Small and Medium Enterprises are a major contributor of the GDP of a country and an even larger contributor to the segments of exports and employment. The SME growth has been propelled by fresh investments in heavy and basic industries, The contribution to exports and employment has been significant in the wake of increased manufacturing activity and the increasing prominence of service sector companies in this space. The major thrust is on industries like garments, spices and metals, which are net revenue earners for the country rich in its mineral reserves. The government of India has given small enterprises an important place in the economic planning for ideological as well as economic measures, As a result of these efforts the small sector has achieved an impressive growth in the number of units. In infers, inter alia more chances for enterprising persons to assume the entrepreneurial careers.

Thus, SMEs serve as a seed-bed for the emergence of entrepreneurship of the country. The development of small scale industries contribute to the increase in the per capita income and contribute to the economic growth of the economy. It provides for more equitable distribution of the income of the nation. Further they make effective mobilization of the untapped capital and human skills and leads to dispersal of manufacturing activities all over the country.

What are Alliances?

  1. An alliance is an agreement between two or more parties, made in order to advance common goals and to secure common interests
  2. Cooperative agreements between two or more firms
  3. Are business alliances among companies that provide strategic benefits to the partners.
  4. A co-operative arrangement between two or more parties who combine their strengths to achieve compatible objectives whilst retaining their individual identities and share the risks and rewards
  5. The alliance often involves technology transfer (access to knowledge and expertise), economic specialization, shared expenses and shared risk.

Objectives of Alliances:

  1. Sharing costs and risks
  2. Combining complementary skills
  3. Formulating technical standards and dominant designs
  4. Accessing new markets and technologies
  5. Preempting key competitors
  6. Reserving learning opportunities
  7. Develop partnerships that benefit all involved
  8. Build a solution based knowledge set through partner relationships

SME Alliance Co-operative

  • In India, the Small and medium Enterprises (SMEs) sector plays a pivotal role in the overall industrial economy of the country.
  • It is estimated that in terms of value, the sector accounts for about 39% of the manufacturing output and around 33% of the total export of the country.
  • Further, in recent years the SME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector.
  • The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost. As per available statistics, this sector employs an estimated 31 million persons spread over 12.8 million enterprises and the labour intensity in the SME sector is estimated to be almost 4 times higher than the large enterprises

The Indian Scenario

In India, the MSEs play a major role in the overall industrial development of the country.It is estimated that in terms of value the small and medium enterprises account for 39% of the manufacturing out put and around 33% of the total export of the country. As per the available statistics this sector employs an estimated 31 million people spread over12.8 million enterprises and the labour intensity in the sector is almost four times higher than the large enterprises.In most parts of the developing world, the problems being faced by the SMEs are moreor less similar in their nature, and are due to shortcomings in policy and legal frame work, finance entrepreneurship, management, socio-cultural values and of course,technology. Most of these units are heavily dependent on the imported technologies and skills for the maintenance of the plant and operations. Adaptation to the local needs has always been the least priority and national budget allocation for technology transfers is quite low. In fact, it vital for the developing nations to examine and understand the nature of technology transfer process and give effort to execute them successfully in the development of SMEs.Some Suggestions for improvement At times, when major markets are shrinking down consistently, each and every SME should have a marketing strategy not only to show-case their products, but also to easily get inquiries form other markets. Some suggestions have have been proposed in this regard to find solutions to the marketing difficulties faced by the SME sector.

Objectives of network security :

  • The purpose of network security is protect internal networks, network devices, and network messages from unauthorized access, usually by outsiders
  • Network security controls can not completely eliminate risks. The goal is minimizes risk as much as possible and to avoid unnecessary or excessive risks
  • The goal of network security is really to enable network connectivity. Without network security, the risk/cost of network connectivity would be prohibitive.


DEFINITION OF CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT: - Co-operative movement can be define as a “Voluntary movement of the people, carried out democratically by pooling together their resources or carrying on the given activity, with the purpose of achieving or securing certain benefits or advantage which given to people can not get individually and with the purpose of promoting certain virtue and values such as self help, mutual help, self reliance and general goods of all.”

