Small and Medium Enterprises are a major contributor of the GDP of a country and an even larger contributor to the segments of exports and employment. The SME growth has been propelled by fresh investments in heavy and basic industries, The contribution to exports and employment has been significant in the wake of increased manufacturing activity and the increasing prominence of service sector companies in this space. The major thrust is on industries like garments, spices and metals, which are net revenue earners for the country rich in its mineral reserves. The government of India has given small enterprises an important place in the economic planning for ideological as well as economic measures, As a result of these efforts the small sector has achieved an impressive growth in the number of units. In infers, inter alia more chances for enterprising persons to assume the entrepreneurial careers.
Thus, SMEs serve as a seed-bed for the emergence of entrepreneurship of the country. The development of small scale industries contribute to the increase in the per capita income and contribute to the economic growth of the economy. It provides for more equitable distribution of the income of the nation. Further they make effective mobilization of the untapped capital and human skills and leads to dispersal of manufacturing activities all over the country.
In India, the MSEs play a major role in the overall industrial development of the country.It is estimated that in terms of value the small and medium enterprises account for 39% of the manufacturing out put and around 33% of the total export of the country. As per the available statistics this sector employs an estimated 31 million people spread over12.8 million enterprises and the labour intensity in the sector is almost four times higher than the large enterprises.In most parts of the developing world, the problems being faced by the SMEs are moreor less similar in their nature, and are due to shortcomings in policy and legal frame work, finance entrepreneurship, management, socio-cultural values and of course,technology. Most of these units are heavily dependent on the imported technologies and skills for the maintenance of the plant and operations. Adaptation to the local needs has always been the least priority and national budget allocation for technology transfers is quite low. In fact, it vital for the developing nations to examine and understand the nature of technology transfer process and give effort to execute them successfully in the development of SMEs.Some Suggestions for improvement At times, when major markets are shrinking down consistently, each and every SME should have a marketing strategy not only to show-case their products, but also to easily get inquiries form other markets. Some suggestions have have been proposed in this regard to find solutions to the marketing difficulties faced by the SME sector.
DEFINITION OF CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT: - Co-operative movement can be define as a “Voluntary movement of the people, carried out democratically by pooling together their resources or carrying on the given activity, with the purpose of achieving or securing certain benefits or advantage which given to people can not get individually and with the purpose of promoting certain virtue and values such as self help, mutual help, self reliance and general goods of all.”
democratically controlled by its members. Co‑operatives are trading enterprises, providing goods and services and generating profits, but these profits are not taken by outside shareholders as with many investor owned business - they are under the control of the members, who decide democratically how the profits should be used. Co-operatives use their profits for investing in the business, in social purposes, in the education of members, in the sustainable development of the community or the environment, or for the welfare
of the wider community. Co-operatives are based on the values of self-help, self‑responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and solidarity.
Co-operative members believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility and caring for others. The Co-operative Principles are guidelines by which co‑operatives put their valuesinto practice. Co-operation has always existed, but co-operative business became a significant social and economic force in the 19th century, when people engaged in self-help
The National Co-operative Development Corporation (NCDC), a statutory body was set up in 1963 by the Union ministry of Civil Supplies and Co-operation, to promote the co-operative movement in
India. Further there is the Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-operative LTD(IFFCO), which has been successful in setting up an effective marketing network in most of the states for selling modern farming technology instead of fertilizers alone. The operations of IFFCO are handled through its more than 30,000 member co-operatives. The National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation (NAFED)has over 5000 marketing societies. These societies operate at the local wholesale market level and handle agricultural produce. Thus the farmers have a market for their produce right at their door-step. A market which assures them reasonable returns and guaranteed payments
Owned and controlled by their customers. At a minimum, customers who choose to become members are involved in the co-operative by buying from it, but they can also be involved at many levels in the democratic process of the co-operative
Owned and controlled by their employees. Some worker co-operatives are managed on a collective basis, where all employees will be members and will also be committee members or directors. Other worker co‑operatives are managed through a smaller committee or board of directors that is democratically elected by and from the employee members.
Enterprises that are owned and controlled by people belonging to a particular community. This may be a geographical community or a community of interest. Normally they will carry out activities that are of benefit to the whole community
Co-operatives formed by a number of independent businesses, organisations or individuals, and owned and controlled by them. The members enhance their trade or reduce costs by working together on keyactivities such as leasing premises, buying equipment or marketing the members' products and services.
