14: Referencing all information

Every essay will require that you reference where your information, data, findings and ideas came from, including primary and secondary sources. Known as bibliographic data, this acknowledges where your information came from so you are not claiming any of it as your own when, in fact, someone else thought it up or did the work to put together.

You may think this is a small detail, but the phrase, 'The Devil is in the details,' was not thought up because details didn't matter. Whether you are inconsistent or make some minor mistakes, these can end up costing you important points on your essay grade and can even make the difference between a 2:1 and 2:2 standard or even lead to a fail if you are not careful. That makes this a VIC - very important chapter - to come back to you while you refine your skills.

This chapter will cover why referencing is so important, the basics of referencing, the different styles of referencing, how to use and cite quotes, how to prepare your reference list and what the differences are between a bibliography and a reference list.

Chapter 14 contents:

14.1: Why reference?

It is important to first explain why referencing is so important. There are a number of reasons to consider:

  • It makes it easy to check the reliability of sources because all the key bibliographical data is right there even including a link if it happens to be part of a website or online database.
  • It shows that you are acknowledging someone else's work that you are using to prove your argument.
  • It shows that you are not plagiarising and claiming the ideas or thoughts as your own. As previously noted, plagiarism can cause you to fail and even potentially lead to your dismissal from the university you attend.
  • It makes it convenient to get more information from the same sources if you need to expand any part of your essay.
  • It enhances the credibility of your argument and essay because you are showing them the level of quality research you are including as proof.
  • It illustrates to your tutor that you have gained or improved essential research skills and expanded your knowledge within your academic discipline. You are well on your way to developing your career.

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14.2: Referencing basics

As this chapter will show you, there are many aspects to referencing some of which can be fairly detailed. Before delving into all these details and styles of referencing for essays, here are some basics to get you started on the topic of referencing for essays:

  • Always acknowledge your sources for the information within your essay and at the end of the essay whether you are quoting directly or just paraphrasing text or idea.
  • Reference all types of information, including books, journals, newspaper articles, blogs, websites, television programmes, pictures, graphs and charts and illustrations.
  • Leave yourself plenty of time to organise and write your references and bibliographies to make sure you get it right and have followed all the rules of that particular referencing style.
  • Keep track of your sources as you go so you don't have to spend time looking them back up at the library or on the Internet. Write out all the bibliographic data as you use the source and keep it in a file. You can even use bibliographic software, such as Biblioscape or Endnote (www.Endnote.com). Be sure to alphabetise them as you go as this also saves time later on.

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14.3: Defining referencing terms

When it comes to referencing, there are a lot of terms that are used, so before we go any further we are going to define these for you.

  • Appendix: The appendix can be many sections - known as appendices - and contain additional information that is important to your argument but may interrupt the flow of the essay. This information could be a table, diagram, model or photograph as well as survey findings or interview transcripts. Typically, the appendix is placed at the end of the essay after the references list or bibliography.
  • Bibliography: A bibliography is a list of every reference or source of information that you have read or researched but may not have included within the essay. The sources are listed alphabetically by author following a particular reference style and placed at the end of the essay before the appendix. You will either use a bibliography or a reference list with your essay but not both as the last section in this chapter explains.
  • Citations: A citation is a place where you refer to a source or reference because you are citing their idea or their direct words. A citation appears within the essay. It is important to use citations as this helps to avoid being accused of plagiarising your work.
  • Direct quotation: This means that you have pulled someone's words from a source or reference exactly as they said it. In this case, quote marks bookmark all of these words to note what has been directly quoted. It is important to also list the author's name, date, and page number where the direct quote came from.
  • Footnotes and endnotes: Footnotes are a place to also cite a source for information and are used in some referencing styles while endnotes and even footnotes can be used to include comments or notes that further explain an idea in the essay. For instance, sometimes definitions for technical terms are placed in endnotes or footnotes to help the reader understand those areas that require more of an explanation without using up the word count. However, these should only be used if your tutor has noted that they are allowed or required.
  • Indirection quotation: This is where you are paraphrasing or putting the ideas in your own words rather than pulling from a source, word for word. In this case, you will still need to cite the source, including the author and date. Sometimes, you may need to include the page number if the idea is very specific.