Co-operation: A co-operative is a business that is jointly owned and

democratically controlled by its members. Co‑operatives are trading enterprises, providing goods and services and generating profits, but these profits are not taken by outside shareholders as with many investor owned business - they are under the control of the members, who decide democratically how the profits should be used. Co-operatives use their profits for investing in the business, in social purposes, in the education of members, in the sustainable development of the community or the environment, or for the welfare

of the wider community. Co-operatives are based on the values of self-help, self‑responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and solidarity.

Co-operative members believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility and caring for others. The Co-operative Principles are guidelines by which co‑operatives put their valuesinto practice. Co-operation has always existed, but co-operative business became a significant social and economic force in the 19th century, when people engaged in self-help

The National Co-operative Development Corporation (NCDC), a statutory body was set up in 1963 by the Union ministry of Civil Supplies and Co-operation, to promote the co-operative movement in

India. Further there is the Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-operative LTD(IFFCO), which has been successful in setting up an effective marketing network in most of the states for selling modern farming technology instead of fertilizers alone. The operations of IFFCO are handled through its more than 30,000 member co-operatives. The National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation (NAFED)has over 5000 marketing societies. These societies operate at the local wholesale market level and handle agricultural produce. Thus the farmers have a market for their produce right at their door-step. A market which assures them reasonable returns and guaranteed payments

Types of co-operative:

Consumer co-operatives:

Owned and controlled by their customers. At a minimum, customers who choose to become members are involved in the co-operative by buying from it, but they can also be involved at many levels in the democratic process of the co-operative

Worker co-operatives:

Owned and controlled by their employees. Some worker co-operatives are managed on a collective basis, where all employees will be members and will also be committee members or directors. Other worker co‑operatives are managed through a smaller committee or board of directors that is democratically elected by and from the employee members.

Community co-operatives:

Enterprises that are owned and controlled by people belonging to a particular community. This may be a geographical community or a community of interest. Normally they will carry out activities that are of benefit to the whole community

Co-operative consortia:

Co-operatives formed by a number of independent businesses, organisations or individuals, and owned and controlled by them. The members enhance their trade or reduce costs by working together on keyactivities such as leasing premises, buying equipment or marketing the members' products and services.

Multi-stakeholder co-operatives:

Enterprises that are owned and controlled by members drawn from a variety of areas. Membership might include employees of the co-operative, users of the co‑operative, local residents, partnership organisations or relevant professionals.

How to set up a co-operative

A co-operative is a business, so setting up a co‑operative is like setting up any other business - you need a market, products/services, labour, finance and (usually) premises. What makes a

co-operative different from a conventional business is:

  • It fulfils a social or environmental objective, or is
  • formed to fulfil its members' needs
  • Its democratic ownership and control
  • Its way of working
  • Its legal structure

If you want to set up a co-operative, you should seek professional advice from a co-operative development body if there is one in your area. The following sets out the stages in setting up a co‑operative, though some of these will vary according to the type of co-operative, and they may not happen in this order.

Outline a broad feasibility plan: what are the objectives of the business? Discuss these with the rest of the group setting up the business.

Discuss a draft legal structure: who are the members are they the staff, the consumers or community, or other small businesses? What are the benefits of membership and the responsibilities? Seek help from your local co‑operative development body or Co‑operativesUK.

Develop a business strategy and an outline business plan setting out:

  • Business objectives
  • Market
  • Staffing needs
  • How the business will work
  • Finance: financial projections; raising finance
  • Marketing
  • Governance (legal structures, decision-making procedures, the roles and responsibilities of the members, directors and staff)

Incorporate the new business, if appropriate. This is strongly recommended if you are trading with external customers as it gives you limited liability status

Carry out detailed financial planning - build the financial model including start-up costs, overheads, etc, and finalise a full business plan

Seek start-up finance. Most co-operatives do this by raising money from members and/or seeking a business loan. Suitable grants may also be available.

Carry out organisational planning - a detailed action plan, quality and performance standards, staff policies

Develop a marketing plan

Develop a communication plan for ongoing interaction with members Remember - a co-operative is about groups of people and it is critical to keep all the members or potential

members on board. Active and engaged members - whether they be consumers or employees - are one of a co-operative's greatest sources of strength!

