1 Introduction

Web Content Management (WCM) is part of a set of Enterprise Content Management principles.

1.1 Web Content Management

WCM is all about the publication of information on the web. This could be externally via a corporate website or internally via an intranet portal. Organizations have the need to maintain business information in an easy and intuitive way and make it accessible for those who are authorized to see the content (AIIM, 2008)

Content management is the process of planning, developing, managing, distributing, maintaining and the evaluation of all business information (content) within the organization (Theunissen et al, 2009). This process can be described as the Content Management lifecycle. Literature review revealed different CM lifecycle frameworks (Smith, McKeen, 2003 & Vidgen, Goodwin and Barnes, 2001 & Theunissen et al., 2009). Overall, these different CM lifecycles have very similar phases which can be differentiated with the collection, delivery and maintenance of content.

Vidgen, Goodwin, Barnes (2001)

Smith, McKeen (2003)

Theunissen et al. (2003)

Collection

Create

Review

Store

Capture

Organize

Plan

Develop

Manage

Delivery

Publish / exchange

Process

Distribute

Maintenance

Archive

Destroy

Maintain

Maintain

Evaluate

Table 1: Phases of the Content Management Lifecycle

Collection

The core of the collection phase is to gather and create content. New content can arrive from a number of sources and in different formats (Vidgen, Goodwin and Barnes, 2001). Paper documents need to be scanned and electronic documents e.g., web pages, e-mail messages and scanned documents need to be given its context (Theunissen et al., 2003).

Content cannot be put directly into a WCM repository, but needs to be reviewed first (Vidgen, Goodwin and Barnes, 2001). Reviewing the content is an important step in order to make sure that content meets its quality demands in terms of acceptability and relevancy (Vidgen, Goodwin and Barnes, 2001 & Smith and McKeen, 2003).

In some cases, content needs to be stored before it can be delivered to its users. Content storage includes the organization of content in a file system or database (Nebling, 2007) and giving its context with metadata and taxonomy (Smith and McKeen, 2003). Also, the security of access to the content is managed (who owns the content and therefore may alter it) (Smith and McKeen, 2003).

Delivery

Delivery means that content gets published and therefore accessible by the predetermined users. Publishing content should also include the personalization of content (Theunissen et al., 2003 and Vidgen, Goodwin and Barnes, 2001). According to Vidgen et al., “personalization relates to the ability to present different users with different views and different data depending on, e.g., preferences, access profiles and role” (p. 473).

Also, approved content should be distributed via multiple channels (e.g., internet, intranet and extranet) and devices (e.g., PC, PDA and mobile phone) (Nebeling, 2007).

Maintenance

In order to keep the content up-to-date, old content which has no value today needs to be discarded (Theunissen et al., 2009 & Smith and McKeen, 2003). This maintenance process can be automatically when content has reached a certain age, or manually. This manual process requires considerable effort (Smith and McKeen, 2003) and can be seen as an evaluation process. Evaluating content means assessing content on their timeliness, added-value, relevancy and accessibility (Theunissen et al., 2009).

2 Reviewed literature

Vidgen, Goodwin and Barnes (2001), described some key issues organizations come across when generating content. For instance, a website needs to be fed with new up-to-date content. But, content does not arrive in a “ready to publish” state, it comes in different forms and has to be edited in order to suit the channel in which it gets published.

O'Callaghan and Smith (2005), developed a “framework for ECM strategy” to support the content selection process and to identify content that is worth managing on an enterprise wide scale. Their framework is not just at the level of WCM, but at a higher level namely: ECM. Nonetheless, the implications of their framework are still relevant for the collection of (web) content. Value assessment is one major aspect of their framework. Within value assessment, the organization assess the value of making a given content object “findable”, “distributable”, “reusable”, “traceable” and “associable”. 

Brocke and Simmons (2008), created a process model for digital content analyses. The process consists of different phases. For the purpose of this literature review, phase 3 (define content attributes) and phase 4 (define attribute values) are particularly of interest. They tested their model with a case study of the Hilti Corporation.

Munkvold, Päivärinta, Hodne and Stangeland (2006) identified a wide range of issues related to management of content, based on a case study of a Norwegian oil company (Statoil). Not all found issues could be implied since the perspective was ECM, not WCM. Nonetheless, some issues could be implied due to their level of abstraction.

Theunissen, Jong, Hartman and Bloem (2009) described the content management lifecycle in their WCM guide. They also wrote about the requirements of a WCM tool related to each lifecycle phase in order to guide organizations when choosing a WCM tool/vendor.

3 Content quality requirements

Section 1.1 described the three main phases of the content management lifecycle. During these phases, different quality requirements of content are demanded. Therefore, a quality framework is used to describe which requirements of content are demanded during the three different phases of the CM Lifecycle.

3.1 Collection of content

DQ category

DQ name

Source

Intrinsic DQ

Reputation

To use content effectively it is necessary to know things about the content, such as who created it, when was it created, and when was it last updated (p. 467).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

The value of making a given object “easy to find” is a function of number of factors such as: the status of the author/provider of the information (p. 7).

O'Callaghan and Smit (2005)

Contextual DQ

Value-added

Relevancy

The value of making a given object “easy to find” is a function of number of factors such as: the importance of the tasks where it will be used and the criticality of the problem being addressed (p. 7).

