visual on the project costs, project budget (actual Vs planned), project cost data etc to ensure that projects and programs run to their assigned budgets, money is ultimately saved and not lost and generating a clear Return on Investment (ROI) on all projects.

' Where are we now? : Who is working on each task or project, Is there any time delays,

Is the project keeping to its budget etc

' Decision Making: When making a decision in project management all aspects of the project need to be taken into consideration. By using a project management system the decision making process is improved, as the information is all in clearly presented in one place.

' Risk management: Out of nowhere a risk can throw a spanner in the works and cause severe problems resulting in the project failing. Project management software system can give you a platform by which risks can be flagged, tracked and correctly resolved to ensure that the risk has the lowest possible negative effect on the project.

' Quality of information: The quality of the information is increased as only the information that's needed is gathered and shown.



We have completed my project work based on using software engineering and system analysis and design approach. Work that we have done with preplanning scheduling related with time constrains and result oriented progress in project development. Our project development starts in second week of January and completes at second week of April. Initially, there were some problem regarding some modules but we have planned to resolve those problems. We have managed to divide our work in different phases with respect to time and solved problems and difficulties. The website is still required to be polished and worked on the critical areas to obtain the optimum product assuring the quality.

9.1 References












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