Nanotechnology And Nano-Materials In Textiles

The global textile manufacturing is stirring towards new trends and technologies to achieve serviceable and high performance characteristics which include particular coating, smart/technical technologies and nanotechnologies (Hussain, 2008). Application of nanotechnology and nano-materials in textiles have considerably enhanced and improved the fibre, yarn, fabric and processing technology to fulfill the demands globally and needs of society (Qian and Hinestroza 2004). Dramatic changes have been observed in the field of textiles from last five decades and there is no doubt that nanotechnology will use in all sectors of textile industry in the next few years (Sinha and Kelvin,2011)

According to Wang(2000) nanotechnology effect structures of textile materials significantly and change the physical, biological properties, phenomena and functionality due to their small scaled size (nanoscaled size).With the innovations in science and technology a new technology has developed in the finishing of textile materials. Nanocoating and nanoparticles used for textile materials like clothing, surface of textile materials and footwear textiles help to improve UV-blovking, antimicrobial and self cleaning properties. These properties developed in textile materials by using different nanoparticles (Lamb et al 2004).
Nanotechnology is defined as the precise manipulation of individual atoms and molecules to create layered structures. One nanometer is defined as 1 billionth meter i.e. 1??10'9m and involves developing materials or devices within that size (Vijaya,2011).
Nanosize particles can give surprising performance than bulk material. The small size of nanoparticles leads to particle'particle aggregation hereby making physical handling of nanoparticles difficult in liquid and dry powder forms. The basic principal of nanoparticles application is that properties can drastically change by reducing the substance's size to nanometer range (Liu and Chiu, 2008).

Nanotechnology can enable both the creation of new fibers and textile materials and the enhancement of existing natural and synthetic fibers and materials. In order to meet the growing demand for value-added products and maintain competitive in the global marketplace, a significant number of fiber, textile, and apparel manufacturers in both developed and developing countries are turning to nanotechnology to deliver products with enhanced functionality to existing and new markets.
Nanotechnology is a science which takes a role in every discipline like material science, mechanics, electronics, optics, medicine, plastics, energy, aerospace, textiles, optical coatings, antibacterial agents, physics, and biology. By decreasing the size of particles to smallest dimensions as nonoscale principally affect the performance of the materials.
By reviewing the application of nanotechnology in the textile value chain help to understand the concept of nanotechnology in the textile industry. There are two aspects in the textile value chain where nanotechnology can be used; one is to apply at the fibers production stage or other to apply on the surface of yarn or fabric as coating material at last finishing step. Techniques to incorporate nanotechnology in the manufacturing process include the integration of nanomaterials into fabrics (e.g. silver nanoparticle additives on fibres), use of nanosize fibres or use of various nanocoating processes to provide a particular surface resistance. The increased demand for textiles and fabrics that provide comfort with enhanced functionality and improved appearance is driving the demand for nanotechnology in this sector (Tayler,2004).
The main effects that are produced in textile industry by application of nanotechnology are reducing the use of harsh feeling; improve the durability of textiles, producing ecofriendly materials and production of performance enhancing materials. Finishing is the final and main important step in textile industry so in this focus is given to achieve desirable hand, surface texture, colour and other performance and functional properties.

In the field of textile industry nanotechnology has spurred significant developments and innovations from the last decade. Fabric finishing has taken new routes and demonstrated a great potential for significant improvements by applications of nanotechnology. There are many ways in which the surface properties of a fabric can be manipulated and enhanced, by implementing appropriate surface finishing, coating, and/or altering techniques, using nanotechnology. Nanotechnology provides plenty of efficient tools and techniques to produce desirable fabric attributes, mainly by engineering modifications of the fabric surface (Schrauth, Saka and Sub,2004)
One and greater advantage of nanotechnology that show its importance than other conventional finishing methods is to impart permanent effects of different properties (Wong, Yuen & Leung ,2006).Another study showed the importance of nanoparticles that these particles will help to improve the physical and mechanical properties such as hand, tensile strength, absorbency and air permeability (Carfagna,2005).
Now finishing of flame ret ardency, water repellency, antimicrobial and anti odour textiles increased in demand.fibre and textile manufacturers has been focused and given greater importance to water and soil repellency. Water repellent is defined as to repel water from the fabric surface. Many methods are used to repel water from the surface of fabric. The surface of fabric can repel water by resisting adsorption, absorption or penetration of water. To produce water repellent fabric, the end use of the fabric is important to keep in mind. Because water proof and water repellent products having different end uses (Halbur, Chandler,2010).
Tensile strength of fabric is defined as the material having ability to stand without tearing when force is applied. It also defined that fabric can hold without breaking and tearing when it being stretched.Antibacterial products are used to control the activity of bacteria's either in any field of life. Antibacterials are not only used in healthcare and cleaning products but today are mostly used textile apparel and interiors. Antibacterial products are produced to control the action of bacteria, infection and odors. The products produced by polymers or silver technology are solution to micro-organisms (Richmond, 2006).