Reference List/Works Cited: These are one in the same and are essentially an alphabetical list by author of all the sources you have noted within your essay. This matches the in-text references or footnotes exactly. Like a bibliography, the reference list goes at the end of the essay.

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14.4: What's Your Reference Style?

While there are many reference styles - many of which we will discuss here - they typically all contain the same key pieces of information about a particular source. This information includes:

  • Author(s) and/or editors;
  • Publication date;
  • Title of chapter or paper;
  • Book or article title;
  • Publisher (if there is one);
  • Place of publication or URL address if it's an Internet source; and
  • Date accessed the work (if it's an Internet source).

Beyond these similarities, reference style then varies in how these pieces of information are presented. There are many styles:

  • Harvard
  • American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • British Psychology Society (BPS)
  • British Medical Association (BMA)
  • Oxford
  • Chicago
  • Footnotes

These are just a few of the many examples of referencing styles for essays as there are many more albeit somewhat obscure. The most important thing you can do is to make sure you know what style you need to use as many of these are for specific academic specialties. It is important to check your course book, attend study sessions, and ask your tutor.

We will cover three of the main reference styles here as well as briefly describe what some of the other styles are used for in terms of academic specialty.

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14.4.1: Harvard referencing

Also known as parenthetical referencing, the Harvard referencing system is one of the most commonly used reference styles at university. Here are the basic points you need to know about this particular reference style:

  • It is known as the author-date method and relies on parentheses.
  • The citation, or in-text reference includes the author’s name, year of publication, and page number(s) when a specific part of the source is referred to. It would like this:  (Smith 2008, p. 1) or (Smith 2008:1).
  • A full citation is given in the references section and typically looks like this: Smith, J. (2008). Name of Book. Location of Publisher: Name of Publisher.
  • Footnotes cannot be used with the Harvard Referencing System.
  • There are slightly different versions of the Harvard Referencing System so make sure you use the one your university requires.
  • Do not number the reference list at the end of the essay.

Here are examples:

To cite a book A page number is required if you are paraphrasing, summarising or quoting directly:

(Karskens 1997, p.23)

Ward (1966, p. 12) suggests that …

If you are only citing the main idea of the book:

(Karskens 1997)

Karskens, G 1997, The Rocks: life in early Sydney, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.

Ward, R 1966, The Australian legend, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Present full bibliographic details in the following order:

  • author's surname and initial(s)
  • year of publication
  • title of publication (in italics and with minimal capitalisation)
  • edition (if applicable. Abbreviated as 'edn')
  • publisher
  • place of publication
To cite a journal article If the page number is required, as it is for summarising, paraphrasing and direct quoting:

(Kozulin 1993, p. 257)

If you are citing the main idea of the article only:

(Kozulin 1993)

Kozulin, A 1993, ‘Literature as a psychological tool’,Educational Psychologist, vol. 28, no. 3, summer, pp. 253-265.

Place the information in the following order:

  • author's surname and initial
  • year of publication
  • title of article (between single quotation marks and with minimal capitalisation)
  • title of journal or periodical (in italics, using maximum capitalisation)
  • volume number, if applicable issue number, month or season (if applicable)
  • page numbers of the article
To cite an article from a book collection A book collection consists of a collection of articles or chapters, each by different authors, but compiled by editor(s).

If you want to cite a particular article/chapter, cite the author(s) of the article in the text:

(Curthoys 1997, p. 25)

When you use an article or chapter from a book collection, the title of the article appears in quotations. The title of the book is italicised. For example:

Curthoys, A 1997, ‘History and identity’, in W Hudson & G Bolton (eds), Creating Australia: changing Australian history, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, pp. 23-38.

