IMPORTANCE OF FIVE R'S IN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
THERE ARE FIVE R'S
Waste and wastes are called unwanted materials.
Waste comes in many different forms:
Agriculture waste, animal by-products, biodegradable waste, biomedical waste, bulky waste, business waste, chemical waste, clinical waste, coffee wastewater, commercial waste, composite waste, construction and demolition waste, consumable waste controlled waste, demolition waste ,dog waste, domestic waste, electronic waste, food waste, gaseous wastes, green waste, grey water hazardous waste, heat waste, household hazardous waste, human waste, sewage sludge, industrial waste, inorganic waste, kitchen waste, marine debris, medical waste, metabolic waste, mineral waste, mixed waste, municipal solid waste, nuclear waste, organic waste, packaging waste, post-consumer waste, radioactive waste, low level waste, high level waste, mixed waste, spent nuclear fuel.
Waste is an environmental, social and economic issue. Increase in consumption and a developing economy continue to generate large amounts of waste with more effort required to reduce and prevent it. Waste was viewed as disposable in the past now it is recognised as a resource this is reflected in the waste management shift away from disposal towards recycling and recovery.
Waste affects human health and environment by emitted to air, soil, surface water and groundwater and represents loss of material resources and has potential as an energy source.
Waste is generate at all stages of the materials life cycle
' Production and distribution in industrial, hazardous and packaging waste.
' Consumption of products and services in municipal, electric and electronic equipment waste.
' Treatment of sorting residues from recycling facilities, or incinerator slag.
' Sound management of waste protect public health and benefit the environment and conservation of natural resources.
Recycling benefit the environment by diverting waste away from landfill and reducing pollutant emissions. It meet the material demands of economic production for extraction and refining of materials. Recycling is important for economic and social benefits. It can generates economic growth, fosters innovation and generate employment and secure resources. Recycling is vital for global policy priority the shift to a green economy that generates prosperity while maintaining a healthy environment and social equity for current and future generations.
Fastest Growing Solid Waste
Waste from used electrical and electronic equipment is known as e-waste or WEEE is one of the fastest growing solid waste streams around the world today. In the United States the large amount of e-waste in the world is produce and it is estimated that over 100 million computers monitors and televisions become obsolete each year and that amount is increasing year on year. In the European Union (EU) the total generation of e-waste in 2005 was estimated to be 9.3 million tonnes which include40 million personal computers and 32 million televisions. E-waste is a social problem and an environmental threat to many countries worldwide. The United Nations estimate that the world generates 20 to 50 million tonnes of e-waste every year.
WASTE FROM HEALTH-CARE ACTIVITIES
The total amount of waste generated by health-care activities, about 80% is general waste. The remaining 20% is considered hazardous material that is infectious, toxic or radioactive. Every year an estimated 16 000 million injections are administered worldwide but all of the needles and syringes are not properly disposed of afterwards. Health-care waste contain harmful microorganisms which affect hospital patients health-care workers and the general public. The total amount of waste generated by health-care activities is 80% is general waste comparable to domestic waste. The remaining 20% is considered hazardous material that may be infectious toxics.
Steps towards improvement
' Build a comprehensive system which address responsibilities resource allocation, handling and disposal.
' Create awareness about the risks related to health-care waste.
' Select a safe and environmentally and friendly management options to protect people from hazards when collecting handling, storing, transporting, treating or disposing of waste.
Plastics play an important role in every aspect of our lives. Plastics are used to manufacture products such as beverage containers, toys and furniture. The use of plastics demands proper end of life management. Plastics are found in containers and packaging but they also are found in durable appliances furniture and nondurable goods such as diapers, trash bags, cups and utensils, medical devices. 8 percent of the total plastic waste generated in 2011 was recovered for recycling. Plastics also are found in automobiles.
Plastics go to a material recovery facility where the materials are sorted into plastics, paper, glass, etc. At the facility any trash or dirt is sorted out then the plastic is washed and ground into small flakes. A flotation tank then separates contaminants based on their different densities. Flakes are dried, melted, filtered and formed into pellets. The pellets are transfer to product manufacturing plants where they are made into new plastic products.
Fleece, flannel, corduroy, cotton, nylon, denim, wool and linen. One way to benefit both your community and the environment is to donate used textiles to charity organizations. Most recovered household textiles end up at these organizations who sell or donate the majority of these products. The remainder go to either a textile recovery facility or the landfill.
Textile recovery separate worn or stained clothes into a variety of categories. Cotton can be made into rags or form a component for new high-quality paper. Knitted or woven woollens materials are pulled into a fibrous state for reuse by the textile industry in car insulation or seat stuffing. Fabric can be reprocessed into fibers for upholstery and insulation. Little is left remain at the end of the recycling process. The natural materials such as various grades of cotton can be composted.
Antifreeze is a substance added to a solvent, such as water, to low its freezing point. Antifreeze is added to water in the cooling system of an internal-combustion engine so that it can be cool below the freezing point of pure water (32 degrees F) without freezing. Ethylene glycol is used as an automotive cooling-system antifreeze, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol and propylene glycol are used. In automotive windshield-washer fluids, an alcohol (e.g., methanol) is usually added to keep the mixture from freezing it also acts as a solvent to help clean the glass. The brine used in refrigeration systems is an antifreeze mixture and it is a water solution of calcium chloride or propylene glycol.
RECYCLING USED ANTIFREEZE
Recycling used antifreeze makes sense for two reasons that it is cost-effective and it can saves resources. Ethylene glycol is the primary active ingredient in antifreeze is produced from natural gas that is a finite non-renewable resource. For businesses purpose antifreeze like automobile repair shops setting up an antifreeze recycling program can significantly reduce management costs and lessen the amount of new materials purchased. Antifreeze recycling involves two steps:
1. Removing contaminant such as emulsified oils and heavy metals by filtration distillation reverse osmosis or by ion exchange.
2. Restoring critical antifreeze properties with additives. Additives contain chemicals that raise and stabilize pH inhibit rust and corrosion that reduce water scaling and slow the breakdown of ethylene glycol.
For centuries glass has served as a packaging container making commodities like wine and olive oil. Now-a-days manufacturers use glass to hold everything soda, peanut butter, champagne and perfume. The glass in many items from your soda bottle to your computer can be recycled over and over retaining its strength.
The glass containing your soda might be the glass containing your spaghetti sauce tomorrow. Glass food and beverage containers can be recycled over and over again. 90 percent of recycled glass is used to make new containers. Recycled glass include kitchen tiles counter tops and wall insulation. This growth is due to both increased collection through curb side recycling programs and glass manufacturers' increased demand for recycled glass.
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