Enterprises that are owned and controlled by members drawn from a variety of areas. Membership might include employees of the co-operative, users of the co‑operative, local residents, partnership organisations or relevant professionals.
A co-operative is a business, so setting up a co‑operative is like setting up any other business - you need a market, products/services, labour, finance and (usually) premises. What makes a
co-operative different from a conventional business is:
If you want to set up a co-operative, you should seek professional advice from a co-operative development body if there is one in your area. The following sets out the stages in setting up a co‑operative, though some of these will vary according to the type of co-operative, and they may not happen in this order.
Outline a broad feasibility plan: what are the objectives of the business? Discuss these with the rest of the group setting up the business.
Discuss a draft legal structure: who are the members are they the staff, the consumers or community, or other small businesses? What are the benefits of membership and the responsibilities? Seek help from your local co‑operative development body or Co‑operativesUK.
Develop a business strategy and an outline business plan setting out:
Incorporate the new business, if appropriate. This is strongly recommended if you are trading with external customers as it gives you limited liability status
Carry out detailed financial planning - build the financial model including start-up costs, overheads, etc, and finalise a full business plan
Seek start-up finance. Most co-operatives do this by raising money from members and/or seeking a business loan. Suitable grants may also be available.
Carry out organisational planning - a detailed action plan, quality and performance standards, staff policies
Develop a marketing plan
Develop a communication plan for ongoing interaction with members Remember - a co-operative is about groups of people and it is critical to keep all the members or potential
members on board. Active and engaged members - whether they be consumers or employees - are one of a co-operative's greatest sources of strength!
Network security consists of the provisions made in an underlying computer network infrastructure, policies adopted by the network administrator to protect the network and the network-accessible resources from unauthorized access, and consistent and continuous monitoring and measurement of its effectiveness (or lack) combined together.
Security involves four aspects:
Computer resources/information accessed only by authorized party
Computer resources/information can only be modified by authorized party (and only in authorized way).
Computer assets are accessible to authorized parties at any time
Protection against denial by one of the parties in a communication
Security in wireless networks:
Mobile Network Solution through Mobile IPv6:
Mobile IP (RFC 2002), a standard proposed by a working group with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), allows the use of a single fixed IP address regardless of IP subnet changes, and hence enables the continuous reachability for mobile nodes. The fixed IP address is called a Home Address, and the IP address acquired at each visited network is called a Care-Of Address.The mapping between the home address and the care-of address of a mobile node is maintained at a special redirection server called a home agent. Home agent intercepts packets on behalf of the mobile node and sends them to its care-of address when the mobile node is away from its home network. Moreover for a globally routable care-of address, a special mobility agent, called a foreign agent is deployed in this network as well.
Mobile IPv6 is the deployment of both IPv6 and mobile networking. It is a adoption for the increased user convenience and the reduced need for application awareness of mobility.Mobile IPv6 design and deployment combines both the availability of addresses supported by Mobile IP and the extensibility provided by IPv6 protocol. Therefore, a mobile IPv6 node can use mobility protocol wherever it can get simple IPv6 service.For example, whenever the mobile node moves, it registers its new care-of address with its home agent. And then when a home agent accepts the request, it begins to associate the home address of the mobile node with the care-of address, and maintains this association until the registration lifetime expires.Mobile IPv6 protocol does not require or even define foreign agents. This leads to scalable Internet-wide mobility management. Internet-wide IPv6 mobility management can be provided by running a home agent anywhere on the Internet. Moreover, in Mobile IPv6,IPv6 Internet access and mobility management can be provided by separate entities.Hence, building and maintaining costly access networks is not a requirement for providingIPv6 mobility service.
The Co-operatives in the 21st Century must remain on vanguard in providing the required lead to the millions of our producers. The security issues in our networked systems as described in this paper identify some of the work that needs to be done, and the urgency with which concerns need to be addressed. And as the density of networks increases, the necessity for transnational participation in improving network security increases. The changing technologies and the potential for changing threats is taxing our understanding of the threats and how to deal with them. As the Internet as become an integral part of companies' business operations, security on the Internet has also become an important issue for companies.