Place the information in the following order:

  • author's surname and initial
  • year of publication
  • name of article (between single quotation marks and with minimal capitalisation)
  • in
  • initial(s) and surname(s) of editor(s)
  • (ed.) or (eds)
  • name of collection (the name on the title page) in italics and minimal capitalisation
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • page range
To cite an entire book collection If you want to cite the entire book, refer to the editors(s) of the collection in the text:

(Hudson & Bolton 1997)

To cite the entire book:

Hudson, W & Bolton, G (eds) 1997, Creating Australia: changing Australian history, Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

To cite from newspapers and magazines If there is no author, list the name of the newspaper, the date, year and page number:

(Sydney Morning Herald 7 March 1994, p. 8)

If there is an author, cite as you would for a journal article:

(Donaghy 1994, p. 3)

An unattributed newspaper article:

‘UNSW gains top ranking from quality team’, Sydney Morning Herald, 30 February, 1994, p.21.

A newspaper article with a named author:

Donaghy, B 1994, ‘National meeting set to review tertiary admissions’, Campus News, 3-9 March, p. 3.

To quote from a privately obtained interview or other personal communication Include the abbreviation ‘pers. comm.’ in your in-text reference:

(B Daly 1994, pers. comm., 7 Aug.)

Note that the initial(s) precede the surname.

Details of a personal communication do not usually need to be included in the List of References as it cannot be traced by the reader. Check with your tutor or lecturer for their preferences.

Before using personal communications, ensure you have the permission of the person with whom you communicated.

Brochure In the text, cite the author or authoring body and the date if available:

(New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries 2005)

New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries 2005,Saltwater recreational fishing in New South Wales: rules & regulations summary, brochure, NSWDPI, New South Wales.

Inlcude as much information as available. The publisher's name may be abbreviated if it is also the author.

To cite a work reproduced in a book (image, poem, painting etc) Refer to the work in the text, then include book author, date, page number:

De Kooning's 1952 painting ‘Woman and Bicycle’ (Hughes 1980, p. 295) is an example of …'

List the book containing the image:

Hughes, R 1980, The shock of the new: art and the century of change, British Broadcasting Corporation, London.

Government publications If there is no obvious author or editor, cite the sponsoring agency as the author:

(Department of Education, Science & Training 2000)

Give the name of the ministry or agency that has issued the document:

Department of Education, Science & Training 2000,Annual Report 1999-2000, AGPS, Canberra.

To cite a part of a publication contributed by someone other than the main author (a preface, introduction etc) For example, a preface, introduction or foreword contributed by someone other than the author of the publication:

Drabble (in Bronte 1978) suggests ….

n the List of References, provide the details of the publication to which the contribution was made:

Bronte, E 1978, Wuthering Heights and poems, H Osborne (ed.), Orion Publishing Group, London. Introduction by Margaret Drabble.

To cite unpublished material (thesis, a manuscript, an unpublished paper) (Ballard 2003, p. 132)

(Fitzsimmons 2005)

When citing a thesis in the List of References:

  • put the title between quotation marks and do not use italics.
  • acknowledge the university where the thesis was undertaken

Ballard, BA 2003, ‘The seeing machine: photography and the visualisation of culture in Australia, 1890-1930′, PhD thesis, University of Melbourne.

An unpublished conference paper:

Fitzsimmons, D 2005, ‘Who chooses who belongs: tactics and strategies and migrant literature’, paper presented at the AULLA & FILLM conference, James Cook University, Cairns, 15-19th July.

ABS Statistics Use the full name in the first in-text reference:

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005)

and use the abbreviation ‘ABS’ in subsequent references:

(ABS 2005)

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005, New South Wales in focus, Cat. no. 1338.1, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

  • name of agency as author
  • year of publication
  • title of publication (in italics)
  • catalogue number
  • name of publisher
  • place of publication

If you are viewing the information online, include:

  • date of viewing (if viewed online)
  • database name (if applicable)
  • URL (between pointed brackets

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007, Internet Activity, Australia, Sep 2006, Cat. no. 8153.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, viewed 11 April 2007, <http://www.abs.gov.au>.

