Diabetes is a metabolic disorder categorized in hyperglycaemia causing from defective insulin emanation, confrontation to insulin action. Trace metals role in metabolic dysfunctions and their contributions for the expansion of vascular obstacles is not clear. Hence, the current study determines the correlation between diabetes, determination of trace metals along with lipid profiles in the fifty (50) patients with diabetes as compared to the healthy subjects. The serum level of Cu was increased, whereas, the levels of Ca, Mg and Zn were decreases, and total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels were higher, but, the decreased level of HDL in patients with diabetes as compared with the healthy subjects. These outcomes expound the impaired status of trace metals.
Keywords: Trace Metals, Lipid profile, serum and Diabetes
Diabetes is representing by comparative insufficiencies in insulin action correlated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Intravenous blood (10mL) samples from fifty patients and correlated with chronic hyperglycemia and disorders of healthy subjects were collected and made to clot before protein and lipid metabolism. Serum was separated by centrifuging at 5000 rpm for 20. Complications of vascular characterize a principal reason of min. mortality and morbidity in diabetes patients. Trace metals play a vital role in living
Each metal the serum samples were analyzed using a structures, along with metabolism and in growth. Decreased Hitachi atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Tokyo, trace elements is determined in diabetic Japan). Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were patients. It was stated that the excretion of urinary determined using a kit method on Microlab 300. Magnesium, zinc and calcium were higher in type-I and II of diabetes affecting a reduction in blood levels of 3. Analysis of statics of trace metals in patients (1, 2). Additional study values are expressed as mean?? SE. For comparison stated that the magnesium and zinc levels were among the patient's and healthy subjects. Considerably decreased whereas the copper level was increased in IDDM patients
Diabetes is the characterization of lipid, protein and carbohydrates metabolism play major role in The Ca Mg and Zn levels were decreased significantly in diabetic complications. Hypercholesterolemia (CHOL) the serum of patients as compared to the healthy subjects. and hypertriglyceridemia are frequently detected and However, levels of Cu were significantly higher in the correlated essentially to the degree of diabetic control (4). Serum separately, as compared to the healthy subjects. HDL was stated that decreases in patients with diabetic along with the level of cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL were diabetes types (5). Hyperglycemia could amend lipoproteins to higher in patients as comparison to the healthy subjects. a system that promotes atherogenesis. The decreased level of HDL in patients with diabetic. ( Table1). Levels of LDL are altered frequently Table (1) showed the results of serum trace metals in in diabetic patients. Patients and healthy controls. Expressed as mean??standard deviation In the present study, the estimation of serum metals (Cu, Ca, Mg, and Zn) along with levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and HDL were evaluated in patients Trace Metals Healthy Patients with diabetes with the aim of defining biochemical Subjects mechanisms. Copper 94. 4??3.22 100.36??5.32 Zinc 77.81??4.22 67.71??2.11 Magnesium 18.11??0.42 16.28??1.33 Calcium 144.09??4.33 122.05??3.57 cholesterol 4.16??0.33 4.93??0.45 Triglyceride 1.03??0.9 1.44??0.15 HDL 2.58??0.12 2.03??0.11 LDL 2.12??0.12 3.27??0.34 Copper Concentration 102 100 98 96 94 92 Healthy Patients Figure 1 Zinc Concentration 80 75 70 65 60 Healthy Patients Figure 2 Fig: 1 shows the increased copper level in patients and in figure 2 decreases level of zinc in patients as compared to healthy subjects Magnesium Concentration 19 18 17 16 15 Healthy Controls Figure 3 Calcium Concentration 150 140 130 120 110 Healthy Patients Figure 4 Fig: 3 show the decreased magnesium level in patients and in figure 4 decreases level of calcium in patients as compared to healthy subjects Cholesterol Concentration 5 (U/L) 4.5 4 3.5 Healthy Patients Figure 5 Triglyceride Concentration 2 1.5 (U/L) 1 0.5 0 Healthy Patients Figure 6 Fig: 5 show the decreased cholesterol level in patients and in figure 6 increases level of triglyceride in patients as compared to healthy subjects HDL Concentration (U/L) 2 1 0 3 Healthy Patients Figure 7 LDL Concentration 4 3 (U/L) 2 1 0 Healthy Patients Figure 8 Fig: 7 show the decreased HDL level in patients and in figure 8 increases level of LDL in patients as compared to healthy subjects 5. DISCUSSION Metals has significant physiological effects which are associated with classical toxicity. It was reported that the metabolism of various trace metals is reformed in diabetes (6, 7). A cause of severe complications in diabetes mellitus is to contribute the disturbances in trace metals metabolism (8). Results showed the lower level of calcium, magnesium and zinc in patients with Diabetic (Table 1, Fig: 2, 3, 4). The impairment of these metals may documented to reduced absorption and excreted of these metals in urine (glycosuria) in patients, that cause deficiency or insignificant disorders of these metals in serum of patients with diabetic (1, 2). Level of Cu increases (Table 1, Fig: 1) in diabetic patients may ascribed to hyperglycemia which stimulate glycation and release of copper ions releases from copper-containing enzymes. These investigations are maintained by the verdicts that copper, magnesium and zinc have antioxidant activities as they constitute the active sites and stabilize the conformation of various antioxidant enzymes, and they compete for copper and iron binding sites and may produce support in transition metal-mediated and free radical-induced injury (9). The Zn decreases may potentiate the toxicity of metals like copper and iron. Deficiencies of zinc in diabetics are correlated with excess free-radical activity and the increased oxidation of lipids, damaging the heart, arteries, and integral parts of the vascular system (10). Increased Cu concentration has been associated to complaints in the structure of the stress, infection, arterial walls, and diabetes (11). The association among increased in Cu concentration and the oxidation of LDL has been incurable (12). As shown in Table 1, fig: 5 -8, the decreased level of cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL in patients as compared to controls. It is concluded that hyperglycemia in diabetes is correlated with enhanced nonenzymatic glycation and oxidative stress. The diminished trace metals metabolism of the current study may play role in the progression and pathogenesis of Diabetes and the copper level was increased, the level of calcium, magnesium and zinc were decreased might distract the antioxidants. This may cause in the development of vascular complications in patients with diabetic. Lipid abnormalities are due to resistance to insulin and hyperglycemia which are decreased HDL and higher and other slight LDL and increased triglycerides (13). The outcome confirms that deficiency of specific trace metals may play a significant role in the development of diabetes mellitus. The better understand the role of trace metals in patients with diabetes, additional experimental studies are needed.
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