O'Callaghan and Smit (2005)

Assess content on its relevancy and added value (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Timeliness

Assess content on its actuality (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Representational DQ

Representational consistency

Content arrives in different forms and has to be edited - usually manually - into a form suitable for publishing on the web (p.466).

Vidgen et al., (2001)

Where Web editing is devolved to departments there can be inconsistencies in the look and feel of the site and variable quality of layout and content (p. 467).

Vidgen et al., (2001)

Interpretability

Assess content on its readability and usability (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Ease of understanding

Accessibility DQ

Accessibility

The problems in content capture caused further inefficiency when people were distributing document copies as e-mail attachment files, instead of informing others about new shared content via reference links (p. 79).

Munkvold et al. (2006)

Content analyses: Cross Enterprise Access (p. 584).

Brocke and Simmons (2008)

Content analyses: Availability (p. 584).

Brocke and Simmons (2008)

Access security

One important attribute is a content asset's confidentiality, for example. Whereas an employee record may be highly confidential, a marketing brochure can usually be accessed publicly, e. g., by web access (p. 582).

Brocke and Simmons (2008)

Security - an authorization matrix defines (per role) who may read, create, alter, approve and delete content (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Table 2:Most relevant content quality requirements regarding the collection of content.

3.2 Delivery of content

DQ category

DQ name

Source

Intrinsic DQ

Believability

Because the data was frequently outdated, it lacked credibility and hence had low usage (p. 475).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

Contextual DQ

Timeliness

For a Web site to “live and breathe” it must be fed with new content and out of date content must be removed (p. 466).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

Because the data was frequently outdated, it lacked credibility and hence had low usage (p. 475).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

Value-added

Relevancy

Content is often tied tightly to business processes. For example, the production of a market intelligence report is a complex business process, involving data collection, data analysis, and the generation of commentaries and forecasts. Not only is the ‘final' report published on the web in some cases, but also updates and revisions are likely to be needed on a regular basis. (p. 467).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

The value of making a given object “easy to distribute” depends on: the defined target audience that “needs to know”, the importance of the content object for their task, or the importance of the object as informational input to a given business process (p. 7).

O'Callaghan and Smit (2005)

The value of making an object “easy to track” relates to the size of the potential audience, role of the user, criticality of the process/ task. (p. 7).

O'Callaghan and Smit (2005)

Completeness

For example, if a document reader had difficulties with interpreting the content, s/he often needed to contact the content producer or owner personally to get additional information (p. 80).

Munkvold et al. (2006)

Representational DQ

Representational consistency

Site management is concerned with Web site design and structure. Content must be separate from style and be device-independent. It should be possible to change the look and feel of the site by changing a style sheet. It should be possible to add a new device, such as a personal digital assistant (PDA), without affecting the content structure (p 467).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

A consistent ‘look and feel' was important (p. 475).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

Without some central management and control, structure and accessibility of data were likely to diminish (p. 475).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

The storage of files in their production format made retrieval difficult after some years, as the applications to view and re-produce the files and/or templates tend to change. On the other hand, storage in a changed format can make content re-use more difficult, if the original application still exists. This is a relevant problem especially for certain types of content with a life cycle exceeding a few years, which highlights the need for application-independent storage format(s) (p. 79).

Munkvold et al. (2006)

Interpretability

For example, if a document reader had difficulties with interpreting the content, s/he often needed to contact the content producer or owner personally to get additional information (p. 80).

Munkvold et al. (2006)

Accessibility DQ

Access security

Personalization, which relates to the ability to present different users with different views and different data depending on, e.g., preferences, access profiles, role, and previous accesses (p. 473).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

Unauthorized content may appear on the Web site. Material published on the Web should be subject to a review and authorization process - is the material acceptable from a marketing viewpoint? A legal viewpoint? (p. 467)

Vidgen et al. (2001)

Accessibility

Without some central management and control, structure and accessibility of data were likely to diminish (p. 475).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

The value of making a given object “easy to distribute” depends on: the defined target audience that “needs to know”, the importance of the content object for their task, or the importance of the object as informational input to a given business process (p. 7).

O'Callaghan and Smit (2005)

Syndicate - make content available for multiple channels and via different technologies e.g., RSS and Web Services (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Table 3: Most relevant content quality requirements regarding the delivery of content.

3.3 Maintenance of content

DQ category

DQ name

Source

Intrinsic DQ

Contextual DQ

Timeliness

For a Web site to “live and breathe” it must be fed with new content and out of date content must be removed (p. 466).

Vidgen et al. (2001)

As web content is published in more than 40 different languages, the special challenge is to ensure the content's up-to-dateness and to avoid redundancies (p. 583).

Brocke and Simmons (2008)

Evaluate the content on its up-to-dateness (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Value-added

Discard content which has lost its added-value (p. 11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Evaluate the content to see if it's still of value to its users (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Relevancy

Evaluate the content to see if it's still relevant for its users (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Representational DQ

Accessibility DQ

Accessibility

Evaluate if users can still access the content (p.11).

Theunissen et al. (2009)

Table 4: Most relevant content quality requirements regarding the maintenance of content.

Source: Essay UK - http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/information-technology/principles-of-enterprise-content-management.php



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