Source: http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/onlib/ref2.html

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14.4.2: APA referencing

The American Psychological Association (APA) is another commonly used referencing system. It is an editorial style that is most often used with social and behavioural sciences for essays, dissertations, and other documents that present information in this field. This reference style was developed by social scientists who were interested in establishing a standard way to communicate their research and findings. It has particular rules around punctuation, abbreviations, tables, headings, reference citations and statistics.

Here are some basics on the APA reference style:

  • Double space the paragraphs.
  • Use clear font like 12 point Times New Roman.
  • Include a page header that contains title of paper but only the first 50 characters of it.
  • Typically include a title page, abstract, main body and references.
  • Cite individual sources like this: Contributors’ names (Last edited date). Title of resource. Retrieved from http://Web address.
  • Cite in-text references like this: (Authors' last name, last edited date). Or, you can say something like "Jones (2012) noted."
  • Note the various ways that all reference material types are listed both in the text and in the reference list by consulting an APA guide book, your university's handbook, or an online source.
  • Pay special attention to capitalisation in APA style because it is far from traditional in its rules.

Be sure to visit www.apastyle.org for more detailed information on this particular reference style.

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14.4.3: Footnotes

There are other essays where you will be required to use footnotes for all references rather than placing an in-text reference within the body of the essay. Typically, undergraduate courses do not require you to use footnotes. This referencing style can be confusing and tutors often feel more experience in writing essays helps before tackling such a system for citations.

There are a wide variety of footnote styles so check with your university or tutor on which style you are to use, such as OCALA, Chicago, and MLA just to name a few. This section will provide a simple overview for how they are used to cite sources. Of course, they can also be used to explain an idea a bit more or provide a definition to help the reader without interrupting the flow within the body of the essay.

There is a similar format to each style. A footnote consists of a footnote marker, which is a link that sits above a word and can be clicked on, which will take you to the correspondingly numbered footnote at the bottom of the page. The numbers are in sequential order. The second part of a footnote is the actual footnote, which appears in a list at the bottom of the page and often looks like a reference found in a reference list at the end of the essay but will include a page number.

To use the MLA style as an example, here is what footnotes would look like:

2 G. Wayne Miller, King of Hearts: The True Story

of the Maverick Who Pioneered Open Heart Surgery

(New York: Times, 2000) 245.

Bibliography example:

Miller, G. Wayne. King of Hearts: The True Story of the

Maverick Who Pioneered Open Heart Surgery. New York:

Times, 2000.

For footnote citations, if you see the term, ibid., being used, it means that the citation is for the second mention of the same work with no intervening entries like shown below.

Ibid. 12-15.

Often, this style below is used in place of Ibid.:

Miller 12-15.

For second or later mention of the same work with intervening entries, now only the author and page number or numbers are used like shown below

Miller 198.

Source: http://www.aresearchguide.com/7footnot.html

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14.4.4: Other types of referencing styles

There are many other commonly used types of referencing styles. Here is a brief overview as well as sources where you can learn more about them:

  • MLA:  The MLA style is mostly required for essays in the humanities, especially when you need to write about language and literature. It is considered to be fairly simple and concise compared to other referencing styles. The MLA style has parenthetical in-text citations, and all sources are then listed alphabetically as a reference list at the end with the basic reference information. To learn more about this style, visit www.mla.org.
  • Oxford: Known as the "documentary-note" referencing style, Oxford is actually one of the more complicated ones because it uses a combination of in-text citations, endnotes, footnotes and annotated bibliographic appendices. If you are in the fields of history and philosophy, you will most often be asked to use this referencing style for your essay.
  • OSCOLA:  The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities is used for proper referencing of authorities, legislation, and other legal materials. You will be asked to use this in a law school for your essays and work. A good website to learn more about OSCOLA is: http://www.law.ox.ac.uk/publications/oscola.php.

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