Network security

Network security consists of the provisions made in an underlying computer network infrastructure, policies adopted by the network administrator to protect the network and the network-accessible resources from unauthorized access, and consistent and continuous monitoring and measurement of its effectiveness (or lack) combined together.

Security involves four aspects:

  • Privacy
  • Authentication
  • Integrity
  • Non-repudiation

Advantages of Networking:

  • Sharing files
  • Sharing resources
  • Sharing programs
  • Backups
  • Communication

Disadvantages of Networking:

  • Crashes
  • It is a disadvantage on a server based network.
  • Data security
  • As all the data resources are all pooled together' there is a possibility of unauthorized access if security is weak or poorly implemented.
  • Privacy
  • A network may also mean a loss of privacy .

Security Attacks:

  • Any action that compromises the security of information owned by an organization
  • Often threat & attack used to mean same thing
  • A wide range of attacks
  • Can focus of generic types of attacks
  • Passive active

Passive Attacks:

Active Attacks:

  • Goals of Security:
  • Authentication
  • Assurance that the communicating entity is the one claimed


Computer resources/information accessed only by authorized party


Computer resources/information can only be modified by authorized party (and only in authorized way).


Computer assets are accessible to authorized parties at any time


Protection against denial by one of the parties in a communication

Security in wireless networks:

Wireless networks:

  • Cellular wireless networks.
  • Ad hoc networks.
  • Mesh networks.

Additional problems created:

  • Wireless communication links,
  • Low-bandwidth links,
  • Low-capacity hosts/computers,
  • Host mobility, and
  • No infrastructure.


  • Internet security is the practice of protecting and preserving private resources and information on the Internet.
  • Internet security involves the protection of a computer's internet account and files from intrusion of an unknown user.
  • A Internet security threat is any threat that uses the internet to facilitate cybercrime.

Types of internet security threat?

  1. SPAM
  5. WORM


Mobile Network Solution through Mobile IPv6:

Mobile IP

Mobile IP (RFC 2002), a standard proposed by a working group with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), allows the use of a single fixed IP address regardless of IP subnet changes, and hence enables the continuous reachability for mobile nodes. The fixed IP address is called a Home Address, and the IP address acquired at each visited network is called a Care-Of Address.The mapping between the home address and the care-of address of a mobile node is maintained at a special redirection server called a home agent. Home agent intercepts packets on behalf of the mobile node and sends them to its care-of address when the mobile node is away from its home network. Moreover for a globally routable care-of address, a special mobility agent, called a foreign agent is deployed in this network as well.

Mobile IPv6

Mobile IPv6 is the deployment of both IPv6 and mobile networking. It is a adoption for the increased user convenience and the reduced need for application awareness of mobility.Mobile IPv6 design and deployment combines both the availability of addresses supported by Mobile IP and the extensibility provided by IPv6 protocol. Therefore, a mobile IPv6 node can use mobility protocol wherever it can get simple IPv6 service.For example, whenever the mobile node moves, it registers its new care-of address with its home agent. And then when a home agent accepts the request, it begins to associate the home address of the mobile node with the care-of address, and maintains this association until the registration lifetime expires.Mobile IPv6 protocol does not require or even define foreign agents. This leads to scalable Internet-wide mobility management. Internet-wide IPv6 mobility management can be provided by running a home agent anywhere on the Internet. Moreover, in Mobile IPv6,IPv6 Internet access and mobility management can be provided by separate entities.Hence, building and maintaining costly access networks is not a requirement for providingIPv6 mobility service.


The Co-operatives in the 21st Century must remain on vanguard in providing the required lead to the millions of our producers. The security issues in our networked systems as described in this paper identify some of the work that needs to be done, and the urgency with which concerns need to be addressed. And as the density of networks increases, the necessity for transnational participation in improving network security increases. The changing technologies and the potential for changing threats is taxing our understanding of the threats and how to deal with them. As the Internet as become an integral part of companies' business operations, security on the Internet has also become an important issue for companies.

Source: Essay UK -

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