Review of Related Literature
Textile industry is an important industry and it is considered the backbone of economy of any country. Textile is the one from the basic human needs. This need rises with the rising of population. So to meet this need development of textile production extend from small domestic industry to large manufacturing units. The textile needs of human beings can be fulfilled through natural or synthetic raw textile materials.
3.1. Brief introduction to three fabrics (cotton, polyester and cotton/polyester blended)
Cotton fabric's history is very primitive. It is famous for its properties like soft, breathability, light and strength. Its history is very old almost around 4000 B.C., name derived from Arabic term 'qutn'.cotton is one important fiber from all natural fibers. Mostly half of the sale from all fibers is done through this fiber, either in the form of fiber, yarn or fabric. Cotton fiber is an important natural fiber which is not only used for daily clothes but also for different purposes and functions like sport materials, healthcare and medical products (Iamphaojeen & Siriphannon, 2012).
Polyester's fabric history is very old around World War 1 but it became popular and come in notice in 1940s. Polyester is one of the synthetic fabrics. It is made from petroleum. It is a fabric that is made by combination of natural and synthetic chemicals. It not only be used alone in all types of clothing but also blended with other fabrics like cotton. It has many advantages like strength, resistant to shrinking and sun resistant. But with having many advantages it also have many disadvantages liked unattractive, not having breathability characteristic and no eco friendly.
Blended fabrics are produced by combining of the natural and synthetic fibers. It can be done to achieve desired properties because natural fibers have different properties than synthetic fibers. The main purpose of blending is to combining of two fibers which derived from different raw materials. Through blending not only desired properties are achieved but also it is economical method to produce desired material.

3.2. Performance of fabrics
Performance of fabrics is the behavior of textile material. It includes the behavior and functional properties of fabrics. The serviceability, durability and functionality of fabric come under the performance of material. Performance of fabrics gain popularity in textile industry now a days because of growing demand of customers of value-added products and high globally competition.
Performance of textile is the additional and desired characteristics. It includes protection or resistance from specific element such as soil, wrinkle or odor. It also provides protection from environmental elements. The performance of fabric is not only protection or resistance but also provides comfort, durability, strength and good appearance such as air permeability, absorbency, tensile strength etc.
3.2.1. Air Permeability
Through this property of fabric having the capacity to penetration of air. Any textile material having ability to allow to air to pass through this. Air permeability property of fabrics affect by different factors. Finishing process is one of the important factors which can change or modify the property of air permeability.
3.2.2. Anti odor
Some microorganisms present in the textile material inherently, they cause many diseases to the wearer and user. Odor is also produced by these microorganisms. Textile manufacturers use a chemical or any substance to protect the material from these organisms to grow. These substances or chemicals are known as anti microbial substances. These anti-microbial substances provide protection from odor and many health concerns that include infectious diseases.
3.2.3. Tensile strength
Tensile strength is an important mechanical property in every textile material. It is the capacity of having fabric enough resistance to stress or strain. A textile material resists a stress or force without tearing or breaking. Textile material either it derive natural or synthetic raw material, tensile strength is considered an important property. Strength is referred to as the durability or serviceability of fabric.
3.2.4. Water absorbency
The absorbency of fabric is having the capacity of material to take up the moisture. It is very important property in natural fabrics. The comfort of fabrics depend on many properties, absorbency is one important from them. This property can be enhanced or developed by using different finishing processes.
3.2.5. Stain Repellent or Stain Release
Stain repellent or stain release fabrics having the ability to repel the stains either they are water or dry based. This property is not naturally present in natural or synthetic fabrics but it added or enhanced by using finishing processes. Stain repellent or release finishes are used now a days having dual purpose, they not only repel the water based stains or soil dirt but also cleans the fabrics from oil based stains through home washing.

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